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Full text of "History of Cuyahoga County, Ohio. With portraits and biographical sketches of its prominent men and pioneers"

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KfiaU  Sf  R  ATI  d  N  si 



Cornell  University 

The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 

Cornell  University  Library 
F  497.C9J66 

History  of  Cuyahoga  County,  Ohio.With  po 

3  1924  010  461   790 

FifjstCouf^  House  and   Jail. 
Erected  IN  i8i2.torn  down  i830.    (  di^awn  by  Wm  Wate(^mai 

Second  Coukt  House. 
S  IV  Corner  Monumental  SQUAfjE.  EfjECTED  laga.  removed    in   lese  . 

Third  Court    house 

BUILT     1858. 

Fourth  Court  House. 

"  FROM  OfiiGiNAL  Design  "  Com  M  ENCED   1875.    f  Unfinished,  j 








liiith  IJorioits  and  |||i0gra||likal  ^Itdirli^^ 


PUBLISHED    BY   D.   W.    ENSIGN    &   CO. 

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XXX.— ( 















General  History  of  the  County. 


— The  Situation  in  1626 13 

— ^Prehlstorio  Speculations         .        .  15 

. — The  Bries  and  their  Destruction     .                          .  17 

— Disputed  Dominion        ...  20 

, — English  Dominion 24 

,— The  Period  from  1783  to  1794        .  ,S0 

— Sale  and  Survey     ...  36 

—The  Period  from  1798  to  1800                            .         .  44 

—The  Period  from  ISOl  to  1806         .         .  47 

—The  Period  from  1807  to  1812        .  53 

,— The  War  of  1812    ....  58 
— From  the  War  to  the  Canal    ...                 .63 

— Progress,  Inflation,  and  "  Hard  Times"  70 

—The  Period  from  1840  to  1861        .        .  74 

— During  and  since  the  War     ....  80 

— First  and  Fifth  Infantry         ...  83 

— Seventh  Infantry 85 

-Eighth,  Fourteenth,  and  Seventeenth  Infantry      .  94 

-The  Twenty-third  Infantry 96 

-Twenty-fourth,  Twenty-seventh,  and  Thirty-sev- 
enth Infantry,  etc 101 

■Forty-first  Infantry 106 

Forty-second,  Forty-third,  and  Fifty-second   In- 
fantry            115 

-Fifty-fourth,  Fifty-eighth,  and  Sixtieth  Infantry  117 
■Sixty-first,    Sixty-fifth,    and    Sixty-seventh    In- 
fantry            121 

-Eighty-fourth,  Eighty-sixth,  and  Eighty-seventh 

Infantry,  etc.      .......  126 

■One  Hundred  and  Third  Infantry,  etc.          .        .  128 

■One  Hundred  and  Seventh- Infantry,  etc.       .  136 

-One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  Infantry   .        .  139 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fifth  and  One  Hundred 

and  Twenty- eighth  Infantry       ....  146 

■One  Hundred  and  Twenty-ninth  and  One  Hundred 

and  Fiftieth  Infantry          .        .                          .  151 

-The  One-Year  Infantry  Regiments                         .  153 

-The  Sharpshooters          .        .  161 

-Second  and  Sixth  Cavalry,  etc.      .  163 

-Tenth  and  Twelfth  Cavalry  .  170 

First  Light  Artillery,  etc.       .                 .                 .  174 

•The  Independent  Batteries,  etc.  181 
■The  Press      ....                          .188 

■Colleges         ....  .202 

-Various  Societies,  etc.    .                                           .  204 

■The  National  Guard,  etc.       .        .  207 

■Census  Notes          .        .                                           .  210 

Cuyahoga  County  Civil  List                                    .  210 

Geology          ....                          .         .  214 















































The  City  of  Cleveland. 

-The  First  Four  Tears     . 
-The  Village  from  1800  to  1815 
-The  Village  from  1815  to  1825 
-From  1825  to  the  City  Charter 
-An  Outline  of  Later  Tears    . 
-Protestant  Episcopal  Churches 
-The  Methodist  Churches 
-The  Presbyterian  Churches  . 
-The  Saptist  and  Disciple  Churches 
-Roman  Catholic  Churches,  etc. 
-The  Congregational  Churches 
-Evangelical  and  other  Churches   . 
-Benevolent  Institutions 

-The  Masons 

-Odd-Fellows  and  Knights  of  Pythias    . 
-Foresters,  Enights  of  Honor,  and  Clubs 
-Board  of  Trade,  Banks,  etc. . 
-Miscellaneous'Departments  and  Institutions 
-Schools  and  Libraries 
-The  Cleveland  Bar 
-Cleveland  Civil  List 
-Biographical  Sketches 



The  Townships. 

-Bedford  . 
-Brecksville     . 
■Chagrin  Falls . 
-Dover     . 
-East  Cleveland 
-Euclid    . 
-Middleburg    . 
-Parma  . 
-Solon     . 
-Strongsvillo  . 
-Warrensville . 




B  I O  C3- 1^  J^  1=  S:  I  O -A- L. 

John  W.  Allen     . 
Sherlock  J.  Andrews 
William  W.  Armstrong 
Elbert  Irving  Baldwin 
Melancthon  Barnett 
Geol'ge  A.  Benedict 
Hamilton  Fisk  Bigga) 
William  Bowler  . 
Alva  Bradley 
Francis  Branch  . 
Gaius  Burk 
Stevenson  Burke 



.     327 

Leonard  Case 

.     336 

.     327 

Selah  Chamberlain 

.     337 

.     329 

Henry  Chisholm 

.     337 

.     329 

William  Chisholm 


.     330 

Ahira  Cobb 


.     330 

James  M.  Coffinberry  . 

.     340 

.     331 

William  Collins  . 

.     Ul 

.     332 

Edwin  Weed  Cowles 

.     342 

.     333 

Edwin  Cowles      . 


.    334 

Samuel  Cowles     . 

.     346 

.     334 

D.  W.  Cross         .... 

.     346 

.     335 

John  Crowell       .        .                 .         . 

.     346 



Jolin  Henry  Devereux 
William  H.  Doan 
Daniel  P.  Bells    . 
Sylvester  T.  Everett    . 
James  Farmer 
Seneca  0.  Griswold 
Edwin  B.  Hale    . 
Truman  ^P.  Handy 
Benjamin  Harrington 
Henry  J.  Herrick 
Kensselaer  R.  Herrick 
Orlando  J.  Hodge 
Geo.  William  Howe     . 
James  M.  Hoyt  . 
Hinman  B.  Hurlbut    . 
John  Hutchins    . 
Levi  Johnson 
Alfred  Kelley 
Thomas  M.  Kelley 
Charles  Gregory  King 
Zenas  King 
Jared  Potter  Kirtland 
David  Long 
Robert  F.  Paine 
Richard  C.  Parsons 
Henry  B.  Payne 
Frederick  William  Pelton 
Jacob  Perkins 
Nathan  Perry 
Houston  H.  Poppleton 
Thomas  Quayle   . 
Daniel  P.  Rhodes 
Ansel  Roberts 
John  P.  Robison 
William  G.  Rose 
James  Henry  Salisbury 
John  C.  Sanders 


William  Johnson  Scott 
Elias  Sims  .        .        . 
Abraham  D.  Slaght     , 
Amasa  Stone 
Andros  B.  Stone 
Worthy  S.  Streator      . 
Peter  Thatcher    . 
Amos  Townsend  .' 
Oscar  Townsend  . 
Jephtha  H.  Wade 
Samuel  Williamson 
Hiram  V.  Willson 
Rufus  King  Winslow 
Reuben  Wood 
Timothy  Doane  Crocker 
Rufus  P.  Ranney 
Theodore  Breck  . 
Moses  Hunt 
Moses  Mathews  . 
Isaiah  W.  Fish  . 
Martin  Kellogg  . 
Abel  S.  Hinckley 
Harvey  W.  Curtiss 
L.  G.  Porter 
John  Doane 
Col.  Ezra  Eddy 
Frederick  Willson 
John  Baldwin 
Henry  Parker 
A.  P.  Knowlton  . 
David  Johnson  Stearns 
Amos  Boynton     . 
John  P.  Spencer  . 
Lewis  Nicholson  . 
Israel  D.  Wagar  . 
Alanson  Pomeroy 











































Cuyahoga  County  Court-Houses  {Frontispiece) 
Outline  Map  of  Cuyahoga  County 
Portrait  of  Nathan  Perry  (steel) 

H.  V.  Willson 
"  John  Crowell 

"  S.  J.  Andrews 

"  R.  P.  Ranney 

"  H.  B.  Payne 

"  Stevenson  Burke  (steel) 

"  William  Collins        " 

Geo.  A.  Benedict      " 
"  R.  C.  Parsons  " 

"  Edwin  Cowles  " 

"  Edwin  W.  Cowles     " 

"  Jacob  Perkins  " 

J.  P.  Robison  " 

"  Amos  Townsend       " 

W.  S.  Streator  " 

Geological  Map  of  Cuyahoga  County  . 
Portrait  of  John  Hutchins  (steel) 
Profile  Section  Across  the  Cuyahoga  Valley 
Portrait  of  Gen.  Moses  Cleaveland 
"  S.  Williamson  (steel) 

"  B.  Harrington      " 

"  S.  Chamberlain    " 

"  Z.  King  " 

"  H.  B.  Hurlbut     " 

"  James  Farmer     " 

J.  H.  Wade  " 

"  llanl  P.  Eells      '• 

W.  H.  Doan         '• 
"  Peter  Thatcher  (steel) 

T.  P.  Handy  " 

"  E.  B.  Hale  " 

"  S.  T.  Everett  " 

D.  P.  Rhodes 
'■  A.  B.  Stone  " 

"  William  Chisholm  (steel) 

"  Henry  Chisholm 

"  A,  Stone 

"  J.  M.  Coffinherry 

"  James  M.  Hoyt 

F.  W.  Pelton 

Wm.  G.  Rose 



facing  title. 

Portrait  of  R.  R.  Herrick  (steel) 




"          E.  I.  Baldwin       " 




"          H.  F.  Biggar        " 




"          William  Bowler   " 




A.  Bradley 




A.  Cobb 




D.  W.  Cross 




'           J.  H.  Devereux    " 



"       ■  78 

S.  0.  Griswold      " 



"           82 

"          H.  J.  Herrick       " 




'•          George  W.  Howe  " 




C.  G.  King            " 



between  194,  195 

R.  F.  Paine      .... 




H.  H.  Poppleton  (steel) 



facing     202 

"          Thomas  Quayle         " 




''          Ansel  Roberts            " 




"          3.  H.  Salisbury         " 




"          J.  C.  Sanders            " 




Elias  Sims                  " 




A.  D.  Slaght 



.     217 

•'          Francis  Branch         " 



facing     223 

Oscar  Townsend        " 

■  1 


"         236 

T.  D.  Crocker 

[         _              .< 



S.  V.  HarknesB 




"          Theodore  Breck 




"          Moses  Hunt      . 

• «          „ 



"          Moses  Mathews 




"          Isaiah  W.  Pish 




"          Martin  Kellogg 




"          Abel  S.  Hinckley      . 




H.  W.  Curtiss  (steel) 



"         288 

L.  G.  Porter     . 




"          John  Doane  (steel) 




Col.  Ezra  Eddy 




Frederick  Willson  (steel) 



"         304 

"          John  Baldwin  . 




"          Henry  Parker  .... 



between     308,  309 

'•          A.  P.  Knowlton 



308,  309 

"          Gains  Burke     .... 



facing    310 

"          David  J.  Stearns 


"         316 

"          John  P.  Spencer 



"         320 

Lewis  Nicholson        . 




Israel  D.  Wagar  (steel)     . 




"          Alanson  Pomeroy     . 




npHE  subject  of  our  history  comprises  the  present 
-*-  territory  of  the  county  of  Cuyahoga  and  the 
acts  of  the  inhabitants  of  that  territory.  Everything 
lying  beyond  those  limits  will  receive  only  such  men- 
tion as  may  be  necessary  to  show  the  connection  of 
the  chain  of  events. 

The  work  is  naturally  divided  into  three  portions. 
The  first  consists  of  a  general  history  of  the  county, 
comprising  a  connected  chronological  record  of  the 
principal  events  from  the  earliest  accounts  down  to 
the  year  1879;  followed  by  some  statistical  matter, 
by  condensed  histories  of  the  principal  regiments  and 
batteries  containing  Cuyahoga  county  soldiers  in  the 
War  for  the  Union,  and  by  sketches  of  various  organ- 
izations which  pertain  to  the  county  at  large,  but  an 
account  of  which  cannot  well  be  incorporated  in  the 
continuous  record. 

The  second  part  is  composed  of  a  history  of  the 
city  of  Cleveland  constructed  on  the  same  plan;  that 
is,  with  a  general  account  of  the  city's  magnificent 
progress  from  its  first  permanent  settlement  by  the 
whites  to  the  present  time,  accompanied  with  separate 
sketches  of  the  various  churches,  societies,  and  other 
prominent  institutions  within  its  present  corporate 

The  third  part  will  be  occupied  by  histories  of  all 
the  townships  in  the  county;  each  being  arranged  on 
the  same  plan  as  that  of  the  city,  though  necessarily 
occupying  far  less  space,  and  the  first  settlement  by 
the  whites  being  taken  as  the  starting  point  in  each. 

Interspersed  among  these  city  and  township  histo- 
ries will  be  found  numerous  portraits  of  citizens  of 
the  county,  accompanied  by  biographical  sketches, 
together  with  illustrations  of  buildings  and  natural 

The  earlier  portion  of  the  general  history  of  the 
county  is  necessarily  derived  entirely  from  books, 
while  for  the  later  part  contributions  have  also  been 
levied  on  newspapers,  manuscript  records  and  per- 
sonal reminiscences.  For  the  city  and  township 
histories  we  have  depended  principally  on  the  three 
last  named  sources  of  information,  it  being  seldom 
that  we  find  crystalized  in  books  the  facts  occurring 
during  the  present  century,  to  which  those  minor 
histories  principally  relate. 

In  regard  to  early  history,  we  are  under  especial 
obligations  to  Colonel  Cliarles  Whittlesey's  "Early 
History  of  Cleveland."  As  Colonel  Whittlesey  has 
gone  over  the  same  ground,  many  of  the  facts  nar- 
rated by  us  relating  to  the  title  and  survey  of  tlie 
Western  Reserve,  and  the  first  settlement  of  the 
county,  are  also  mentioned  by  him,  although  we  have 
consulted  many  other  authorities  and  original  manu- 
scripts, and  some  surviving  residents  of  the  county 
previous  to  the  war  of  1812,  and  have  added  consid- 
erable to  the  stores  contained  in  the  Colonel's  valuable 
repository.  The  arrangement,  the  language  and  the 
conclusions  are  entirely  our  own. 

We  also  beg  leave  to  acknowledge  our  obligations 
to  the  following  volumes,  which  we  have  had  oc- 
casion to  consult  during  the  progress  of  our  work: 
Howe's  Historical  Collections  of  Ohio;  Parkman's 
Conspiracy  of  Pontiac;  Parkman's  Jesuits  in  North 
America;  Parkman's  Discovery  of  the  Northwest; 
Bancroft's  History  of  the  Upited  States;  Bouquets' 
Expedition  against  the  Ohio  Indians;  Crawford's 
Campaign  against  the  Indians  of  Sandusky;  Lossing's 
Field  Book  of  the  War  of  1812;  Eeid's  Ohio  in  the 
War;  Joblin's  Cleveland  Past  and  Present;  Freese's 
Early  History  of  Cleveland  Schools;  Higher  Educa- 




tioual  Institutions  of  Ohio;  Kilbourn's  History  of  the 
Ohio  Canals;  Payne's  Cleveland  Illustrated;  Hayden's 
History  of  the  Disciples  in  the  Western  Eeserve; 
Wood's  Kecord  of  the  Seventh  Ohio  Infantry;  Hayes' 
Journal-History  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Third  Ohio 
Volunteers;  Mason's  Record  of  the  Twelfth  Ohio 
Cavalry;  Trade's  Annuals  of  the  Nineteenth  Ohio 
Battery;  Our  Acre  and  its  Harvests,  by  Mary  Clark 
Brayton  and  Ellen  F.  Terry,  etc.,  etc.  We  have  paid 
especial  attention  to  the  military  record  of  the  county 
in  the  War  for  the  Union,  and  believe  we  have  made 
it  as  complete  as  was  practicable  in  the  space  we  were 
able  to  devote  to  it. 

We  also  desire  to  express  our  especial  obligations  to 
the  officers  of  the  Western  Reserve  Historical  Society 
for  the  ample  opportunities  afforded  us  of  consulting 
the  valuable  library,  newspaper  files  and  manuscripts 
of  that  institution.  Our  acknowledgements  are  also 
due  the  librarians  of  the  City  Library  and  the  Cleve- 
land Library  Association  for  similar  favors.  The 
ladies  and  gentlemen  who  have  favored  us  with  per- 
sonal reminiscences  bearing  upon  our  subject  are  so 
numerous  that  it  is  almost  impossible  to  do  more  than 
express  our  obligations  to  them  en  masse.  We  shall 
endeavor,  however,  to  mention  the  more  important 
contributions  in  connection  with  the  various  portions 
of  the  work  in  which  they  have  been  used. 

It  is  needless  to  say  to  any  sensible  person  that  in  a 
work  of  this  magnitude,  and  of  such  multiplicity  of 

details,  there  must  be  some  errors.     Especially  is  this 
to  be  feared  in  a  county  of  such  rapid  development 
as  Cuyahoga — in  a  city  of  such  marvelous  growtli  as 
Cleveland.     Where  civilization  has  charged  through 
the  wilderness  at  a  "double  quick;'"  where  the  bears 
of  the  forest  still  lingered  after  the  bears  of  the  stock 
exchange  had  begun  to  growl;  where  lawyers  have  had 
to  fight  with  wolves  and  doctors  have  sometimes  been 
confronted  by  panthers;  where   the    Indian   trail  of 
three  fourths  of  a  century  ago  is  replaced  by  a  street 
which  is  proudly  claimed  to  be  the  finest  in  the  world, 
there  has  been  little  time  to  make  a  record  of  these 
kaleidoscopic  changes.     Nay,  the  memory  of  surviv- 
ing witnesses  may  well  be  sometimes  at  fault,  confused 
by  the  swift  succession   of  events — by  a  growth  of 
county  and  city  unequaled  outside  of  America,  and 
rarely  matched  even  in  our  wonder-working  country. 
But  we  have  taken  great  pains  to  secure  accuracy, 
and  we  believe  we  have  succeeded  so  far  as  success  is 
possible  in  a  work  of  this  nature.     As  for  the  manner 
in   which   this   mass   of  local  information  has  been 
arranged  and  presented,  we  must  leave  it  to  the  judg- 
ment of  our  readers.     Those  readers  we  now  invite 
to  ascend  with  us  the  stream  of  Time  for  two  hun- 
dred arid  fifty  years,  in  a  single  instant,  preparatory 
to  taking  their  places  in  the  ship  "  History,"  and  sail- 
ing slowly  down  the  mighty  river,  noting  year  after 
year,  decade  after  decade,  century  after  century,  the 
marvelous  changes  takingplace  on  its  teeming  shores. 

';iisTORY  OF  Cuyahoga  County, 



Outline  Map  of 



Scak-iFCveMiksto  xxn,  Inch 

M         ED  I         /(         N      A 

i  Co 


General  History  of  Cuyahoga  County, 



First  Information— The  Neuter  Nation— Tlie  Eries— Their  Connection 
With  the  Iroquois— Their  Location— Open  Ground  to  the  South- 
Neighbors  on  the  West— Slight  Knowledge  of  the  Eries- Genera^ 
Character  of  the  Indians— Meager  Authority  of  Sachems  and  Chiefs 
—Absence  of  Property  and  of  Jealousy — Forest  and  Game. 

The  first  definite  knowledge  regarding  the  occu- 
pants of  the  sonth  shore  of  Lake  Erie  datesfrom  the 
year  1626,  when  Father  La  Roche  Dailloii,  a  "Recol- 
let"  missionary,  preached  among  the  Attiwandar- 
onks,  more  commonly  known  as  the  Kahquahs,  called 
by  the  French  the  Neuter  Nation.  This  peculiar 
tribe  was  principally  located  in  the  Canadian  penin- 
sula on  the  north  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  having,  how- 
ever, several  outlying  villages  on  the  east  side  of  the 
Niagara,  and  extending  a  short  distance  from  Buffalo 
up  the  southeastern  side  of  the  lake. 

Before  going  farther,  we  may  note  that  at  the  time 
our  story  begins,  the  French  had  been  for  twenty- 
three  years  established  on  the  shores  of  the  St. 
Lawrence,  the  Dutch  were  already  located  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Hudson,  while  the  Pilgrim  Fathers  had 
for  six  years  been  sternly  battling  with  want,  and 
hardship,  and  danger,  on  the  rock-boiuid  shores  of 
New  England.  The  position  of  the  French  on  the 
St.  Lawrence  gave  them  a  great  advantage  in  prose- 
cuting discoveries  and  establishing  posts  along  the 
great  lakes,  and  that  adventurous  people  were  well 
disposed  to  make  the  fullest  possible  use  of  their 

From  the  information  obtained  by  Father  Daillon 
during  his  sojourn  among  the  Neuter  Nation,  eked 
out  by  occasional  reports  from  straggling  French 
hunters  and  Iroquois  chiefs,  it  appears  that  at  that 
time  all  the  southern  shore  of  the  lake,  from  the 
mouth  of  Cattaraugus  creek,  in  New  York,  to  the 
vicinity  of  Sandusky  bay,  was  occupied  by  a  powerful 
tribe  of  Indians,  called  Erie  or  Erickronons  (people 
of  Erie)  and  known  by  the  French  as  the  Nation  of 
the  Gat.  It  is  not  exactly  certain  that  "  Brie  "  meant 
"cat"  in  the  Indian  language,  but  such  is  believed 
to  be  the  case.  Some  writers  have  claimed  that  the 
Eries  and  Neuters  were  the  same  nation,  but  the 
weight  of  evidence  is  decidedly  in  favor  of ^  their  sep- 
arate existence,  and  the  powerful  authority  of  Park-^ 

man  ("Jesuits  of  North  America,"  p.  44)  is  on  the. 
same  side. 

Little  is  known  of  the  Eries  save  that  they  were  a 
powerful  tribe,  of  kindred  blood  witli  the  celebrated 
Iroquois,  or  Five  Nations,  and  speaking  a  dialect  of 
the  same  language.  In  fact,  according  to  the  most 
profound  students  of  Indianology  (if  we  may  be  al- 
lowed to  coin  a  convenient  word)  the  Iroquois,  the 
Neuter  Nation,  the  Eries  and  the  Ilurons  were  all 
parts  of  one  aboriginal  stock,  while  around  them,  on. 
the  north,  the  east  and  the  south  were  various  branches 
of  the  still  larger  Alrjonqidn  race.  Tradition  asserts 
that  at  one  time  the  authority  of  the  Eries  extended 
as  far  east  as  the  Genesee  river  in  Now  York,  which 
was  the  boundary  between  them  and  the  fierce  Sene- 
cas,  the  westernmost  nation  of  the  Iroquois  confeder- 
acy. Their  villages,  however,  were  on  the  shore  of 
the  lake  which  bears  their  name,  and  as  near  as  can 
be  ascertained,  their  princij)al  seats  stretched  from 
the  vicinity  of  the  present  city  of  Brie  to  that  of 

To  the  southward  there  was  a  vast  opr  i  space,  al- 
ternately the  hunting  ground  and  the  battlefield  of 
rival  tribes,  over  whicli  the  Eries  could  range  with 
more  or  less  difiiculty,  to  the  confines  of  the  Choctaws 
and  Cherokees.  On  the  west  and  northwest  were  the 
lands  of  the  powerful  Otfatvas,  Pottaivattomies,  Lhip- 
pewas  and  Miamis.  It  will  be  understood  that  the 
word  "powerful"  is  used  in  a  relative  sense,  meaning 
powerful  for  a  tribe  of  Indians.  The  Senecas,  the 
strongest  of  the  Five  Nations,  had  but  about  a  thou- 
sand wari'iors,  and  it  is  not  probable  that  either  of  the 
western  tribes,  including  the  Eries,  had  more  than 
that  number. 

Less  is  known  of  the  Eries  than  of  most  other  In- 
dian tribes,  for  during  the  middle  part  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  the  French  missionaries  and  fur-traders 
were  generally  deterred  by  the  enmity  of  the  Iroquois 
from  taking  the  route  to  the  West  by  way  of  Lake 
Erie,  and  ere  that  route  was  opened  to  European, 
travel  the  Erie  nation  was  blotted  out  of  existence,, 
as  will  hereafter  be  described.  From  the  slight  ac- 
counts which  have  reached  us,  however,  it  is  evident 
that  they  did  not  differ  materially  from  the  other  In- 
dian tribes  which  surrounded  them,  and  whose  char- 
acteristics are  so  well  known  to  Americans. 




Fierce,  cruel  and  intractable,  the  men  spent  their 
time  in  hunting  and  fighting,  while  the  women  not 
only  performed  their  domestic  labors,  but  bore  all 
burdens  when  attending  their  masters,  and  planted, 
tended  and  gathered  the  maize,  the  pumpkins  and 
the  beans,  which  were  the  principal  vegetable  food  of 
the  tribe.  Slight  indeed  were  the  bonds  of  govern- 
ment imposed  on  these  most  democratic  of  republic- 
ans. A  few  of  the  elder  men  were  known  as  sachems, 
a  position  rather  of  honor  than  of  power,  though  they 
exercised  a  gentle  authority  in  maintaining  order  at 
home,  and  determined  whether  there  should  be  peace 
or  war  with  neighboring  tribes. 

In  war,  the  leadership  of  the  tribe  devolved  on 
younger  men,  called  war-chiefs,  but  even  these  had 
no  authority  resembling  that  exercised  by  the  officers 
of  a  civilized  army.  War  being  once  declared,  any 
ambitious  chief  could  raise  a  party  of  volunteers  to 
go  on  a  raid  against  the  enemy.  They  usually  fol- 
lowed his  guidance,  but  in  case  they  refused  to  obey 
him  thei-e  was  no  punishment  known  to  Indian  law 
which  could  be  inflicted  upon  them.  Even  if  one  of 
them  showed  cowardice,  the  severest  chastisement 
visited  upon  him  was  to  call  him  a  "squaw,"  and  de- 
bar him  hencefortli  from  the  honors  and  privileges  of 
a  warrior.  This,  however,  was  a  terrible  punishment 
to  men  whose  only  idea  of  glory  or  fame  was  in  con- 
nection with  warlike  prowess.  Sometimes,  in  cases 
of  great  importance,  the  chiefs  called  the  whole  nation 
to  arms,  but  even  then  those  who  failed  to  respond 
were  merely  designated  as  "squaws,"  and  left  in  com- 
pany with  the  squaws. 

Of  civil  government  there  was  little  need.  Fero- 
cious as  the  Indians  were  against  their  enemies,  the 
members  of  the  various  tribes  seldom  quarreled  among 
themselves.  There  was  not  much  for  them  to  quar- 
rel about.  There  was  almost  no  individual  property 
save  the  stone  tomahawk,  the  bow  and  the  arrows 
which  each  man  could  manufacture  for  himself;  so 
there  were  no  contests  arising  from  the  sin  of  covet- 
ousncss.  The  marriage  bond  sat  lightly  upon  them, 
although  they  were  not  a  peculiarly  licentious  race. 
They  were  merely  apathetic  in  that  respect,  and  mar- 
ital infidelity  did  not  awaken  the  anger  often  felt 
among  barbarous  nations  no  purer  than  the  Indians; 
so  tliere  were  few  quarrels  about  women.  Liquor  had 
not  been  introduced  among  them,  and  thus  another 
large  class  of  troubles  was  avoided. 

True,  they  had  ferocious  and  malignant  tempers, 
bnt  it  was  not  necessary  to  exercise  them  at  home, 
and  until  after  the  introduction  of  liquor  they  seldom 
did  so.  If  a  number  of  Erie  braves  felt  their  native 
fierceness  gnawing  in  their  breasts  till  it  must  have 
vent,  it  was  needless  for  them  to  slay  each  other;  they 
could  get  up  a  war  party,  go  forth  and  scalp  a  few 
Ottawa  women,  or  burn  a  captured  Seneca  warrior, 
and  be  happy. 
The  whole  Indian  system  was  opposed  to  the  idea 

of  stringent  government.  Parental  restraint  over 
children  was  of  the  lightest  kind,  though  great  def- 
erence was  paid  to  age  in  both  men  and  women.  The 
little  copper-colored  rogues  ran  about  in  naked  bless- 
edness, doing  whatsoever  they  liked;  the  girls,  as  they 
approached  womanhood,  expecting  nothing  else  than 
to  share  the  labors  of  the  wigwam  and  cornfield,  while 
the  adolescent  boys  eagerly  trained  themselves  to  be- 
come hunters  and  warriors. 

When  the  Sries  were  the  lords  over  the  territory  of 
Cuyahoga  county  there  was  ample  opportunity  for  the 
young  braves  to  exercise  themselves  there  in  the  ex- 
hilarating duties  of  the  chase.  The  level  or  gently 
undulating  ground,  comijosed  of  sandy  soil  near  the 
lake  and  a  clayey  loam  farther  back,  was  covered  with 
a  gigantic  growth  of  beeches,  maples,  oaks,  elms,  etc., 
probably  unsurpassed  on  the  continent.  The  Indians 
were  in  the  habit  of  burning  off  the  underbrush  so 
that  they  could  more  readily  see  the  game,  and  this 
killed  the  small  trees,  but  caused  the  large  ones  to 
attain  magnificent  proportions. 

Here  the  deer  wandered  in  great  numbers.  Here 
and  there,  in  some  aged  and  hollow  tree,  the  black 
bear  made  his  hermitage  through  the  wintry  days, 
coming  forth  in  the  spring  to  feed  on  roots  and  ber- 
ries, and,  later,  on  the  ample  supi)ly  of  nuts  and  acorns 
afforded  by  the  forest.  Here,  too,  was  occasionally 
heard  the  fierce  scream  of  the  American  panther,  at 
which  even  the  hardy  Indian  youths  shrank  back  in 
dismay,  leaving  the  task  of  confronting  that  dreaded 
foe  to  the  bravest  warriors  of  the  tribe. 

Numerous  birds  flitted  among  the  trees,  on  which 
the  children  could  test  the  strength  of  their  tiny  bows 
and  their  own  accuracy  of  aim,  while  at  long  intervals 
the  lordly  eagle  soared  far  overhead,  or  circled  swiftly 
downward  to  seize  his  prey,  usually  defying  with  im-  ~ 
punity  the  arrows  even  of  the  most  renowned  bowmen 
of  the  forest.  Upon  the  earth,  among  many  harm- 
less congeners,  crawled  the  deadly  rattlesnake,  which, 
however,  was  easily  avoided  by  the  dark  youth,  shod 
with  wariness  and  buskined  with  cunning. 

Life  was  even  more  abundant  in  the  water  than  on 
shore.  The  lake  swarmed  with  pike,  pickerel,  stur- 
geon, whitefish,  etc.,  etc.,  some  of  which  found  their 
way  into  the  river,  where  they  were  met  by  the  gleam- 
ing trout  from  the  upland  streams. 

Such  was  Cuyahoga  county  and  its  inhabitants  at 
the  time  when  the  first  accounts  regarding  this  locali- 
ty came  to  the  knowledge  of  the  whites.  Even  then, 
those  accounts  were  very  vague,  but,  as  they  have 
been  eked  out  by  subsequently  acquired  knowledge, 
one  is  able  to  bring  up  before  the  mind's  eye  a  toler- 
ably accurate  picture  of  this  primeval  period.  Before, 
however,  we  move  forward  from  this  standpoint,  it  is 
proper  to  make  brief  mention  of  that  long,  vague 
period  which  antedates  all  reliable  information,  and 
is  commonly  called  the  pre-historic  era. 





Relics  in  Northern  Ohio— The  Mound-Builders— Old  Fortifications  of  this 
llegion  — Worlcs  in  Cleveland— In  Newburg— In  Independence— At 
the  Forlcs  of  Rocky  River- Outside  the  County— In  Western  New 
Yorlc  — Absence  of  Large  Mounds  — Coffins  at  Chagrin  Falls— Evi- 
dence ,ot  Moderate  Sizeil-  Ancients— The  Jaw-Bone  Theory— Indian 
Palisades— Their  Superiority  to  Breastworks— Absence  of  Metal  In- 
struments— Conclusion  in  Favor  of  Ancient  Indian  Occupancy. 

So  FAR  as  is  actually  known,  theories  might  have 
been  here  ten  years,  or  a  hundred  years,  or  a  thou- 
sand years,  before  they  were  heard  of  by  the  French. 
Yet  the  restless  and  belligerent  character  of  the 
American  Indians  makes  it  improbable  that  any 
tribe  would  remain  many  centuries  in  the  same 
locality,  and  doubtless  the  Eries  gained  their  title  to 
this  region  by  the  good  old  process  of  driving  away  or 
exterminating  the  preceding  lords  of  the  land,  whose 
rights  were  similarly  grounded  upon  slaughter  and 

But,  aside  from  the  probable  occupancy  of  the  coun- 
ti-y  by  successive  tribes  of  red  men,  there  are  works 
and  relics  still  extant  in  Cuyahoga  county,  as  well 
as  in  other  parts  of  northern  Ohio,  in  Pennsylvania 
and  in  New  York,  wbich  have  led  many  to  believe  that 
a  race  of  a  much  higher  grade  of  civilization  than  the 
Indians  once  inhabited  these  regions.  Those  old  in- 
habitants are  supposed  to  have  been  akin  to  the  cele- 
brated though  somewhat  mythical  "Mound-Builders" 
of  the  Ohio  valley.  But  the  works  attributed  to  the 
latter  people  are  of  a  far  different  character  from  those 
of  their  northern  neigiibors,  including  not  only  exten- 
sive fortifications  capable  of  sbeltering  ten,  fifteen  or 
even  twenty  thousand  men,  but  enormous  mounds, 
sometimes  seven  or  eight  hundred  feet  in  cii-cum- 
fereuce  at  tbe  base  and  seventy  feet  high,  and  sup- 
])osed  CO  have  been,  devoted  to  religious  sacrifices. 

Without  entering  into  any  discussion  on  the  char- 
acter or  origin  of  the  "  Mound-Builders,"  which 
would  be  entirely  foreign  to  the  purpose  of  this  vol- 
ume, it  is  safe  to  say  that  the  worlis  extant  in  Cuya- 
hoga county  and  the  rest  of  the  lake  region  bear  no 
indications  of  having  been  erected  by  a  race  superior  to 
the  American  Indians.  Nay,  they  show  strong  affirma- 
tive evidence  that  their  architects  were  not  superior 
to  the  red  men  discovered  here  by  the  Europeans. 
The  works  in  question  are  mostly  fortifications  of 
moderate  extent,  the  enclosed  space  rarely  exceeding 
Hye  acres.  In  a  majority  of  cases  advantage  has 
been  taken  of  a  strong  natural  position,  where  only  a 
small  amount  of  labor  was  necessary  to  fortify  it. 

Such  is  the  case  at  one  of  the  best  preserved  of 
these  embankments  in  Cuyahoga  county.  It  is 
within  the  limits  of  Cleveland  city,  but  in  what  was 
formerly  the  town  of  Newburg;  being  between  Broad- 
way and  the  Cuyahoga  river,  and  only  a  short  dis- 
tance from  that  stream.  The  natural  position  con- 
sisted of  a  peninsula  surrounded  on  three  sides  by 
ravines  nearly  sixty  feet  deep,  with  steep,  clayey  sides, 
and  joined  to  the  main  land  on.  the  south  by  a  nar- 
row  isthmus.     On   this  isthmus,  at  the   narrowest 

point,  the  occupants  of  the  situation  built  two  em- 
bankments, the  outer  one  extending  completely  across 
the  neck,  the  inner  one  reaching  nearly  but  not  quite 
across  .the  isthmus,  leaving  a  narrow  entrance- way  on 
the  west  side.  The  hight  of  both  embankments  is 
about  two  feet,  and  each  has  a  ditch  on  its  outer  side, 
now  very  shallow,  but  apparently  at  one  time  some 
tlu'ee  feet  deep. 

The  space  thus  enclosed  contains  about  five  acres, 
and,  although  the  land  outside  the  ravines  is  of  the 
same  hight  as  that  within  the  "fort,"  yet  foemeu 
would  have  found  it  difficult  to  send  their  arrows  to 
the  center  of  the  enclosed  spsice  through  the  natui-al 
growth  of  trees,  eveu  supjwsing  that  the  defenders 
knew  nothing  of  the  art  of  building  palisades,  on 
which  point  there  is  no  evidence. 

Most  of  the  other  fortifications  are  of  a  similiu* 
character,  the  object  in  each  case  being  to  fortify  an 
istiimus,  and  thus  hold  a  kind  of  peninsula  or  prom- 
ontory, nearly  surrounded  by  ravines. 

Just  outside  the  city  limits,  in  the  present  town- 
ship of  Newburg  and  close  to  the  Cuyaiioga,  is  an- 
other of  these  labor-saving  fortifications,  the  enclosed 
space  being  about  the  size  of  the  one  above  described, 
and  the  protecting  ravines  being  even  deeper,  though 
not  so  steep. 

Two  miles  farther  up  the  river,  in  the  township 
of  Independence,  is  still  another  of  these  enclosures, 
the  area  in  this  case  being  nearly  ten  aci:es.  There 
are  two  embankments  across  the  isthmus,  with  a 
ditch  between  them  and,  another  outside  of  tiie  outer- 
most breastwork. 

In  tlie  same  township,  a  short  distance  north  of 
Tinker's  creek,  is  another  fortification  by  which  a 
promontory  among  the  bluffs  is  defended  from  the 
approach  of  an  enemy. 

At  the  forks  of  Eocky  river,  close  to  the  line  be- 
tween the  townships  of  Middlebui'g  and  Olinstead, 
was  one  of  the  most  remitrkable  of  these  primitive 
fortresses.  It  is  a  lofty  eliff,  almost  su-rrounded  by 
the  waters  of  the  west  branch  of  the  river,  with  no 
method  of  reaching  the  top  save  by  an  oblique  and 
difficult,  path  cut  in  the  almost  perpendicular  side. 
In  front  of  tiiis  path  were  three  linos  of  breastworks, 
from  two  to  three  feet  high  each,  with' ditches  in  front 
of  tiiem,  as  in  the  case  of  the  others  before  meur- 
tioned.  This  was  one  of  tlie  most  formidable  of  these 
peculiar  fortifications  to  be  found  in  tiiis  county. 

Outside  of  the  county  there  are,  in  northern  Ohio, 
many  other  works  more  elaborate  and  important  than 
those  above  mentioned,  but  all  evidently  constructed, 
for  the  same  purpose — that  of  fortifying  with  a  little 
labor  ii  strong  natural  position.  Among  these  strong- 
holds there  is  one  in  Northfield,  Summit  county, 
where  a  promontory  of  about  four  acres,  two  hundied 
feet  above  the  Cuyahoga,  is  fortified  by  intrenchmients 
across  a  very  narrow  ridge  eonneetiug  it  with  the  back 
country;  one  at  Weymouth,  Medina  county,  where  a 
peninsula  of  less  than  an.  acre,  formed  by  a  bend  of 
Rocky  river,  is  defended  by  tlwee  lines  of  intrench.- 



ment,  from  four  to  six  feet  high,  counting  from  the 
bottom  of  the  ditch  to  the  top  of  the  bank;  one  near 
Painesville,  Lake  county,  where  a  narrow  peninsula  is 
fortified  by  two  embankments,  the  tops  of  which  are 
not  less  than  nine  feet  from  the  bottom  of  the  ditches 
outside.  There  is  also  one  near  Conneaut,  Ashtabula 
county,  bat  this  is  on  a  somewhat  different  plan;  a 
space  of  five  acres  on  the  top  of  a  detached  mound, 
seventy  feet  high,  being  entirely  surrounded  by  a 
circular  intrenchment. 

There  were,  at  the  time  of  the  first  settlement,  a 
large  number  of  similar  rude  fortifications  in  western 
New  York,  but  there  was  less  attention  paid  there  to 
tjie  defense  of  peninsulas  and  promontories;  a  majority 
of  the  works  being  complete  redoubts,  .each  enclosed 
by  a  single  wall,  a  few  feet  high,  with  a  ditch  outside. 
Some  were  on  detached  hills  or  mounds,  but  many 
were  in  the  valleys  or  on  the  open  plains,  and  have 
consequently  been  obliterated  by  cultivation.  One  of 
the  largest  fortresses  of  that  section,  known  as  Fort 
Hill,  and  situated  in  the  town  of  Le  Roy,  Genesee 
county,  contained,  when  first  discovered,  great  piles  of 
round  stones,  evidently  intended  to  be  used  against 
assailing  foes. 

Nowhere  in  the  lake  region  are  there  found  any  of 
tliose  immense  mounds,  so  prominent  in  the  Ohio 
valley,  from  which  the  name  of  "  Mound-Builders  " 
has  been  derived,  and  applied  to  an  .unknown  race  of 
men.  Some  small  mounds,  a  few  feet  high,  have, 
however,  been  discovered,  generally  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  fortifications  before  described,  and  probably  in- 
tended as  burial-places.  One  of  these  mounds,  situ- 
ated near  Chagrin  Palls,  was  opened  in  1840,  and 
found  to  contain  four  rude,  stonecoffins,  without  lids; 
three  of  them  being  of  the  proper  size  for  an  ordi- 
nary man,  and  one  suitable  for  a  half-grown  boy. 

These  coffins  are  the  strongest  evidences  with  which 
we  are  acquainted  of  the  existence  of  an  early  race, 
more  advanced,  than  the  Indians.  .So  far  as  known 
the  Indians  never  made  stone  coffins.  On  the  other 
hand  those  articles  negative  most  decidedly  the  opin- 
ion frequently  advanced,  that  the  ancient  inhabitants 
of  this  region,  be  they  of  what  race  they  might,  were 
superior  in  bight  to  the  people  of  modern  times.  It 
is  very  certain  that  in  numerous  instances  the  thigh- 
bone of  a-big  Indian  has,  by  an  imaginative  process 
of  reconstruction,  been  developed  into  a  whole  race  of 
pre-historic  giants.  A  commonly  quoted  evidence  on 
this  point  is  the  statement  that  some  venerable  jaw- 
bone, taken  from  an  ancient  mound,  will  "fit  right 
on  over"  the  jaw  of  an  ordinary,  adult  white  man;  the 
easy  reasoner  forgetting  that  any  concave  Ijody  will 
"fit  right  on  over"  a  convex  one  as  large  as  itself,  and 
that  a  score  of  bowls  or  kettles  of  the  same  size  will 
"  fit"  each  other  to  perfection.   ' 

So  far  as  the  fortifications  are  concerned  there  is 
absolutely  nothing  to  show  that  their  builders  were 
superior  to  the  inhabitants  discovered  by  the  white 
men.  '  True,  the  Indians,  when  first  discovered,  did 
not  build  earthen  breastworks,  but  they  did   build 

palisades,  requiring  more  labor  and  ingenuity  than 
tlie  much  vaunted  earthworks.  The  palisaded  castles 
of  the  Five  Nations  were  almost  impregnable  to  any 
foe  not  provided  with  fire-arms,  and  doubtless  the 
kindred,  though  hostile,  Eries  had  provided  them- 
selves with  similar  defenses.  The  first  Frenchman 
who  came  to  Montreal  found  there  an  Indian  town  of 
fifty  cabins,  encompassed  by  three  lines  of  palisades, 
made  of  closely  fitted  timbers,  near  thirty  feet  high. 
On  the  inside  there  was  a  lofty  wooden  rampart, 
reached  by  ladders,  and  always  kept  well  supplied 
with  stones  with  which  to  assail  an  enemy. 

Such  a  fortress  shows  a  much  greater  progress  in 
architectural  skill  than  do  the  rude  earthworks  previ- 
ously described.  Moreover,  considering  that  wooden 
arrows  and  stone  tomahawks  were  the  most  effective 
weapons  of  the  Indians,  it  is  plain  that  the  palisades 
were  a  great  improvement  on  the  breastworks  as  a 
protection  against  an  enemy.  Since  artillery  has 
come  into  use  among  the  whites,  wooden  and  even 
stone  defenses  have  been  abandoned  in  favor  of  earthen 
ones,  into  which  the  balls  of  an  enemy  sink  without 
destructive  results.  But  there  was  no  danger  of  either 
wooden  or  earthen  walls  being  destroyed  by  arrows 
or  stone  tomahawks;  the  problem  was  to  jirevent  the 
foe  from  shooting  or  climbing  over  the  barrier.  For 
this  purpose  it  is  evident  that  the  palisade  thirty  feet 
high  was  immensely  superior  to  the  low  breastwork, 
which  could  only  with  immense  labor  be  raised  five  or 
six  feet  above  the  surrounding  country. 

Moreover,  while  the  intrenchment  could  hardly  be 
employed  to  advantage  except  on  some  strong  natural 
position,  where  its  slight  bight  was  eked  out  by  the 
ascent  from  lower  ground,  the  palisade  could  be  built 
on  the  very  bank  of  a  stream,  or  in  the  midst  of  a 
maize  field,  and  afford  almost  perfect  protection  to 
the  cabins  placed  inside.  While,  therefore,  among  a 
people  who  use  artillery,  earthen  fortifications  are  an 
advance  on  wooden  or  stone  ones,  yet  the  palisades  of 
the  Iroquois  and  Eries  show  them  to  have  advanced 
in  defensive  skill  beyond  the  men  who  erected  the 
earthworks  of  northern  Ohio  and  western  New  York, 
though  very  probably  the  former  were  descended  from 
the  latter. 

The  coffins  at  Chagrin  Falls  are  far  stronger  evi- 
dences of  ancient  superiority  to  the  Indians  than  are 
the  breastworks,  but  while  it  is  true  that  Indians  gen- 
erally did  not  make  stone  coffins,  yet  they  did  make 
weapons  and  utensils  of  stone,  such  as  tomahawks,  etc., 
and  the  existence  of  the  larger  articles  in  this  vicinity 
may  be  due  to  the  fact  that  northern  Ohio  is  much 
more  prolific  than  other  sections  in  stone  which  is 
easily  shaped  into  any  required  form. 

Another  circumstance,  showing  that  the  pre-historic 
inhabitants  of  this  region  were  of  the  same  race  as 
the  Indians,  or  an  inferior  one,  is  the  fact  that  no 
metal  instruments,  not  even  of  copper,  have  come 
down  to  us  from  the  pre-historic  era.  Flint  arrow- 
heads, flint  knives,  stone  hatchets,  there  are  in  abun- 
dance— all  of  the   same  kind  as  those  used  by  the 



Indians — and  if  metal  instruments  had  existed  some 
of  them  would  certainly  have  remained  to  the  present 

Between  the  borders  of  Lake  Erie  and  the  valleys 
of  southern  Ohio,  there  is  a  tract  which  has  been  well 
designated  by  Colonel  Whittlesey  as  a  neutral  ground 
between  the  inhabitants  of  those  localities.  Without 
attempting  to  cross  this  open  space  and  rislc  ourselves 
among  the'shades  of  the  mythical  "  Mound-Builders," 
but  loolting  only  at  the  region  of  the  great  lakes,  we 
may  consider  ourselves  on  tolerably  firm  ground. 
The  Indians  were  here  when  the  white  men  first  came; 
the  relics  of  ancient  times  generally  show  not  superi- 
ority over,  but  inferiority  to,  the  works  of  the  red 
men,  and  the  very  strong  probability  is  that  some  of 
the  numerous  tribes  of  Indians,  in  a  more  or  less  ad- 
vanced state,  were  the  masters  of  this  region  from  the 
time  it  first  had  human  occupants  until  they  gave 
way  to  the  insatiate  invaders  from  Europe. 



The  Eries  little  known  to  the  French— Power  of  the  Iroquois— Destruc- 
tion of  the  Kahquahs — Iroquois  Tradition  Regarding  the  Overthrow 
of  the  Eries— The  Latter  hear  of  the  League  of  the  Five  Nations — An 
Athletic  Contest  with  the  Seneeas— Bloody  Work— An  Attempted  Sur- 
prise—A Great  Battle—Defeat  of  the  Eries— Probahllity  of  the  Stoi-y 
Considered— Another  Account — Butchery  of  the  Erie  Ambassadors- 
Burning  of  an  Onondaga  Chieftain— Wrath  of  the  Confederates— The 
Next  Spring  they  Set  Out — Appioaching  the  Stronghold— Description 
of  the  Warriors— The  Assault— The  Victory— Vengeance— Return  of 
the  Iroquois. 

During  the  first  quarter  of  a  century  after  the  ex- 
istence of  the  Eries  became  known  to  the  Erench, 
very  little  occurred  which  has  become  matter  of  his- 
tory or  even  of  tradition.  The  Gallic  explorers  with 
undaunted  footsteps  made  their  way  to  the  shores  of 
Lakes  Huron  and  Ontario,  but  Lake  Erie  was  almost 
an  unknown  sea  to  them.  Between  its  waters  and 
the  French  settlements  in  Canada  were  the  homes  of 
the  fierce,  untamable  Iroquois,  against  whom  Cham- 
plain,  the  founder  of  Canada,  had  needlessly  waged 
war,  and  who  had  become  the  most  implacable 
enemies  of  the  French  colonists.  These  celebrated 
confederates,  already  the  terror  of  surrounding  tribes, 
were  rapidly  rising  to  still  wider  dominion,  partly  on 
account  of  the  strength  derived  from  their  well- 
planned  union,  and  partly  on  account  of  the  facility 
with  which  they  could  obtain  fire-arms  and  ammuni- 
tion from  the  Dutch  on  the  Hudson  river,  who  were 
very  glad  to  have  so  good  a  guard  located  between 
them  and  the  adventurous  Frenchmen  of  Canada! 
Equipped  with  these  terrible  weapons,  and  strong  in 
their  five- fold  alliance,  the  Iroquois  wreaked  terrible 
vengeance  not  only  on  the  countrymen  of  Champlain, 
but  on  their  numerous  foes  of  their  own  race,  little 
foreseeing  that  the  destruction  of  their  Indian  rivals 
would  only  leave  themselves  the  less  able  to  resist  the 
advance  of  the  Europeans. 

There  was  occasional  warfare  between  the  Iroquois 
and  the  Eries,  but  the  Kahquahs,  or  Neuter  Nation, 
whose  seats  were  on  both  sides  of  the  Niagara  river 
and  extended  a  short  distance  up  the  south  side  of 
Lake  Erie,  lay  partly  between  the  rivals,  and  were 
then  at  peace  with  both;  so  the  enemies  were  con- 
strained to  bridle  their  hatred  when  they  met  on  Kali- 
quah  ground,  or,  as  some  accounts  say,  only  when  in 
the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  Kahquah  villages.  The 
Kahqualis  maintained  a  similar  neutrality  between 
the  Iroquois  and  the  Hurons  of  Canada,  and  hence 
the  French  designation  of  "La  Nation  Neutre." 
They  were  not  Quakers,  by  any  means,  however,  and 
often  waged  war  against  distant  tribes. 

But  the  time  was  rapidly  approaching  when  their 
neutrality  would  no  longer  serve  to  shield  them  from 
the  aggressive  spirit  of  the  Iroquois.  In  the  autumn 
of  1650,  the  Five  Nations,  having  already  destroyed 
the  Hurons,  burst  like  a  thunderbolt  upon  the  un- 
fortunate Kahqualis,  defeated  them  in  battle,  burned 
a  large  number  of  their  villages  and  slaughtered  the 
inhabitants.  The  next  spring  they  renewed  the 
assault,  and  utterly  destroyed  the  Kahqualis  as  a 
nation,  slaying  all  except  a  few  whom  they  adopted 
into  their  own  tribes,  and  a  few  more  who  fled  for 
safety  to  the  Indians  of  the  Far  West,  among  whom 
they  soon  lost  their  separate  identity. 

Naught  now  interposed  between  the  Eries  and 
their  arrogant  foes,  the  Five  Nations.  Experience 
showed  that  they  might  soon  expect  an  assault  made 
with  all  the  strength  of  the  confederacy,  and  no  doubt 
they  prepared  for  its  coming.  The  story  of  the  final 
struggle  is  only  to  be  derived  frorri  the  vague  and 
boastful  traditions  of  the  Iroquois,  for  of  the  Eries 
none  are  left  to  tell  the  tale  of  their  people's  ruin. 
One  account,  which  has  been  widely  quoted,  was  pub- 
lished in  the  Buffalo  Commercial  Advertiser  in  1845, 
and  is  said  to  have  been  vouched  for  by  "Governor 
Blacksnake,"  a  celebrated  Seneca  chief  then  nearly  a 
hundred  years  old,  and  by  other  aged  warriors  of  the 
Five  Nations. 

It  represents  that  "  when  the  Eries  heard  of  the 
confederation  between  the  Mohawks,  Oneidas,  Onon- 
dagas,  Cayugas  and  Seneeas,"  they  imagined  it  must 
be  for  some  mischievous  purpose.  To  discover  its 
meaning  they  invited  the  Iroquois  to  send  a  hundred 
of  their  most  athletic  young  men,  to  play  a  game  of 
ball  with  a  like  number  selected  by  the  Eries,  for  a 
heavy  wager.  The  invitation  was  declined.  Next 
year  it  was  repeated,  but  again  declined.  A  third 
time  the  challenge  was  sent,  and  this  time  it  was  ac- 

A  hundred  men,  the  flower  of  the  Iroquois  youth, 
went  forth,  unarmed,  to  meet  their  antagonists.  The 
two  parties  met  near  the  site  of  Buffalo.  A  large 
amount  of  wampum-belts,  buffalo  robes,  beaded  moc- 
casins, etc.,  was  deposited  on  each  side  as  a  wager,  and 
then  the  game  was  played.  The  Iroquois  were  suc- 
cessful. The  Eries  then  challenged  the  victors  to  a 
foot-race  between  ten  of  the  fastest  runners.     The 



challenge  was  accepted,  and  the  Iroquois  were  again 
victorious.  By  this  time  the  Eries  were  extremely 
angry,  and  their  chief  proposed  a  wrestling  match 
between  ten  of  the  best  men  on  each  side;  it  being 
understood  that  the  victor  in  each  case  should  toma- 
hawk his  adversary  and  tear  oil  his  scalp  as  a  trophy. 
The  Iroquois  accepted  the  proposition,  determined, 
however,  as  they  say,  not  to  enforce  the  bloody  penalty 
provided  they  were  the  conquerors.  In  the  first 
match  a  Beiieca  threw  his  antagonist,  but  declined  to 
slay  him.  The  infuriated  chief  of  the  Eries  immedi- 
ately drove  his  own  tomahawk  into  the  brains  of  his 
prostrate  champion.  A  second  and  a  third  Erie  met 
the  same  fate.  The  chief  of  the  Iroquois,  seeing  the 
terrible  excitement  which  prevailed  among  the  Eries, 
IDut  a  stop  to  this  remarkable  "sport,"  and  quickly 
led  his  men  back  to  their  own  homes. 

This  inglorious  contest  increased  the  jealousy  of  the 
Eries.  They  determined  to  attack  the  Senecas,  who 
resided  on  Seneca  lake,  in  the  present  State  of  New 
York,  hoping  to  destroy  them  ere  the  other  confed- 
erates could  interfere.  A  Seneca  woman,  married 
among  the  Eries,  fled  and  informed  her  countrymen 
of  the  intended  assault.  All  the  warriors  of  the  Five 
Nations  rallied  to  meet  it.  The  two  armies  met  on 
the  east  side  of  the  Genesee  river.  After  a  long  and 
bloody  combat,  elaborately  described  by  Blacksnake 
and  his  friends,  after  the  Eries  had  seven  times  been 
driven  across  a  small  stream  which  ran  across  the  bat- 
tle field,  and  had  every  time  regained  their  ground, 
they  were  forced  back  for  the  eighth  time,  and  a 
corps  of  a  thousand  young  Iroquois  warriors,  which 
had  been  held  in  reserve,  was  let  loose  upon  the  rear 
of  their  exhausted  foes.  This  decided  the  day,  and 
the  Eries  were  almost  entirely  annihilated  by  the 
vigorous  young  warriors.  The  Iroquois  army  fol- 
lowed their  defeated  enemies  to  their  homes,  destroyed 
their  villages,  and  slew  all  but  a  few  wretched  men  and 
women,  who  fled  in  terror  to  the  tribes  farther  west. 

Such  is  the  substance  of  the  story  as  preserved  by 
Iroquois  tradition,  but  it  is  altogether  too  good  a  story 
for  the  Five  Nations.  It  shows  them  meek  under 
provocation,  successful  in  every  athletic  contest,  and 
acting  entirely  on  the  defensive  m  the  war  which  re- 
sulted in  the  destruction  of  their  foes.  The  state- 
ment in  the  beginning  that  the  movemeuts  of  the 
Eries  were  caused  by  their  hearing  of  the  formation 
of  the  Iroquois  league,  shows  the  dubious  character 
of  the  whole  story,  for  that  league  had  been  in  exist- 
ence at  least  half  a  century  when  the  Eries  were 
destroyed,  and  probably  much  longer.  The  confed- 
eracy had  again  and  again  demonstrated  its  power, 
and  it  would  be  absurd  to  suppose  that  their  near 
neighbors  and  bitter  enemies,  the  Eries,  did  not 
know  all  about  it.  Some  portions  of  the  tradition 
may  be  true,  but  it  is  so  partial  to  the  Iroquois  that 
no  dependence  can  be  placed  upon  it.  Almost  the 
only  certain  thing  in  the  whole  story  is  that  there  was 
a  war  between  the  Iroquois  and  the  Eries,  and  that 
the  latter  were  defeated  and  destroyed. 

The  most  reliable  account  of  the  last  great  contest 
between  the  Iroquois  and  the  Eries  is  that  given  by 
Parkman  in  his  "Jesuits  of  North  America."  This 
is  also  derived  principally  from  Indian  tradition,  but 
the  statements  of  the  red  men  have  been  carefully 
sifted  by  that  experienced  historian,  and  have  been 
compared  with  contemporary  accounts  of  French 
missionaries.  Moreover,  it  is  quite  in  consonance 
with  the  nature  of  the  Iroqtwis  and  the  known  results 
of  the  case.  It  appears  from  this  account  that  in 
1653  a  treaty  of  peace  was  made  between  the  Eries 
and  the  Senecas,  the  nearest  and  most  powerful  of  the 
Iroquois  tribes,  and  the  former  nation  sent  thirty 
ambassadors  to  the  Seneca  country  to  confirm  it. 
While  they  were  there  a  quarrel  arose  in  which  a  Sen- 
eca warrior  was  killed  by  one  of  the  Eries.  The 
countrymen  of  the  deceased,  regardless  of  the  sacred 
office  of  the  ambassadors  (according  to  civilized,  ideas), 
immediately  fell  upon  them  and  slew  the  whole  thirty. 

When  the  Eries  heard  of  this  butchery,  of  course 
the  war  was  at  once  renewed.  One  of  the  parties 
sent  to  harass  the  Iroquois  captured  an  Onondaga 
chief,  and  returned  with  him  in  triumph  to  their  own 
country.  Indian  custom  required  that  he  should  be 
burned  at  the  stake  to  appease  the  shades  of  their 
slaughtered  brethren.  Some  of  the  older  and  wiser 
sachems  objected.  Such  an  act  would  make  the 
whole  confederacy  perfectly  implacable,  although  pre- 
vious to  that  time  the  quarrel  had  been  principally 
with  the  Senecas.  The  Five  Nations,  partly  armed 
with  European  weapons,  had  shown  their  immense 
power  by  scattering  the  great  H^iron  nation  to  the  four 
winds  and  by  utterly  destroying  the  Kaliqxialis,  and 
it  would  be  madness  to  invoke  the  unappeasable  wrath 
of  the  terrible  confederacy.  On  the  other  hand  the 
young  warriors  were  furious  for  revenge,  and  besides 
it  was  almost  a  positive  law  among  them  that  the 
blood  shed  by  their  foes  should, be  repaid  with  torture 
whenever  an  opportunity  offered. 

There  was,  however,  one  way  of  escape.  It  was  an 
immemorial  custom  that  a  prisoner's  life  might  be 
saved  at  the  request  of  a  near  relative  of  a  slain  war- 
rior, who  adopted  him  in  place,  of  the  deceased.  It 
was  determined  to  give  the  Onondaga  to  the  sister  of 
one  of  the  slaughtered  ambassador;?.  She  was  then 
absent,  but  it  was  not  doubted  that  she  would  accept 
the  prisoner  in  place  of  her  brother,  since  by  that 
means  alone  could  the  stern  requirements  of  Indian 
law  be  reconciled  with  the  safety  of  her  people.  She 
soon  returned,  and  was  earnestly  solicited  to  acquiesce 
in  the  arrangement.  But  no;  she  would  have  no 
such  brother  as  that. 

"Let  him  be  burned,'"  she  said;  and  the  party  of 
vengeance  was  thus  reinforced  by  all  who  held  in  es- 
pecial reverence  the  ancient  customs  of  the  tribe. 
The  unfortunate  Onondaga  was  doomed  to  the  stake, 
and  submitted  to  his  terrible  fate  with  the  usual  sto- 
icism of  an  Indian  warrior.  But,  as  they  were  about 
to  light  the  funeral  pile,  he  declared  that  they  were 
burning  the  whole  Erie  nation,  and  many  a  prudent 



old   sachem  foreboded   the   accomplishment  of   tlie 

When  lihe  news  reached  the  Iroquois,  the  whole 
confederacy  was  in  a  fury  of  rage.     Mohawks,  Onei- 
das  and  Cayugas  were  as  eager  for  revenge  as  the 
Senecas;  and  the  Onondagas,  whose  chief  had  suffered 
the  last  punishment  of  savage  hate,  were  even  more 
so.     The  approach  of  winter  prevented  an  immediate 
movement  against  the  Eries,  but  in  the  spring  of 
1654  nearly  all  the  Iroquois  warriors  were  summoned  1 
to  the  field.     An  army  was  fitted  out  which  LeMoine,  j 
a  Jesuit  missionary  then  among  the  Onondagas,  esti-  \ 
mated  at  eighteen  hundred  men — an  immense  num- 
ber when  compared  with  an  ordinary  Indian  war  party. 

The  Eries,  sensible  of  their  danger,  had  retreated 
to  the  western  part  of  their  territory — ^probably  to 
the  vicinity  of  Cleveland — and  had  there  fortified 
themselves  with  palisades,  strengthened  by  an  abattis 
of  forked  trees.  The /ro/^jtots  escimated  the  number  . 
of  the  Erie  warriors  at  two  thousand,  but  this  was 
probably  one  of  the  usual  exaggerations  of  an  enemy. 
The  Senecas,  by  far  the  most  powerful  of  the  Five 
Nations,  could  only  muster  a  thousand  warriors,  and 
there  is  uo  reason  to  suppose  the  Eries  were  stronger. 
Probably  they  were  weaker. 

After  a  long  march  through  tlie  forest,  the  Iroquois 
approached  the  stronghold  of  tlieir  enemies.  A  few 
carried  muskets  or  arquebuses,  and  ammunition, 
either  purchased  from  the  Dutch  or  captured  from 
the  French.  Two  wore  French  costumes,  doubtless 
stripped  from  the  bodies  of  slain  enemies.  At  length 
the  long  column  of  the  confederates  arrived  in  front 
of  the  fortress  of  the  Eries,  and  spiead  themselves 
out  in  line.  Other  armies  have  been  larger  and  better 
disciplined,  but  few  have  made  a  more  terrifying 
appearance  than  that  which  now  stood  awaiting  the 
signal  for  the  onslaught. 

The  war  costume  of  an  Indian  in  the  olden  time 
consisted  of  a  small  breech-clout  of  deerskin,  and  a 
crest  of  as  many  bright  colored 'feathers  as  he  could 
obtain.  His  face  and  naked  body  were  painted  with 
pigments  of  red,  yellow  and  black,  arranged  in  the 
most  fantastic  and  hideous  designs  that  the  artist 
could  invent.  A  thousand  or  more  savages,  thus  ar- 
rayed and  decorated,  and  known  to  be  filled  with  the 
most  furious  hatred,  must  have  presented  an  appal- 
ling appearance  to  any  but  the  hardiest  foes.  Nearly 
every  man  carried  the  bow,  the  arrows  and  the  war 
c'ub  which  had  been  the  weapons  of  his  fathers,  but 
a  f  jw,  as  has  been  said,  were  provided  with  fire-arms, 
and  many  had  substituted  iron  hatchets  and  knives 
for  the  stone  tomahawks  and  flint  scalpers  of  their 
ancestors.  The  war-chiefs,  of  whom  there  was  a 
large  proportionate  number,  took  their  positions  a 
few  yards  ahead  of  the  line,  each  one  in  front  of  his 
own  band. 

When  all  was  ready  the  two  Iroquois,  before  men- 
tioned as  being  dressed  in  French  costume,  advanced 
close  to  the  walls  and  demanded  the  surrender  of  the 
Eries.     One  of  them,  who  had  been  baptized  by  the 

Jepuits,  declared  that  the  "Master  of  Life"  was  on 
their  side. 

"Ho,  ho!"  cried  the  scornful  ^rtes,  "our  hatchets 
and  our  arrows  are  the  masters  of  life;  come  and  see 
what  they  will  do!" 

The  heralds  retired,  the  head  chiefs  gave  the  signal, 
and  with  terrific  yells  the  Iroquois  advanced  to  the 
attack.  They  were  met  with  flights  of  poisoned 
arrows,  and  were  compelled  to  fall  back.  They  then 
brought  forward  the  canoes  in  which  they  had  made 
the  trip  up  the  lake,  and  each  crew  bore  its  own  bark 
above  their  heads  so  as  to  protect  them  from  the 
arrows  of  the  Eries.  Thus  shielded,  they  again 
moved  forward.  The  poisoned  missiles  rattled  on  the 
frsiil  bark  vessels,  but  only  occasionally  hit  the  ex- 
posed part  of  some  careless  warrior. 

At  length  the  assaulting  line  reached  the  front  of 
the  palisade.  This  lofty  barrier  might  well  appear 
an  lusurnionntable  obstacle  to  men  unprovided  with 
ladders,  but  the  Iroqxiois  placed  their  canoes  against 
the  wooden  walls,  and,  in  spite  of  the  resistance  of 
the  Eries,  speedily  climbed  over  into  the  fort.  Then 
began  a  scene  of  frightful  butchery.  Probably 
largely  outnumbered  by  their  confederated  foes — per- 
haps hardly  equal  to  them  in  warlike  prowess — the 
Eries  gave  way  on  all  sides.  The  Iroquois  rushed 
forward,  Senecas,  Cayugas,  Onondagas,  Oneidas  and 
Mohawks  all  eager  to  be  the  first  in  the  race  for  ven- 
geance. The  forest  resounded  with  the  fearful  yells 
of  the  victims,  as  in  swift  succession  they  struck 
down  their  foes  with  war-club  or  tomahawk,  tore  off 
their  scalps,  and  waved  the  reeking  trophies  above 
their  heads  in  demoniac  triumph. 

As  was  generally  the  .case  when  one  savage  nation 
was  completely  successful  over  another,  the  conquered 
people  was  almost  completely  annihilated.  Men, 
women  and  children  were  slaughtered  with  equal 
ruthlessness,  and  all  their  villages  were  burned  to  the 
ground.  Some  escaped  to  join  the  tribes  of  the  Far 
West.  Some,  especially  children,  were  reserved  for 
adoption  by  the  conquerors,  in  accordance  with  wide- 
spread Indian  custom.  Many  of  the  warriors,  too, 
were  taken  alive,  but  these  were  generally  devoted  to 
the  most  terrible  fate  which  savage  malignity  could 

When  night  came  on,  the  victors  prepared  for  a 
grand  illumination.  The  captured  warriors  were 
bound,  naked,  one  by  one,  to  the  trees  of  the  forest. 
Piles  of  light  fuel  wei'e  heaped  around  them  and  then 
the  torch  was  applied.  A  Cayuga  told  Mr.  Parkman 
that,  according  to  the  tradition  in  his  tribe,  a  thou- 
sand Eries  were  thus  enveloped  in  flames  at  once. 
As  the  Indians  couldn't  count  over  ten,  and  as  there 
were  probably  not  over  a  thousand  Erie  warriors  in 
all,  if  so  many,  it  is  best  to  take  this  statement  with 
much  allowance.  But  even  if  there  were  a  hundred 
thus  subjected  to  torture,  they  must  have  formed  the 
most  soul-curdling  sight  that  can  well  be  imagined. 
Those  who  admire  the  romance  of  Indian  life  might 
have  enjoyed  their  fill  of  it  could  they  have  stood  in 



the  forest  on  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  two  hundred 
and  twenty-five  years  ago,  and  have  seen  the  darkness 
lighted  up  by  fire  after  fire,  extending  in  every  direc- 
tion, in  the  midst  of  each  of  which  a  naked  warrior 
writhed  in  the  agonies  of  death,  his  voice,  however, 
rising  in  the  death-song,  defiant  and  contemptuous 
towai'd  his  foes,  who  danced  and  howled  around  him 
in  all  the  ecstasy  of  diabolical  glee. 

The  Iroquois  remained  in  the  country  of  the  Eries 
for  two  months,  nursing  their  own  wounded,  and 
hunting  out,  and  capturing  or  slaying,  any  of  that  un- 
fortunate people  who  might  still  be  lingering  near 
the  homes  of  their  ancestors.  Then  the  conquerors 
re-entered  their  canoes,  proceeded  down  the  lake  and 
made  their  way  to  their  own  homes,  where  they  were 
doubtless  received  with  universal  admiration  as  heroes 
who  had  deserved  well  of  their  country. 



Iroquois  Power— Its  Boundary  on  the  Cuyahoga— Ownership  of  the 
Western  Part  of  tlie  County— French  Slcill— La  Salle's  Supj)osed  Visit 
—His  Great  Exploration— The  First  Vessel  on  Lake  Erie— Tonti  and 
Hennepin— Brilliant  Prospects  for  the  French- Fate  of  the  Griffln- 
Subsequent  career  of  La  Salle— Pretensions  of  the  French  and  English 
—The  Jealous  Iroquois— Ohio  a  Part  of  Louisiana— Building  of  Fort 
Niagara— An  Extensive  Trust  Deed— Lake  Erie  called  "Oswego"— 
Meaning  of  the  Word— The  War  of  1744— The  Ohio  Company— De  Bien- 
ville's Expedition— New  French  Posts-  The  First  European  Establish- 
ment in  Cuyahoga  county— \^'ashington  in  the  Field— The  First  Amer- 
ican Congress— Franklin's  Proposition— Beginning  of  the  Great  War- 
Western  Indians  aid  the  French— Defeat  of  Braddoek— French  For- 
tunes wane— Loss  of  Niagara  and  Quebec— Surrender  of  Canada^- 
End  of  French  Poiver  in  the  Lake  Region. 

Ebom  that  time  forward  northwestern  Ohio  became 
a  parb  of  the  domain  of  bhe  all-conquering  Iroquois. 
They  fixed  their  western  boundary  at  the  Cuyahoga 
river,  and  there  were  none  to  dispute  it  with  them. 
They  continued,  however,  to  reside  in  central  JSTew 
York,  using  this  region  only  as  a  hunting  ground. 
That  remarkable  confederacy  was  then  at  the  hight 
of  its  power.  Erom  the  Atlantic  to  the  Mississippi, 
from  Hudson's  bay  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  no  nation 
nor  league  of  their  own  race  was  able  to  withstand 
them,  and  the  feeble  colonies  of  Europeans  alternate- 
ly courted  their  friendship  or  shrank  from  their  en- 

Though  claiming  no  farther  west  than  the  Cuya- 
hoga, their  war  parties  made  frequent  excursions  far 
beyond  that  boundary,  coasting  up  Lake  Erie  in  their 
canoes,  passing  by  those  who  propitiated  their  friend- 
ship, but  executing  vengeance  on  those  who  awakened 
their  wrath,  even  to  the  distant  shores  of  the  Missis- 
sippi and  the  far  northern  waters  of  Lake  Superior. 

That  part  of  Cuyahoga  county  west  of  the  river 
which  bears  its  name  was  not  permanently  occupied 
by  any  tribe,  but  appears  to  have  been  claimed  by 
another  confederacy,  much  less  powerful  than  the 
Iroquois,  which  had  its  principal  seat  in  Michigan, 
and  was  composed  of  the  Ottawas,   Chippewas  and 

the  Pottawattamies.  The  Shatonees,  who  resided  in 
the  southwest,  in  the  present  State  of  Indiana,  also 
frequently  hunted  along  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie.  In 
fact,  the  boundaries  of  Indian  possessions  were  sel- 
dom defined  with  the  accuracy  of  farm-lines  in  a 
deed,  and  were  constantly  varying  according  to  the 
power  or  caprice  of  their  owners. 

Notwithstanding  the  old  grudge  of  the  Iroquois. 
against  them,  the  French,  whose  skill  in  managing 
savages  was  unequaled  by  that  of  any  other  European 
nation,  succeeded  in  the  intervals  of  active  warfare  in 
insinuating  themselves  among  those  fierce  warriors, 
and  securing  a  foothold  for  their  fur-traders  and  even 
for  their  missionaries.  It  is  highly  probable  that 
some  of  those  classes,  intent  on  the  interests  of  com- 
merce or  religion,  made  their  way  to  the  south  shore 
of  Lake  Erie  soon  after,  if  not  before,  the  destruction 
of  the  unfortunate  people  wlio  resided  there;  for  the 
Jesuit  map  of  1660  proves  that  the  members  of  that 
order  had  at  least  traced  the  chain  of  waters  from 
Lake  Erie  to  Lake  Superior. 

Very  little  is  known,  however,  of  the  locality  un- 
der consideration.  According  to  a  biography  of  the 
celebrated  La  Salle,  by  an  anonymous  author,  yet 
bearing  many  evidences  of  credibility,  that  remarka- 
ble adventurer  came  into  the  country  south  of  Lake 
Erie  in  1669,  discovered  tiie  Ohio  and  descended  it  to 
the  rapids  where  Louisville  now  stands,  where  he  was 
abandoned  by  his  men  and  compelled  to  return  alone. 
What  La  Salle  was  doing  at  this  period  is  not  posi- 
tively known,  and  such  an  exploit  would  be  in  perfect 
harmony  not  only  with  his  dauntless  courage  and 
boundless  love  of  adventure  but  with  his  uniform 
lack  of  tact  in  managing  his  subordinates. 

A  map  attributed  to  La  Salle,  issued  in  1672,  calls 
the  great  body  of  water  which  bounds  Cuyahoga 
county  on  the  north,  "Lake  Tejocharonting,  com- 
monly called  Lake  Erie." 

But  it  was  not  until  1679  that  Lake  Erie  was  fully 
explored  by  European  eyes  and  its  waters  plowed  by 
a  vessel  built  by  European  hands.  The  leader  in  this 
important  enterprise  was  the  brilliant  adventurer  al- 
ready named,  Eobert  Cavelier  de  la  Salle.  This  gen- 
tleman, a  Frenchman  of  good  family,  then  thirty-five 
years  old,  was  the  boldest  and  most  successful  of  all 
the  gallant  men  who  attempted  to  explore  the  interior 
of  North  America.  Some  adventurers  had  made 
short  excursions  inland  from  the  coast,  others  had 
trodden  the  shores  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  others  still 
had  traced  the  coast  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  and  discov- 
ered the  mouth  of  its  principal  river;  it  was  given  to 
La  Salle  to  glide  from  the  northeast  to  the  southwest 
over  three  thousand  unknown  miles  of  land  and  wa- 
ter, to  unravel  the  great  enigma  of  the  Mississippi, 
and  to  span  the  whole  eastern  portion  of  the  conti- 
nent with  the  bow  of  triumphant  discovery. 

Having  left  his  native  Eouen  at  the  age  of  twenty- 
two.  La  Salle  had  for  thirteen  years  been  leading  a 
life  of  varied  adventure  in  America,  and  had  in  1678 
received  a  commission  from  Louis  the  Fourteenth  to 



discover  the  western  part  of  New  France.  In  the 
winter  and  spring  of  1678  and  1679  he  built  a  vessel 
of  sixty  tons  on  the  Niagara  river,  above  the  falls,  to 
which  he  gave  .the  name  of  the  "Griffin."  After 
long  waiting,  to  perfect  his  preparations,  La  Salle 
sailed  up  Lake  Erie  from  the  head  of  the  Niagara  on 
the  seventh  day  of  August,  1678. 

It  is  not  certain  on  which  side  of  Lake  Erie  the 
"Griffin"  sailed,  nor  whether  it  crossed  the  watery 
portion  of  Cuyahoga  county;  the  presumption,  how- 
ever, is  that  it  went  on  the  north  side,  which  was  not 
only  the  shortest  but  was  least  likely  to  be  infested  by 
the  hostile  Iroquois.  Nevertheless,  the  opening  of 
the  great  inland  sea,  on  which  the  county  borders,  to 
the  knowledge  and  the  commerce  of  Europe  is  an 
event  of  such  importance  to  all  who  live  on  its  shores 
as  to  merit  more  than  a  passing  notice. 

La  Salle  occupied  four  days  in  making  the  voyage 
from  the  site  of  Buffalo  to  the  head  of  the  lake,  where 
he  entered  into  the  straits  which  lead  to  Lake  Huron. 
There  were  thirty-four  men  on  board  the  "Griffin," 
all  Frenchmen  with  two  or  three  exceptions.  La 
Salle  himself  is  repi-esented  as  a  handsome,  blue-eyed 
cavalier,  with  smooth  cheeks  and  abundant  ringlets, 
apparently  better  fitted  to  grace  the  salons  of  Paris 
than  to  dare  the  dangers  of  the  American  wilderness, 
yet  in  reality  standing  in  the  foremost  rank  of  all 
those  who  opened  the  new  world  to  the  knowledge  of 
the  old. 

The  second  in  command  was  Henry  de  Tonti,  an 
Italian  by  birth,  son  of  the  inventor  of  the  "Tontine" 
plan  of  insurance,  who  had  served  valiantly  as  a  sol- 
dier in  the  Sicilian  wars,  who  had  been  exiled  from 
his  native  land  by  revolution,  and  who  showed, 
throughout  his  career  under  La  Salle,  the  most  un- 
wavering contempt  of  danger  and  the  most  devoted 
loyalty  to  his  chief. 

Another  distinguished  voyager  on  the  "Griffin"  was 
the  celebrated  Father  Hennepin,  a  Franciscan  friar 
of  Flemish  birth,  but  French  by  education  and  lan- 
guage, who  was  at  once  the  priest  and  the  historian  of 
the  expedition.  "  With  sandaled  feet,  a  coarse,  gray 
capote,  and  peaked  hood,  the  cord  of  St.  Francis 
about  his  waist,  and  a  rosary  and  crucifix  hanging  at 
his  side,  the  father  set  forth  on  his  memorable  jour- 
ney."* He  was  attended  by  two  coadjutors,  and 
they  carried  with  them  a  light  poi-table  altar,  which 
could  be  strapped  on  the  back  like  a  knapsack  or  set 
up  in  the  wilderness  at  a  moment's  notice.  Father 
Hennepin  was  destined,  in  the  course  of  the  wide 
wanderings  on  which  he  was  then  entering,  to  display 
the  most  unswerving  courage,  and  the  most  devoted 
zeal  in  the  conversion  of  the  savages  to  Christianity, 
but  was  also  to  acquire  the  less  enviable  reputation  of 
being  one  of  the  most  mendacious  of  the  many  un- 
trustworthy European  travelers  in  America. 

As  the  little  bark  with  its  gallant  commander,  its 
zealous  priests  and  its  swarthy  crew,  swept  westward 

*  Parkman. 

before  the  favoring  breezes,  all  doubtless  believed 
that  they  were  opening  the  new  lake  to  the  com- 
merce of  France,  and  that  its  fertile  shores  would  in 
time  be  occupied  by  the  subjects  of  Louis  le  Grand 
or  his  successors.  To  all  appearances  the  French  had 
obtained  the  complete  dominion  of  all  the  waters  of 
the  St.  Lawrence,  and  the  career  of  La  Salle  was  to 
extend  still  farther  the  sway  of  their  magnificent 
monarch.  The  most  vivid  and  prophetic  imagination 
could  not  have  pictured  the  shores  of  the  great  lakes 
passing  from  the  dominion  of  France  to  that  of  Eng- 
land, (whose  king,  Charles  the  Second,  was  then  the 
mere  vassal  of  Louis  the  Fourteenth),  and  again,  after 
a  brief  interval,  becoming  a  part  of  an  independent 
country,  whose  power  was  to  rival  that  of  either  of 
the  great  nations  which  had  preceded  it  in  the  path  of 

La  Salle  named  the  waters  over  which  he  was  pass- 
ing the  "  Lac  de  Conti,"  in  honor  of  one  of  his  pat- 
rons, the  Prince  de  Conti,  but  Father  Hennepin 
called  it  Erie,  mentioning  at  the  same  time  that  the 
Indians  termed  it  "Brie  Tejocharonting." 

The  "Griffin,"  though  the  pioneer  of  all  the  immense 
commerce  of  Lake  Erie,  was  itself  the  sport  of  disas- 
trous fate.  It  went  to  Green  Bay,  where  La  Salle, 
Tonti  and  Hennepin  left  it;  started  on  its  return 
with  a  cargo  of  furs,  and  was  never  heard  of  more. 
Whether  it  sank  with  all  on  board  amid  the  storm- 
tossed  waters  of  Lake  Michigan  or  Huron,  or  was 
driven  upon  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie  and  its  crew  mur- 
dered by  the  revengeful  Iroquois,  has  been  a  subject 
of  frequent  but  unavailing  investigation.  Numerous 
relics  of  shipwreck  have  been  found  near  the  mouth 
of  Eocky  river,  in  Cuyahoga  county,  and  it  is  possi- 
ble, not  probable,  that  some  of  them  came  from  the 
long  lost  "Griffin."  With  greater  probability  it  has 
been  deemed  that  the  scene  of  the  "Griffin's"  ship- 
wreck was  discovered,  near  the  beginning  of  this  centu- 
ry, by  the  settlers  in  the  southwest  part  of  Erie  county, 
New  York;  for  there  were  cannon  found  there  with 
French  mottoes  upon  them,  which  certainly  gives  color 
to  the  theory  that  that  was  the  tlieater  of  the 
"  Griffin's  "  disaster.  There  are,  liowever,  other  ways 
of  accounting  for  those  relics,  and  it  is  quite  likely,  as 
before  stated,  that  the  pioneer  vessel  of  the  upper  lakes 
sank  amid  their  turbulent  waters  with  all  of  its  unfor- 
tunate crew. 

After  the  "Griffin"  had  sailed.  La  Salle,  with  the 
majority  of  his  companions,  went  into  the  Illinois 
country.  There  they  built  two  trading  posts,  but  as, 
after  long  waiting,  the  "Griffin"  did  not  return,  the 
indomitable  chief,  with  three  comrades,  performed 
the  extraordinary  feat  of  returning  on  foot  to  tiie. 
shores  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  subsisting  entirely  upon 
the  game  they  procured  with  their  muskets.  It  has 
generally  been  supposed  that  La  Salle  and  his  com- 
panions went  on  the  southern  side  of  Lake  Erie  across 
the  territory  of  Cuyahoga  county,  but  there  are  good, 
reasons  for  believing  that  they  crossed  the  Detroit 
river  and  skirted  the  northern  shore  of  the  lake,.. 


wliere  they  would  be  in  less  danger  from  the  ever- 
d leaded  Iroquois. 

La  Salle  afterwards  returned  to  the  Illinois  region, 
and  in  1683,  with  a  handful  of  men,  descended  the 
Mississippi  to  the  sea,  thus  achieving  the  greatest 
feat  of  discovery  ever  accomplished  in  the  interior  of 
America,  and  adding  the  vast  territory  of  Louisiana 
to  the  dominions  of  France.  While  endeavoring, 
however,  to  colonize  these  newly  discovered  lands,  he 
met  with  continual  disasters,  and  was  at  length  mur- 
dered by  some  of  his  own  followers,  in  what  is  now 
the  State  of  Texas. 

For  a  long  period  afterwards  there  is  very  little  to 
relate  regarding  the  county  of  Cuyahoga.  The 
French  waged  long  wars  with  the  English  under 
King  William  and  Queen  Anne,  and  the  Iroquois 
Avere  generally  in  alliance  with  the  latter  jieople. 
Nevertheless  the  French,  whose  powers  of  insinuation 
among  savages  were  unrivaled,  obtained  considerable 
influence  among  the  Senecas,  and  were  enabled  to 
make  many  profitable  voyages  after  furs  upon  Lake 
Erie.  Fort  Poncliartrain  was  built  on  the  site  of 
Detroit  in  1701.  By  the  peace  of  Utrecht,  concluded' 
;it  the  end  of  "  Queen  Anne's  War"  in  1713,  the  Five 
Nations  (or  the  Six  Nations,  as  they  became  about 
that  time  by  the  admission  of  the  Tuscaroras  into  the 
C(mfederacy),  were  acknowledged  to  be  subjects  of  the 
crown  of  Great  Britain,  but  no  definite  boundaries 
were  assigned  them.  From  that  time  forth  the  Eng- 
lish claimed  to  own  as  far  west  as  the  Cuyahoga,  on 
the  ground  that  the  Six  Nations  had  long  been  tlie 
proprietors  to  that  point,  while  the  French,  by  right 
(if  discovery  and  possession,  claimed  both  shores  of 
the  gi-eat  lakes,  together  with  the  whole  valley  of  the 

As  for  the  Iroquois,  they  repudiated  tiiei)retensions 
of  the  English  as  scornfully  as  they  did  those  of  the 
French,  and  asserted  their  own  ownership  by  virtue 
of  their  conquest  of  the  Kahqualis  and  Fries.  In 
fact  tliey  were  becoming,  perlnips,  more  jealous  of 
the  English  than  of  the  French,  since  the  former 
were  continually  obtaining  large  tracts  of  Indian  lands 
for  the  purpose  of  colonization,  while  the  latter  only 
wanted  posts  for  their  fur-traders  and  stations  for 
their  missionaries.  Frencli  traders  from  Canada 
scoured  the  whole  West  in  searcli  of  furs,  as  did  also 
the  Dutch  and  English  of  New  York. 

At  the  period  in  question  the  French  considered 
Ohio  as  a  part  of  Louisiana.  That  province  was  di- 
vided into  four  parts,  each  in  charge  of  a  military 
commandant;  all  being  subject  to  the  council-general 
of  Louisiana.  One  of  these  subdivisions  nominally 
included  all  the  territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio.  In 
fact,  •  however,  the  would-be  rulers  exercised  very 
little  authority  outside  the  walls  of  their  rude 

In  1725,  the  French  obtained  permission  of  the 
Iroquois  chiefs  to  build  a  "stone  house  "  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Niagara,  on  the  east  side,  where  the  Marquis 
de  Denonville  had  previously  planted  a  French  post. 

which  liad  been  speedily  abandoned.      The   "stone 
house"  was  at  once  begun,  and  finislied  the  next  year; 
assuming,  by  the  time  ib  was  completed,  the  propor- 
tions of  a  strong  frontier  fortress.     This  was  a  very 
important  proceeding,  as  it  gave  the  French,  to  a 
great  extent,  the  command  of  the  whole  upper  lake 
region.     There  was  a  great  deal  of  intriguing  among 
the  Iroquois  chiefs  on  the  part  of  both  the  French 
and  the  English,  audit  is  sometimes  difficult  to  learn 
which  was  in  the  ascendency ;  though,  as  a  general 
rule,  the  English  influence  was  predominant.     The 
French  were  most  successful  with  the  Senecas  and 
one  or  two  other  western  tribes  of  the  confederacy, 
while  the  Molumuks  and   Oneidas,  who  lived  on  the 
English  frontier,  were  usually  faithful  to  their  inter- 
est.    The  ancient  bond  of  the  "  Hedonosaunee,"  or 
People  of  the  Long   House,  as  the  Iroquois  called 
themselves,  was  evidently  weakening  under  the  Stress 
of  foreign  intrigue. 

But  the  French  did  not  have  it  all  their  own  way 
even  with  the  western  tribes.  .  The  same  year  that 
Fort  Niagara  was  completed  seven  of  the  principal 
sachems  of  the  Senecas,  Gayugas  and  Onondugas 
made  a  deed  of  trnst  to  the  King  of  Great  Britain 
and  his  successors,  of  their  lands,  extending  in  a  belt 
sixty  miles  wide  from  the  foot  of  Lake  Ontario,  all 
aljiig  that  lake,  the  Niagara  river  and  the  "Lake 
Oswego,"  [Erie]  to  the  "creek  called  Oanahogne," 
which  was  the  original  form  of  Cuyahoga.  The  deed 
also  included  the  "  beaver  hunting-grounds  "  of  those 
nations,  the  boundaries  of  which  were  not  described, 
but  which  are  supposed  to  have  been  on  the  Canadian 
peninsula.  The  king  was  to  hold  the  lands  forever, 
but  solely  in  trust  for  the  tribes  above-named;  the  ob- 
ject being  evidently  to  give  the  English  an  excuse  for 
withstanding  the  pretensions  of  the  French  to  the 
same  territory. 

It  is  doubtful  whether  the  seven  chiefs  had  any 
authority  to  deed  away  the  lands  of  their  people,  even 
"in  trust,"  and  it  is  probable  that  they  represented 
only  the  English  faction,  while  it  was  the  French 
faction  which  had  given  that  nation  authority  to 
build  Fort  Niagara.  The  officers  of  King  Louis  and 
King  George  now  maintained  the  conflicting  claims 
of  their  respective  masters  to  the  country  cast  of  tlie 
Cuyahoga  with  more  pertinacity  than  ever  before. 

It  will  have  been  obsei~ved  that  in  the  above  deed 
Lake  Erie  is  called  "  Oswego,"  that  being  the  same 
name  which  about  the  same  time  was  applied  to  the 
locality  on  Lake  Ontario,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Onon- 
daga, now  Oswego.  On  a  map  in  Colden's  History 
of  the  Five  Nations  Lake  Erie  is  called  "Okswego," 
and  this  appellation  is  also  used  in  Washington's  jour- 
nal, in  1753,  and  on  Pownal's  map,  as  late  as  1777. 
This  name,  like  most  Indian  names,  has  received 
many  different  explanations.  The  most  plausible, 
considering  that  the  expj-ession  was  used  in  regard 
to  two  such  widely  separated  localities,  is  that  of 
"  boundless  view,"  or,  as  the  Indians  express  it  "look 
everywhere — see    nothing."       Such    an    appellation 



would  be  applicable  to  almost  any  point  along  the 
lakes,  or  to  either  of  the  lakes  itself.  The  lake  on 
which  Cuyahoga  county  borders  was,-  however,  more 
often  called  by  its,  old  name  of  "Erie,"  and  this 
finally  superseded  all  oth«i's. 

Notwithstanding  tlve  intrigues  of  the  French  and 
English,  that  part  of  Cuyahoga  couuty  east  of  the 
river  continued  in  gesiceable  possession  of  the  8ix 
Nations,  who  used  it  only  as  ahunting  ground,  while 
the  western  part  was  occupied  for  the  same  purpose 
hj  the  Ottawas,  CMppewas  and  Pettawattamies.  The 
only  white  men  seen  within  its  bounds  were  occasional 
French  far-traders,  or,  less  often,  an  extramely  daring 
Etaglish  one,  and  perchancej  now  and  then,  a  dark- 
gowned  Jesuit,  abandoning  ease  and  risking  life  to 
spread  tlie  faith  of  his  church  among  the  savages  of 
the  Far  West. 

In  the  war  between  France  and  England,  begun  in 
1744,  and  concluded  by  the  treaty  of  Aix  la  Chapelle 
in  1748,  tlic  Six  Nations  generally  maintained  tiieir 
neutrality,  and  the  contest  had  no  efEect  this  far  west. 
In  the  last  named  year,,  ho  we  \?er,  an  association  called 
the  Ohio  Company  was  organized  under  the  authority 
of  the  government  of  Virginia,  for  the  purpose  of 
settling  tiie  lands  which  that  colony  claimed  west  of 
the  AUeganies.  It  numbered  foui:teon  members,  all 
Virginians  except  one,  (a  Londoner),  ani«ng  whom 
were  Lawrence  and  Augustine,  elder  brothers  of 
George  Washington.  The  Virginia  authorities  gave 
it  a  grant  of  half  a  million  acres  west  of  the  AUega- 
nies, but  without  any  definite  location  of  boundaries; 
if  the  owners  could  maintain  themselves  on  the  Ohio 
or  the  shores  of  Lake  Erie,  they  were  welcome  to  do 

The  peace  of  Aix  la  Chapelle  was  little  more  than 

an  armed  truce,  so  far  as  America  was  concerned,  and 
the  intrigues  of  both  Frencii  and  English  for  the  ex- 
tension of  theii-  frontiers  were  more  active  than  eter. 
In  1749,  the  Count  de  la  Galissoniero,  the  governor- 
general  of  Canada,,  ordered  Monsieur  Celeron  de  Bien- 
ville to  sot  forth  frorii  Detroit  with  three  hundred 
men,  to  visit  all  important  points,  east  and  southeast, 
as  far  as  the  AUeganies,  and  to  take  formal  possession 
of.  the  country,  in  the  name  ofthe  king  of  France. 
De  Bienville  obeyed  his  instructions,  and  at, each  im- 
portant locality  he  buried  a  leaden  plate,  engraved 
with  the  arms  of  France,  and  also  made  one  of  those 
curious  records,  called  a  "proves  verial,"  which  con- 
sisted of  a  solemn  written  declaration  of  the.  officer, 
duly  attested  before  a  notary  public,  to  the  effect  that 
he  did  then  and  there  take  possession  of  the  surround- 
ing country,  in  the  name  and  for  the  benefit  of  the 
king  of  France, 

As  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga  had  long  been  recog- 
nized as  one  of  the  principal  places  in  the  West, 
especially  as  being  the,  boundary  between  the  Six  Na- 
tions and  their  western  rivals,,  it  is  highly  probable 
that  Celeron  de  Bienville  buried  one  of  his  plates  and 
drew  up  one  of  his  "proces  verbal"  at  that  point, 
but  there  is  no  direct  evidence  to  that  effect.    The 

next  year  the  French  followed  up  the  movement  they 
had  begun,  by  building  a  fort  near  Sandusky  bay. 

In  1753,  the  Marquis  de  Durpiesne  de  Menneville 
was  appointed  governor-general  of  Canada,  and  pro- 
ceeded to  carry  out  the  aggressive  policy  of  his  prede- 
cessor. The  Indians  of  all  the  tribes  beeame  seriously 
alarmed,  and  in  a  council  held  below  Pittsburg,  that 
year,  they  inquired  where  the  Indian  lands  were,  since 
the  French  chiimod  all  on  the  west  side  of  the  Ohio 
and  the  English  on  the  oast.  The  next  year  the 
French  began  to  carry  oat  their  long  planned  scheme 
of  connecting  Lake  Erie  and  the  Ohio  river  by  a  chain 
of  posts,  which  should  at  once  mark  the  boundary  of 
tiie  French  possessions  and  defend  them  from  inva- 
sion. Posts  were  accordingly  established  at  Presqu' 
Isle,  (Erie),  Le  Boouf  (Frencli  Creek)  and  Venango, 
all  in  the  present  State  of  Pennsylvania.  If  the 
movement  was  successful  and  the  English  acquiesced 
in  it,  Cuyahoga  county,  with  all  the  rest  of  the  West, 
was  to  become  French  territory. 

The  English  and  their  colonies  took  the  alarm  ;  a 
small  garrison  was  ordered  to  the  forks  of  the  Ohio, 
and  young  Major  George  Washington  was  sent  by  the 
governor  of  Virginia  to  remonstrate  with  the  com- 
mandant, at  LeHoeuf  and  demand  his  withdrawa'. 
The  latter  proceeding  was  entirely  futile,  as  was 
doubtless  expected,  and  the  next  spring  the  French 
went  down  with  a  heavy  force,  drove  away  the  little 
garrison  4xt  the  forks  of  the  Ohio,  and  built  a  fort 
there  which  they  called  Fort  Duquesne.  Thus  the 
chain  of  posts  was  complete,  and  for  the  first  time 
Cuyahoga  county  was  fully  inclosed  within  the  French 
lines.  The  same  year  another  fort  was  built  on  the 
Sandusky.  About  the  same  period,  perhaps  a  little 
earlier,  a  French  post  of  some  kind  vvas  established 
on  the  Cuyahoga.  It  is  shown  on  Lewis  Evans'  majj, 
of  1755,  as  a  "French  house,"  five  or  six  miles  up  the 
river  on  the  west  side.  The  language  would  indicate 
a  trading-house,  but  it  was  probably  sufficiently  for- 
tified to  resist  a  sudden  attack  of  hostile  Indians. 
This  was  the  first  European  establishment  within  the 
limits  of  Cuyahoga  county. 

By  this  time  all  the  colonies  were  much  excited, 
and  a  meeting  of  their  representatives — ^the  first 
American  congress — was  held  at  Albany  to  devise 
some  means  of  united  action  against  the  common  en- 
emy. Benjamin  Franklin,  a  delegate  from  Pennsyl- 
vania, proposed  a  plan  of  union  among  the  colonies, 
which,  however,  was  not  adopted.  Immediately 
afterwards  Franklin,  in  his  paper  at  Philadelphia, 
proposed  a  plan  for  defending  the  frontiers.  Two 
joint-stock  companies  were  to  be  formed,  each  share- 
holder in  which  was  to  receive  a  certain  number  of 
acres  of  land  from  the  government;  one  of  the  com- 
panies being  bound  to  plant  a  colony  on  the  JSIiagara 
frontier,  and  the  other  to  establish  one  norlh  of  the 
Ohio.  For  the  protection  of  the  latter  he  pioposed 
a  temporary  fort  on  French  creeek,  and  another  at  the 
month  of  the  "  Tioga"  [Cuyahoga]  on  the  south  side 
of  Lake  Erie,  "  where  a  post  should  be  formed  and  a 



town  erected  for  the  trade  of  the  lake."  This  was, 
so  far  as  kuowD,  the  first  suggestion  ever  made  look- 
ing to  the  building  of  a  town  on  the  site  of  Cleve- 

But  Franklin's  plan  necessitated  that  the  govern- 
ment should  first  drive  the  French  away  from  the 
head-waters  of  tlie  Ohio  and  the  south  shore  of  Lake 
Erie,  and  this  was  a  very  difiicalt  thing  to  do.  When 
it  should  be  accomplished  the  problem  of  defending 
tlie  frontiers  would  have  been  substantially  solved, 
whether  the  proposed  colonies  were  established  or 

In  that  year  (1754)  Washington,  by  attacking  a 
French  party  which  was  spying  around  his  camp, 
struck  the  first  overt  blow  in  the  most  important  war 
which  had  yet  been  waged  in  America.  The  French 
rallied  their  numerous  friends  among  i^ie  western  In- 
dians, and  these  came  gliding  down  the  lake  in 
canoes,  resplendent  in  war-paint  and  feathers,  ready 
to  aid  their  great  father,  the  king  of  France.  Some 
went  to  Presqa'  Isle  (Erie),  and  thence  to  the  posts 
in  the  interior,  but  some  went  np  the  Cuyahoga  to 
the  "  French  house,"  thence  to  the  portage,  and  so 
on  direct  to  Fort  Duquesne. 

In  1755,  a  crowd  of  these  western  savages  defeated 
the  disciplined  army  of  Braddock,  and  the  valley  of 
the  Oliio  and  the  shores  of  Lake  Brie  appeared  to  be 
more  firmly  fixed  than  ever  in  the  power  of  the 
French.  Their  grasp  was  loosened  in  1758,  when 
Fort  Duquesne  was  surrendered  to  General  Forbes, 
but  was  by  no  means  entirely  relinquished.  The  next 
year,  at  tlie  same  time  that  Wolfe  was  seeking  glory 
and  a  grave  under  the  walls  of  Quebec,  General 
Prideaux  and  Sir  William  Johnson,  with  a  considera- 
ble force  of  English,  Provincials  and  Iroquois,  came 
to-  besiege  Fort  Niagara,  justly  considered  the  key  of 
the  whole  upper-lake  region.  Again  the  western  In- 
dians were  called  on,  and  again  they  hastened  down 
the  lake  to  the  assistance  of  their  French  brethren. 

D'Aubrey,  the  commander  at  Venango,  gathered 
all  he  could  of  both  white  and  red,  and  hastened  to 
the  relief  of  Niagara.  He  was  utterly  defeated  and 
captured,  however,  close  to  the  walls  of  that  post, 
and  the  fort  itself  was  immediately  surrendered  to 
the  English.  When  this  news  came  westward,  fol- 
lowed quickly  by  the  intelligence  of  the  fall  of  Quebec, 
the  few  remaining  Frenchmen  along  the  lakes  sadly 
foreboded  the  speedy  transfer  of  this  broad  domain  to 
the  power  of  the  hated  English.  In  September  of 
the  next  year  (17G0),  the  Marquis  de  Vandreuil,  gov- 
ernor-general of  Canada,  surrendered  that  province 
to  the  English,  including  all  the  forts  of  the  western 
country.  This  ended  the  long  contest  for  dominion 
over  the  territory  of  northern  Ohio,  for  no  one  could 
doubt  that,  with  the  French  once  subdued,  the  Eng- 
lisli  wpuld  bp  the  virtual  lords  of  the  whole  country, 
although  they  might  permit  the  various  tribes  of  In- 
dians to  assert  a  nominal  ownership. 



Major  Rogers  and  his  Rangers  sent  to  Detroit— The  Command  at  the 
"Chogage"— Location  of  that  Stream— A  Band  of  Ottawas— Question 
as  to  the  presence  of  Pontiac— Rogers'  description  of  the  Meeting,  and 
of  subsequent  Events— Sir  William  Johnson  at  the  Cuyahoga— First 
British  Vessel  on  Lake  Erie— Conspiracy  of  Pontiac— Wilkins'  Expe- 
dition-Location of  the  Disaster  which  befell  it— Bradstreet's  Expedi- 
tion—Its arrival  in  Cuyahoga  County— Description  of  the  Scene— The 
Command  proceeds  up  the  Lake— Its  Return-^ Wreck  of  the  Flotilla- 
Location  of  that  Event— Destruction  of  Boats— Putnam  and  his  Men 
return  on  Foofr-Eelics  found  near  Rocky  River- A  Mound  full  of 
Bones— Query  regarding  its  Occupants— Subsequent  Events— Hard- 
ships of  Early  Navigation— Ohio  annexed  to  the  Province  of  Quebec- 
Lord  Dunmore's  War— The  Revolution— Indian  Forays— Murder  of 
Moravian  Indians— Meeting  of  Commissioners  to  negotiate  Peace- 
Proposition  to  give  Ohio  to  Great  Britain— Its  Defeat— Duration  of 
English  Dominion. 

As  soon  as  the  surrender  of  Canada  had  been  en- 
forced, the  British  commander-in-chief.  Gen.  Amherst, 
felt  that  it  was  important  to  send  a  body  of  troops 
immediately  to  take  possession  of  the  western  French 
posts,  especially  of  Detroit,  which  had  been  looked 
on  as  the  headquarters  of  French  power  on  the  upper 
lakes  by  numerous  warlike  tribes,  who.  would  hardly 
.believe  that  England  was  victorious  as  long  as  they 
saw  the. Gallic  flag  flying  from  the  battlements  of 
that  fortress.  He  selected  for  that  purpose  the 
force  reported  to  be  the  bravest  body  of  partisans  in 
the  Anglo-American  army— the  celebrated  New  Hamp- 
shire Rangers,  commanded  by  their  renowned  leader. 
Major  Robert  Rogers.  Major  Rogers  had  served 
throughout  the  war  which  was  just,  closing,  usually 
having  a  separate  force  with  which  he  operated 
against  the  Indians  or  annoyed  the  French,  and  act- 
ing much  of  the  time  in  concert  with  Israel  Putnam, 
of  Connecticut,  whose  fame  as  a  partisan  was  second 
only  to  his  own;  each  of  them  having  done  more  daring 
deeds  and  experienced  more  hair-breadth  escapes  than 
would  suffice  to  fill  a  volume. 

This  hardy  backwoods  leader,  with  his  battalion  of 
"Rangers,"'  set  out  from  Fort  Niagara  in  October, 
1760.  The  command  moved  up  the- Niagara  and  set 
forth-  upon  Lake  Erie  in  the  large  bateaux,  holding 
fifty  men  each,  with  which  white  troops  usually  navi- 
gated the  great  lakes  at  that  period.  On  the  7th  of 
November  the  battalion  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  a 
river  which  Rogers!,  in  his  published  journal,  calls  the 
"Chogage."  It  has  generally  been  assumed  that  this 
was  the  Cuyahoga,  but  we  agree  with  Col.  Whittlesey, 
the  author  of  the  Early  History  of  Cleveland,  in  think- 
ing that  it  was  much  more  probably  the  "Cheraga," 
as  the  Grand  river  was  then  called,  according  to  the 
old  maps;  a  name  which  haa  since  become  Geauga. 
Major  Rogers,  in  his  journal,  gave  the  distances  which 
he  sailed  nearly  every  day,  and  these,  as  stated  after 
he  left  Presqu'Isle  (Erie),  would  bring  him  just  about 
to  Grand  river.  "Chogage"  is  much  more  like 
Chei-aga  than  it  is  like  Cuyahoga  or  Canahogue,  and 
as  the  Cuyahoga  river  was  one  of  the  best  known 
streams  ih'the  western  country,  and  was  laid  down 



on  all  the  maps  of  this  region,  it  is  certainly  strange 
if  Major  Eogera,  a  man  of  marked  intelligence,  did  not 
know  its  name  and  location. 

At  this  point  Eogers  met  a  band  of  Attawawa  {Ot- 
tawa) Indians,  just  arrived  from  Detroit.  In  Rogers' 
"Journal,"  published  in  1765,  nothing  is  said  of  Pon- 
tiac  or  any  other  celebrated  chief  as  being  present  on 
this  occasion,  but  in  his  "  Concise  Account  of  the 
War,"  also  published  in  1765,  it  is  stated  that  Pontiac 
was  the  leader  of  the  party  and  that  he  haughtily 
forbade  the  English  from  proceeding.  Rogers  was  a 
good  deal  of  an  adventurer,  and  some  have  imagined 
that  after  Pontiac  became  celebrated  the  major  added 
the  account  of  their  meeting  to  give  interest  to  his 
story.  It  is,  however,  one  of  those  discrepancies 
which  indicate  truth  rather  than  falsehood.  If  Major 
Rogers  had  interpolated  the, account  of  Pontiac,  he 
would  have  carefully  made  his  two  books  harmonize 
on  that  point;  they  being  both,  as  we  have  said,  pub- 
lished in  the  same  year.  It  has  been  suggested  that, 
as  the  Cuyahoga  was  the  eastern  boundary  of  Ponti- 
ac's  territory,  he  would  not  have  halted  Rogers  at 
Grand  river.  But  it  should  always  be  remembered 
that  Indian  boundaries  are  not  as  clearly  defined  as 
those  of  the  white  man;  and  though  the  Cuyahoga  was 
generally  considered  the  boundary  between  the  Iro- 
quois and  the  western  Indians,  yet  the  old  maps  show 
an  Ottawa  village  on  the  east  side  of  that  stream,  in 
the  present  township  of  Independence;  so  it  may  well 
be  that  the  haughty  Pontiac  claimed  as  far  east  as 
Grand  river  or  even  farther.  We  may  add  that  the 
great  authority  of  Parkman  is  decidedly  in  favor  of 
the  credibility  of  Rogers'  account. 

According  to  that  account  the  first  delegation  of 
Indians  informed  the  major  that  the  great  chief, 
Pontiac,  was  not  far  off,  and  requested  him  to  wait 
until  that  dignitary  could  see  "  with  his  own  eyes" 
the  Anglo-American  commander.  Accordingly  Pon- 
tiac soon  met  Rogers,  demanded  his  business,  and 
asked  him  how  he  dared  to  enter  that  country  without 
his,  Pontiac's,  permission.  Rogers  acswei-ed  that  he 
had  no  design  against  the  Indians,  but  should  remove 
the  French,  the  common  enemy  of  both  the  whites 
and  the  Indians,  at  the  same  time  giving  a  belt  of 
wampum.     Pontiac  said: 

"I  stand  in  the  patli  you  travel  in  until  to-morrow 
morning ;"  thus  forbidding  the  Americans  to  proceed, 
and  emphasizing  the  command  by  the  presentation  of 
a  wampum  belt.     Rogers  continues: 

"When  he  departed  for  the  night  he  inquired 
whether  I  wanted  anything  that  his  country  afforded, 
and  he  would  send  for  it.  I  assured  him  that  any 
provisions  they  brought  should  be  paid  for,  and  the 
next  day  we  were  supplied  by  them  with  several  bags 
of  parched  corn  and  some  other  necessaries.  At  onr_ 
second  mjeetjng  he  gave  me  the  pipe  of  peace,  and 
both  of  u«  hy  turns  smoked  with  it,  and  he  assured 
me  he  had  made  peace  with  me  and  my  detachment; 
that  I  migb*  pas*  Ma-ough  his  country  unmolested, 
and  relieve  th«  French  garrison,  and  that  he  would 

protect  me  and  my  party  from  any  insults  that  might 
be  offered  or  intended  by  Indians;  and  as  an  earnest 
of  his  friendship  he  sent  a  hundred  warriors  to  pro- 
tect and  assist  us  in  driving  a  hundred  fat  cattle, 
which  we  had  brought  for  the  use  of  the  detachment 
from  Pittsburg  by  the  way  of  Presqu'  Isle  [Erie]. 
He  likewise  sent  to  the  Indian  towns  on  the  south 
side  and  west  end  of  Lake  Erie,  to  inform  them  that 
I  had  his  consent  to  come  into  the  country.  He  at- 
tended me  constantly  after  this  interview  till  I  ar- 
rived at  Detroit,  and  while  I  remained  in  the  country, 
and  was  the  means  of  preserving  the  detachment 
from  the  fury  of  the  Indians,  who  had  assembled  at 
the  mouth  of  the  strait,  with  an  intent  to  cut  us  off. 
I  had  several  conferences  with  him,  in  which  he  dis- 
played great  strength  of  judgment  and  a  thirst  after 

Rogers  was  detained  at  "Chogage"  by  contrary 
winds  until  the  12th  of  November,  when  he  made  a 
run,  which  he  estimated  at  forty-one  miles,  to  "Elk 
river."  This  was  probably  Rocky  river,  though  the 
old  maps  show  Elk  river  east  of  the  Cuyahoga.  Those 
maps  were  made  from  vague  reports,  and  though  they 
showed  the  names  of  the  principal  streams  they  fre- 
quently confused  the  localities.  The  distance  from 
"  Chogage"  (Cheraga,  Geauga  or  Grand  river)  was  so 
great  that  Rogers'  next  stopping  place  could  not  pos- 
sibly have  been  Chagrin  river,  and  the  Cuyahoga  was 
too  well  known  to  be  mistaken.  From  Rocky  river 
the  adventurous  major,  with  his  battalion  of  daring 
partisans,  seasoned  in  a  score  of  desperate  conflicts 
with  the  savages,  proceeded  up  the  lake  to  remove  the 
principal  emblem  of  French  dominion  in  the  iipper- 
lake  region,  while  the  Ottawa  chiefs,  preserving  their 
friendly  demeanor,  continued  in  the  somewhat  un- 
wonted task  of  escorting  the  detachment  which  drove 
the  cattle  along  the  shore. 

Rogers  reached  Detroit  in  safety,  and  took  posses- 
sion of  it  in  the  name  of  King  George  the  Second, 
and  for  a  time  it  seemed  as  if  all  the  tribes  of  the 
West  were  willing  to  acknowledge  the  supremacy  of 
the  British.  The  next  year  Sir  William  Johnson 
went  to  Detroit,  to  aid  in  attaching  the  western  In- 
dians to  the  English  crown  by  the  same  arts  by  which 
he  had  gained  such  a  powerful  influence  over  the 
Iroquois.  He  returned  by  the  south  side  of  the  lake, 
(which  seems  to  have  been  a  favorite  route,  although 
the  one  along  the  north  side  was  the  shortest),  and 
mentions  his  preparations  to  stop  at  the  Cuyahoga; 
showing,  as  before  stated,  that  that  was  a  well  known 

It  was  in  1762,  as  near  as  can  be  ascertained,  that 
the  first  British  vessel  sailed  upon  Lake  Erie;  a 
schooner  called  the  "Gladwyn,"  designed  to  carry 
supplies  to  the  posts  on  the  upper  lakes. 

Meanwhile  the  western  Indians,  including  per- 
haps some  of  the  westernmost  tribes  of  the  Iroquois, 
had  been  all  the  while  growing  more  hostile  to  the 
English,  partly  on  account  of  jjheir  attachment  to  the 
defeated  Fi'ench,  partly  from  jealousy  of  the  rapid 



progress  of  the  English,  and  partly,  probably,  from 
disgust  at  the  haughty  ways  of  the  conquerors,  never 
as  adroit  as  the  French  in  the  management  of  bar- 
barous tribes.  A  wide-spreading  conspiracy  was 
skillfully  organized  by  Pontiac,  which  in  the  spring 
of  1763  developed  itself  in  simultaneous  attacks  on 
all  the  principal  English  posts. 

While  that  able  though  ferocious  leader  fiercely 
assaulted  Detroit  with  his  Ottaioas,  other  tribes  came 
hurrying  down  the  lake  to  attempt  the  capture  of 
Fort  Pitt,  and  still  others  united  with  the  Senecas  in 
besieging  Fort  Niagara.  But,  though  nine  smaller 
posts  were  surprised  and  their  garrisons  massacred, 
the  three  just  named  withstood  all  the  attempts  of 
their  foes.  In  the  summer  Major  Rogers,  who  had 
returned  east,  was  again  sent  up  the  lake  with  a  de- 
tachment of  provincials,  to  aid  the  garrison  of  De- 
troit. Pontiac  still  maintained  the  siege,  and  in  the 
autumn  another  force  of  some  six  hundred  regulars, 
under  Major  Wilkins,  proceeded  to  the  relief  of  the 
beleaguered  post.  This  force  was  wrecked  on  their 
way  up,  the  artillery  was  lost,  seventy-three  oiBcers 
and  men  were  drowned,  and  the  remainder  returned 
to  Fort  Niagara. 

It  has  been  strenuously  argued  that  this  mishap 
occurred  near  Rocky  river,  in  this  county,  but  after 
a  careful  examination  of  the  facts,  we  have  no  hesita- 
.  tion  in  deciding  that  it  was  on  the  north  shore  of  the 
lake.  The  place  mentioned  in  contemporary  records 
as  being  the  scene  of  the  disaster  was  "Point  aux 
Pins"  (Point  of  Pines),  a  well  known  locality  in  the 
district  of  Kent,  Canada  West,  which  is  mentioned 
on  several  of  the  old  maps  by  the  same  appellation. 
Besides,  if  Bradstreet's  disaster,  which  occurred  the 
next  year  at  that  point,  had  been  at  the  same  place 
as  that  which  befell  Wilkins,  some  of  the  contempo- 
rary writers  would  undoubtedly  have  said  so. 

Pontiac  finally  raised  the  siege  of  Detroit,  but  still 
maintained  a  hostile  attitude  toward  the  English. 
In  the  spring  of  1764  it  was  determined  to  send  a 
sutiicient  force  up  the  lake  to  awe  the  western  Indians 
into  subjection.  Tliis  expedition  was  placed  under 
the  command  of  Colonel  (commonly  called  General) 
Bradstreet,  a  native  of  Massaeliusetts,  who  had  been 
quartermaster-general  of  the  Northern  army  in  several 
of  its  most  important  campaigns,  and  who  was  gen- 
erally considered  one  of  the  ablest  and  most  enterpris- 
ing officers  in  the  service. 

After  a  long  halt  at  Fort  Niagara,  to  compel  the 
adhesion  of  the  reluctant  Senecas,  the  command  came 
up  the  lake,  reaching  the  borders  of  Cuyahoga  coun- 
ty in  August. 

Colonel  Bradstreet  commanded  the  largest  force  of 
white  men  which  had  yet  appeared  on  Lake  Erie,  be- 
sides a  considerable  number  of  Indians.  They  made 
a  gay  and  formidable  appearance  as  they  swept  up 
the  lake,  the  white  men  in  their  great,  open  bateaux, 
holding  forty  or  fifty  men  each,  with  sails  spread  to 
catch  the  favoring  breeze;  the  red  men  in  a  cloud  of 
light  canoes,  each  burdened  with  but  three  or  four 

warriors,  and  swiftly  propelled  through  the  water  by 
the  paddles  of  its  inmates. 

It  was  one  of  those  motley  but  picturesque  bands,  so 
common  in  those  early  wars,  which  harmonized  well 
with  the  wilderness  through  which  they  were  often 
called  to  pass,  and  it  presented  more  to  interest  the 
eye  and  the  imagination  than  might  a  far  larger  and 
better  disciplined  army.  Three  hundred  and  fifty  of 
the  number  were  veteran  soldiers  of  the  seventeenth 
and  fifty-fifth  regiments  of  British  regulars,  clad  in 
their  brilliant,  scarlet  uniforms,  ofiicered  by  the  eliie 
of  the  aristocracy,  and  trained  to  obey  every  word  of 
command  with  more  than  religious  zeal. 

Beside  them  were  three  battalions  of  provincial 
troops  from  New  York,  New  Jei'sey  and  Connecticut, 
numbering  nearly  eight  hundred  in  all,  less  brilliantly 
clad  and  less  rigidly  disciplined  than  their  English 
companions,  but  by  no  means  to  be  confounded  with 
ordinary  militiamen.  Nearly  all  of  them  had  seen 
hard  service  in  the  many  campaigns  of  the  previous 
ten  years,  had  shown  themselves  no  unworthy  foes  of 
the  soldiers  of  King  Louis,  and  in  combats  with 
the  Indians  were  more  than  equal  to  the  red-coated 
musketeers  of  England.  At  the  head  of  the  Connect- 
icut battalion  was  that  sturdy  farmer-soldier,  then  a 
little  over  forty  years  of  age,  already  renowned  as  one 
of  the  most  valiant  Indian-fighters  on  the  continent, 
the  companion  or  rival  of  Rogers  in  half  a  dozen 
desperate  campaigns,  and  afterwards  destined  to  still 
wider  fame  as  Major  General  Israel  Putman,  of  the 
army  of  the  Revolution. 

Besides  these  soldiers  of  Caucasian  blood,  the  water 
was  covered  by  a  swarm  of  bark  canoes,  where  gleamed 
beneath  the  August  sun  the  knives,  the  tomahawks 
and  the  naked,  copper- colored  bodies  of  a  thousand 
warriors,  gathered  from  nearly  all  the  tribes  of  the 
east  to  aid  in  the  subjugation  of  their  contumacious 
western  brethren.     Here  were   Mohawks,    Oneidas, 
Onondagas,   Cayugas,  Tuscaroras,  Conawagas,  Nan- 
ticoTces,  Stoclcbridges,  Oquagas,  and  even  a  few  Otta- 
was  from  Canada,  ready  to  make  war  on  their  coun- 
trymen   and    their   great  chieftain,    Pontiac.     The 
largest  body,  however,  from  any  tribe  was  composed 
of  three  hundred  scowling   Senecas,  who  had  only 
been  persuaded  to  join  by  the  mingled  threats  of 
Bradstreet  and  persuasions  of  Sir  William  Johnson 
(who  had  accompanied  the  expedition  as  far  as  Fort 
Niagara),  and  who  had  only  the  previous  year  per- 
petrated the  terrible  massacre  of  the  "Devil's  Hole," 
on  the  bank  of  the  Niagara,  when  nearly  a  hundred 
English  soldiers  were  surprised  and  slain  in  a  few 
terrible  moments.    They  could  hardly  have  been  very 
reliable  allies  of  the  British,  and  were  probably  re- 
quired to  accompany  the  expedition  rather  as  hostages 
for  their  brethren  at  home  than  for  any  other  pur- 

Colonel  Bradstreet,  as  has  before  been  stated,  had 
been  considered  one  of  the  very  ablest  and  most  en- 
terprising commanders  in  the  service  durino-  the 
French   war,    but    he    was    singularly    unfortunate 



throughout  this  expedition.  He  was  believed  to  have 
been  deceived  by  a  treaty  he  made  with  the  Indians 
at  Presqu'  Isle.  When  he  readied  Sandusky  bay  he 
could  neither  persuade  the  hostile  Indians  of  the 
Scioto  plains  to  come  to  him  and  make  a  treaty,  nor 
could  he,  for  lack  of  transportation,  go  to  them  and 
conquer  them.  He  next  proceeded  to  Detroit,  where 
perhaps  the  appearance  of  so  large  a  force  had  a  good 
effect  on  the  lingering  followers  of  Pontiac,  and  then 
returned  to  Sandusky  bay. 

On  the  18th  of  October  he  re-embarked  his  men  to 
return  east,  refusing  to  wait  even  a  few  hours  for 
some  who  were  absent  from"  camp.  Within  a  day  or 
two  after  leaving  Sandusky  bay  the  boats  were  drawn 
up  at  night  along  an  open  beach,  on  which  the  men 
made  their  bivouac.  During  the  night  a  storm  arose, 
drove  the  boats  ashore,  destroyed  a  large  portion  of 
them,  and  caused  the  loss  of  a  great  part  of  the  pro- 
visions and  ammunition. 

The  locality  of  this  disaster  was,  beyond  all  reason- 
able doubt,  at  "McMahon's  beach,"  in  the  town  of 
Eockport,  in  this  county,  stretching  from  one  to  three 
miles  west  of  Eocky  river,  and  being  from  eight  to 
ten  miles  west  of  Cleveland.  The  description  of  the 
locality  corresponds  with  that  given  in  contemporary 
accounts,  though  these  are  not  very  definite,  and 
moreover  there  have  been  an  immense  number  of 
military  relics  found  in  that  vicinity  which  could  not 
have  come  from  any  other  source  than  Bradstreet's 
unfortunate  flotilla.  The  principal  of  these  relics  are 
described  in  an  elaborate  paper  by  the  late  Dr.  J.  P. 
Kirtland,  which  is  published  entire  in  Colonel  Whit- 
tlesey's History  of  Cleveland,  and  of  which  we  avail 
ourselves  liberally  and  thankfully  in  this  chapter. 

Some  have  attributed  the  disaster  to  the  obstinacy 
of  Bradstreet,  who  insisted  on  drawing  up  his  boats 
opposite  tlie  beach  and  lauding  there,  in  opposition 
to  the  protests  of  his  more  experienced  officers.  Sir 
William  Johnson,  in  a  letter  to  General  Gage,  im- 
putes the  misfortune  to  Bradstreet's  relying  on  a 
French  pilot,  of  Detroit,  who  was  suspected  of  betray- 
ing an  English  officer— Captain  Dalzell — into  an  In- 
dian ambuscade  the  year  before.  The  man  may  have 
been  treacherous,  but  the  fact  is  hardly  proven  by 
his  failing  to  navigate  Lake  Erie  with  a  fleet  of  ba- 
teaux and  canoes.  The  wonder  is  that  so  many  of 
those  old  navigators  in  such  vessels  escaped  destruc- 

Parkman's  account  says  the  storm  raged  three 
days,  but  some  part  of  this  had  probably  spent  its 
force  before  the  flotilla  drew  up  opposite  McMahon's 
beach.  If  it  liad  been  beaten  against  the  land  during 
that  period,  there  would  hardly  have  been  a  single 
boat  left.  As  it  was,  twenty-five  bateaux  (half  of 
the  whole  number)  were  destroyed,  and  most  of  the 
ammunition  and  baggage  was  lost. 

Bradstreet  proceeded  to  make  the  best  arrange- 
ments he  could  for  continuing  his  return  home.  His 
six  brass  field-pieces  were  buried  on  the  shore,  as  Sir 
William  complained,  "  in  the  sight  of  ye  French  vil- 

lain," who,  he  feared,  would  cause  them  to  be  dug 
up  by  the  Indians  and  used  against  Detroit.  The  re- 
maining boats  being  too  few  to  carry  all  the  men, 
the  commandant  directed  a  hundred-  and  seventy 
rangers,  under  the  command  of  Lieutenant  Colonel 
Putnam,  to  march  along  the  shore  of  the  lake  and 
river  to  Fort  Niagara,  while  the  main  body  of  the 
army  proceeded  by  boat  to  the  same  place. 

Among  the  numerous  relics  described  by  Dr.  Kirt- 
land, interesting  of  themselves,  and  also  as  proving 
beyond  doubt  the  locality  of  Bradstreet's  disaster,  we 
will  mention  the  following ;  some  being  found  at  Mc- 
Mahon's beach,  and  some  in  the  immediate  vicinity 
of  Eocicy  river,  a  mile  or  two  farther  down.  The 
discovery  of  these  at  the  latter  point  led  Dr.  Potter  to 
believe  that  Major  Wilkins'  expedition  was  wrecked 
there,  but,  as  before  stated,  there  is  no  reasonable 
doubt  but  what  that  disaster  occurred  on  the  north 
shore  of  Lake  Erie,  and  it  is  of  course  probable  in  the 
highest  degi-ee  that  some  of  Bradstreet's  boats  would 
be  carried  down  to  the  mouth  of  the  river  before  they 
broke  up. 

An  elaborately  finished  sword  was  thrown  on  the 
beach  fronting  the  right  bank  of  Eocky  river  in  1820, 
whicb  was  picked  up  by  Orin  Joiner,  a  member  of 
the  family  of  Datus  Kelley.  The  top  of  the  hilt  was 
a  large  lion's  head  of  pure  silver,  of  which  metal  the 
guard  was  also  composed.  The  silver  was  melted 
down  by  a  Cleveland  goldsmith  to  whom  the  sword 
was  sold.  Dr.  Potter  supposes  the  lion's  head  to 
have  been  an  ensign  of  the  naval  service,  but  the  de- 
tailed report  of  the  forces  employed  on  the  expedi- 
tion does  not  show  that  any  belonged  to  the  navy. 
There  were  seventy-four  "bateau-men,"  but  these 
were  landsmen  hired  by  Bradstreet,  and  organized  in 
a  corps  to  navigate  the  vessels  from  which  they  took 
their  name. 

In  1843,  the  bow-stem  of  a  large  bateau  was  thrown 
upon  the  beach,  after  a  storm  which  tore  up  the  sand- 
bank that  extends  from  the  east  side  of  the  mouth  of 
the  river  into  the  lake.  The  wood  was  thoroughly 
water-soaked  and  partly  covered  with  acjuatic  moss, 
the  irons  were  deeply  rusted,  and  the  whole  had  evi- 
dently been  long  imbedded  in  the  sand.  Numerous 
pieces  of  muskets,  bayonets,  guns,  flints,  etc.,  were 
also  brought  to  the  surface  of  the  sand-bank,  or 
thrown  on  shore,  by  the  same  storm.  Mr.  Frederick 
Wright  drew  in  six  bayonets  with  his  seine  in  one 
night,  a  short  time  afterwards. 

At  the  mouth  of  "McMahon's  run"  the  irons  and 
the  remnants  of  a  bateau  were  found  by  the  first 
settlers  of  the  township.  Several  years  later  two 
six-pound  cannon-balls  and  a  number  of  musket-balls 
became  exposed  by  the  action  of  the  lake  at  the  foot 
of  a  clay  cliS  at  the  west  end  of  the  bottom-lands. 
This  is  supposed  to  have  been  the  place  where  Brad- 
street buried  his  cannon  and  ammunition. 

About  1831,  a  young  daughter  of  Datus  Kelley 
found  in  the  sand  of  McMahon's  beach  a  silver  spoon 
of  heavy  make  and  coarse  workmanship,  evidently 



dating  from  the  last  century.  It  doubtless  belonged 
to  one  of  Bradstreet's  officers,  as  did  also  another 
of  the  same  description,  found  by  Oscar  Taylor  in 
1851.  Numerous  bayonets  and  pieces  of  muskets 
were  also  thrown  by  the  surf  upon  the  beach,  which 
were  collected  by  the  families  of  Governor  Wood  and 
Colonel  Merwin. 

Of  still  greater  interest  is  a  bayonet  which  remained 
until  its  discovery,  some  twenty  years  ago,  imbedded 
in  the  blue  clay  of  the  bank  of  a  gully  on  the  farm  of 
Colonel  Merwin,  where  it  had  evidently  been  driven 
to  its  base  by  a  soldier,  to  helj^  himself  and  his  com- 
rades up  the  steep  ascent.  On  the  upland  just  above 
the  beach,  the  early  settlers  found  a  stack  of  bayonets 
covered  with  soil  and  vegetation,  just  as  they  had  been 
piled  by  a  squad  of  tired  soldiers 'after  they  had  as- 
cended the  bank. 

We  are  able,  too,  to  follow  the  track  of  Putnam  and 
his  men  for  a  short  distance,  with  reasonable  certainty, 
as  they  started  on  their  tedious  journey  through  the 
forest.  They  appear  to  have  followed  a  ridge  leading 
from  the  vicinity  of  McMahon's  beach  to  the  crossing 
of  Rocky  river,  near  the  plank-road  bridge.  On  this 
ridge,  near  the  residence  of  Frederick  Wright,  one  of 
the  soldiers  threw  down  nearly  a  peck  of  gun-flints, 
which  were  found  there  sixteen  or  eighteen  years  ago 
by  the  gentleman  just  named.  By  their  being  aban- 
doned so  early  on  the  journey,  it  is  probable  that  it 
was  done  by  Putnam's  order,  who  foresaw  that  his 
men  were  less  likely  to  run  out  of  flints  than  they 
were  to  fail  in  strength  on  the  wearisome  march. 

Farther  cast,  along  the  ridge,  a  silver  teaspoon,  re- 
sembling those  already  mentioned,  was  found  at  the 
first  plowing  of  the  grovxnd  afterwards  occupied  by 
the  orchard  of  John  Williams.  Still  farther  on,  in 
the  garden  of  the  Patchen  Inn,  Mr.  Silverthorn  in 
1863  found  three  or  four  dollars  in  small  silver 
pieces,  of  French  and  English  coinage,  all  of  earlier 
date  than  1764.  It  is  difiicult  to  account  for  them 
except  on  the  theory  that  one  of  Putnam's  officers  or 
men  threw  ofE  some  article  of  clothing  there,  and  in 
his  fatigue  and  perplexity  neglected  to  remove  this 
money  from  the  pockets.  Iq  186.3,  Mr.  P.  A.  Delford 
also  discovered,  near  the  plank-road  gate,  two  copper 
pennies,  bearing  the  date  of  1749  and  the  face  of 
George  the  Second. 

In  this  account  we  have  not  only  followed  the  de- 
scription given  by  Dr.  Potter,  (condensing  it  to  some 
exteat),  but  have  adopted  his  views  in  regard  to  the 
course  of  events  thus  far,  except  as  to  the  wreck  of 
Major  Wilkin's  expedition.  We  have  more  doubts, 
however,  as  to  his  theory  that  the  contents  of  a  mound 
in  that  vicinity  were  the  bones  of  Bradstreet's  soldiers, 
drowned  in  the  disaster  of  October,  1764.  All  the 
contemporary  reports  say  that  no  lives  were  lost,  and 
this  corresponds  with  the  usual  account  of  the  event, 
according  to  which  the  boats  were  drawn  up  along 
the  shore  and  the  men  landed,  and  then  the  storm 
destroyed  the  boats.  This  would  certainly  give  the 
men  a  chance  to  escape,  and  there  is  no  reasonable 

doubt  that  they  did  escape.  Dr.  Potter  notices  a 
memorandum  that  "  the  losses  of  officers  and  men  by 
the  wreck  was  made  the  subject  of  legislative  action," 
and  thence  conclndes  that  many  were  drowned;  but 
this  statement  evidently  refers  to  the  "losses"  of 
property  by  the  officers  and  men.  Othei'wise  the 
word  "loss"  would  have  been  used. 

The  mound  in  question  was  located  a  hundred  and 
fifty  feet  east  of  the  plank-road  bridge  across  Rocky 
river,  being,  when  the  land  was  cleared,  about  a  rod 
square  and  rising  two  or  three  feet  above  the  adjacent 
ground.     The  covering  was  so  thin  that  the  bones 
could  easily  be  reached  by  a  spade,  and  many  bones 
were  scattered  about  the  surface.     About  1850  Mr. 
Worden  attempted  to  plow  through  it,  but  found  so 
many  bones,  and  especially  skulls,  that  he  desisted. 
Mr.    Eaton,    who  again  plowed  into   the  mound  in 
1861,  brought  to  Dr.  Potter  two  bushels  of  bones,  in- 
cluding  a   dozen   craniums,  and  there  was   a  large 
amount  left;  the  skeletons  being  piled  in  tiers  on  top  of 
each  other,  and  the  bottom  of  the  collection  being  two 
or  three  feet  below  the  surface.     Certainly,  if  so  large 
a  number  of  Bradstreet's  soldiers  had  perished  and  been 
buried  there,  some  of  the  numerous  reports  regarding 
that  expedition  would  have  said  something  about  them. 
It  is  almost  needless  to  add  that  white  people  do  not 
bury  their  dead  on  the  top  of  the  ground,  and  heap 
up  a  thin  covering  of  earth  into  a  mound  above  them, 
especially  when  there  was  no  greater  reason  for  haste 
than  there  was  then. 

Dr.  Potter  states  that  he  explored  the  grave  to  the 
bottom;  that  the  skeletons  were  all  those  of  adult 
males;  that  he  found  several  Indian  relics  among 
them;  that  he  and  "one  of  the  most  perfect  craniolo- 
gists  of  our  country,"  pronounced  the  skulls  to  be 
those  of  Anglo-Saxons,  except  one,  which  he  believed 
to  be  that  of  an  Indian — adding,  however,  that  he 
might  be  in  error,  and  that  "all  may  be  Anglo-Saxon." 
But  if  such  errors  could  be  made,  then  all  may  have 
been  Indian,  which  they  probably  were,  judging  from 
the  character  of  the  mound,  the  articles  found  in  it, 
and  the  fact  that  there  is  no  evidence  that  any  such 
number  of  white  people  ever  died  in  that  vicinity 
previous  to  the  present  century. 

On  the  32nd  of  October  Bradstreet  camped  at 
Grand  river;  so  that  he  probably  left  Rocky  river  that 
morning.  He  arrived  with  the  main  army  at  Fort 
Niagara  on  the  4th  of  November,  and  proceeded 
thence  to  Oswego  and  Albany.  Nothing  is  known  of 
Putman  and  his  gallant  band  after  they  plunged  into 
the  forest  at  Rocky  river  save  that  they,  too,  in  time 
made  their  way  to  Fort  Niagara,  though  after  suffer- 
ing numerous  hardships.  It  was  not  until  the  latter 
part  of  December  that  the  last  of  the  provincials 
reached  their  homes. 

In  May,  1765,  the  schooner  "Victory"  was  sent  to 
get  the  cannon  left  by  Bradstreet  near  "  Riviere  aux 
Roches"  (Rocky  river),  but  was  prevented  by  bad 
weather.  As  the  authorities  were  evidently  desirous 
to  obtain  them,  there  is  every  reason  to  suppose  they 



did  so,  though  there  is  no  direct  evidence  to  that 
effect;  for  certainly  there  must  have  been  plenty  of 
weather  during  the  season  when  half  a  dozen  light 
field-pieces  could  be  loaded  on  to  a  schooner. 

For  many  years  after  these  events  very  little  oc- 
curred within  the  territory  of  Cuyahoga  county  re- 
quiring the  notice  of  history.  The  Iroquois  used  it 
as  a  hunting-ground,  and  their  war  parties  occasion- 
ally made  excursions  over  it,  or  coasted  along  its  bor- 
ders, to  attack  those  whom  they  chose  to  consider 
their  enemies  living  farther  west,  but  very  rarely,  if 
ever,  did  the  latter  venture  to  return  their  visits  and 
assail  the  flei'ce  confederates  of  New  York. 

Detachments  of  British  soldiers  also  occasionally 
passed  by  here  on  their  way  to  or  from  the  upper 
posts.  The  freight  of  the  lake  consisted  of  supplies 
for  the  military  posts,  goods  to  trade  with  the  Indians 
and  furs  received  in  return.  It  was  carried  almost 
entirely  in  open  boats,  or  bateaux,  similar  to  those 
which  bore  the  commands  of  Rogers  and  Bradstreet; 
some  of  them  going  on  the  north  side  and  some  on 
the  south  side  of  the  lake.  Of  course  the  navigation 
was  very  dangerous,  and  many  were  the  hardships  at- 
tending the  traffic.  The  New  York  Gazette  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1770,  informed  its  readers  that  several  boats 
had  been  lost  in  crossing  Lake  Erie,  and  that  the  dis- 
tress of  the  crews  was  so  great  that  they  were  obliged 
to  keep  two  human  bodies,  found  on  the  north  shore, 
so  as  to  kill  for  food  the  ravens  and  eagles  which  came 
to  feed  upon  the  corpses.  Certainly  a  most  startling 
picture  of  the  terrors  attending  the  early  commercial 
operations  on  Lake  Erie. 

In  1774  an  act  of  Parliament  declared  the  whole 
territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio  to  be  a  part  of  tlie 
province  of  Quebec,  though  without  prejudice  to  the 
rights  of  other  colonies.  Lord  Dunmore,  the  royal 
governor  of  Virginia,  however,  declared  the  act  to  be 
in  derogation  of  the  rights  of  his  province,  and  pro- 
ceeded to  grant  large  tracts  of  land  northwest  of  the 
Ohio.  For  other  reasons  the  patriot  leaders  of  the 
colonics  were  strongly  opposed  to  a  law  which  traiis- 
ferred  the  whole  Northwest  to  a  province  which  had 
no  constitutional  government,  and  was  arbitrarily 
ruled  by  the  crown. 

.  This  was  the  period  of  "Lord  Dunmore's  War,"  in 
which  the  Indians  occupying  the  present  territory  of 
Ohio,  western  Pennsylvania  and  western  Virginia, 
under  the  lead  of  the  celebrated  Logan,  were  defeated 
by  the  Virginians  at  Point  Pleasant,  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Kanawha.  It  does  not  appear  to  have  changed 
in  any  respect  the  condition  of  affairs  on  the  shores 
of  Lake  Brie. 

The  next  year  the  Revolution  broke  out,  but  this 
locality  was  too  far  from  the  frontier  to  be  the  scene 
of  any  portion  of  that  conflict.  The  nearest  Ameri- 
can settlement  was  at  Pittsburg,  the  village  which 
had  grown  up  around  Fort  Pitt,  distant  about  a  hun- 

dred and  twenty  miles  in  a  straight  line  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga.  Many  of  the  western  In- 
dians, however,  were  persuaded  to  take  arms  in  favor 
of  the  British,  mainly  by  persuasion  of  the  Frencli 
leaders  whom  they  had  long  been  accustomed  to  ad- 
mire, and  to  follow,  and  who  were  employed  by  the 
English  for  that  purpose.  War  parties  accordingly 
frequently  passed  down  the  lake;  some  going  on  to 
join  the  English  forces  in  Canada — others  turning  off 
at  the  Cuyahoga  and  going  up  its  valley,  whence 
they  made  their  stealthy  way  to  the  Ohio  and  struck 
bloody  blows  a^  the  settlers  around  Pittsburg.  The 
inspiration  of  these  expeditions  came  from  the  Brit- 
ish post  at  Detroit,  whence  the  Indians  received  arms, 
ammunition  and  presents  of  various  kinds,  to  encour- 
age them  to  continue  in  their  bloody  work. 

So  numerous  did  these  outrages  become  that  in  1778 
an  expedition  was  projected  against  Detroit,  intended 
to  break  up  the  nest  where  so  many  murders  were 
hatched.  As  preliminary  to  this  a  force  was  sent  out 
from  Pittsburg  against  the  Sandusky  Indians,  but 
it  only  went  as  far  as  the  present  county  of  Tuscara- 
was, where  Porb  Laurens  was  built,  but  abandoned  the 
next  year.  Tlie  expedition  against  Detroit  was  given 
up.  Other  attacks  upon  the  hostile  Indians  were 
made  nearly  every  year. 

In  1782  occurred  the  celebrated  murder  of  about 
a  hundred  peaceable  Moravian  Indians  in  the  teri'i- 
tory  of  Tuscarawas  county,  by  a  force  of  frontier 
militia  under  Colonel  Williamson.  After  this  shock- 
ing event  the  hostile  Indians  became  more  bitter  than 
ever,  and  many  who  had  previously  been  neutral  now 
united  with  the  infuriated  friends  of  the  murdered 

Meanwhile  the  English  had  been  taught  by  a  score 
of  defeats  that  they  could  not  conquer  America,  and 
in  1782  commissioners  met  iu  Paris  to  consider  the 
terms  of  peace.  One  of  the  most  important  ques- 
tions was  that  of  the  boundary  between  the  British 
provinces  and  the  United  States.  Commissioner  Os- 
wald, one  of  the  representatives  of  Great  Britain, 
proposed  the  Ohio  river  as  the  boundary  line;  claim- 
ing the  northwestern  territory  as  part  of  the  province 
of  Quebec  under  the  law  of  1774.  This  proposition 
was  also  secretly  favored  by  Vergcnnes,  the  French 
minister.  It  was  vehemently  opposed  by  the  Ameri- 
can commissioners,  headed  by  John  Adams,  and  the 
line  was  finally  fixed  in  the  middle  of  the  great  lakes 
and  their  connecting  rivers.  The  definite  treaty  of 
peace,  recognizing  the  independence  of  the  United 
States,  was  signed  in  the  fore  part  of  1783,  and  all 
this  region  ceased  by  law  to  be  under  English  do- 

It  will  be  seen  that  unquestioned  British  authority 
over  the  territory  of  Cuyahoga  county  only  lasted  from 
the  surrender  of  Canada  in  1760  to  the  peace  of  Paris 
in  1783 — twenty-three  years. 




THE  PEKIOD  PKOM  1783  TO  1794 

Dttention  of  Western  Posts  by  the  Briti  h— Dissensions  Among  the 
States  About  the  Northwest— Origin  of  Conflicting  Claims— The  Fii-st 
English  Charter— The  Second  Charter  for  Vh-ginia^The  Plymouth 
Charter— Annulment  of  the  Virginia  Charter— Grant  of  Massachu- 
setts by  the  Plymouth  Company-  -Grant  of  Connecticut  to  Earl  Wai'- 
wick  by  the  same  Company —Its  Boundaries— Its  Conveyance  to  Lord 
Say  and  Seal,  Lord  Brooke  and  others— The  New  Yorlc  Claim— Views 
of  Che  States  without  Claims  -New  York  first  cedes  her  Claim  to  the 
United  States— Virginia  follows— Also  Massachusetts- Connecticut 
cedes  her  Claun  to  all  but  the  Western  Reserve— The  Indian  "Right 
of  Occupancy  "—The  Ii-oquois  cede  all  East  of  the  Cuyahoga— Treaty 
with  the  Wyandots,  Delawares  and  others— First  Trade  from  Pitts- 
burg—Primitive  Engineering— Firat  House  in  Cleveland— The  Mora- 
vians in  Cuyahoga  County— Outline  of  their  Past  History — Their  Con, 
version — Their  Peaceful  Conduct — The  Massacre— Wandering  of  the 
Survivors — They  arrive  at  the  Mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga — Locate  in  the 
present  Independence— Call  their  New  Home  Pilgeri-uh— Their  Course 
dui-ing  the  Year — Speech  of  an  Apostate— Connecticut  attempts  to 
sell  the  Reserve— Wreck  of  the  "Beaver"— The  Crew  winter  on  the 
Site  of  Cleveland — The  Moravians  Leave  the  County — Their  Subse- 
quent Fortunes— Organization  of  the  Northwestern  Territory — Form- 
ation of  Washington  County — Another  Indian  Treaty — An  old  French 
Trader— Defeat  of  Harmar  and  St.  Clair— Conveyance  of  the  "  Fire- 
Lands  " — Wayne's  Victory  and  Treaty  •- 

On  the  conclusion  of  the  treaty  of  peace  the 
Americans  expected,  of  course,  to  take  immediate 
possession  of  the  posts  previously  held  by  the  British, 
lying  south  of  the  boundary  line.  The  English 
government,  however,  refused  to  give  them  up,  giv- 
ing as  an  excuse  the  alleged  unfair  conduct  of  some 
of  the  States  regarding  debts  owed  by  their  citizens 
to  British  subjects.  The  posts  at  Fort  Niagara,  at 
D(3troit  and  on  the  Sandusky  .river  were  thus  re- 
tained. The  Indians  naturally  looked  on  their  pos- 
sessors its  the  great  men  of  the  lake  region,  and  thus 
the  English  maintained  a  predominant  influence  over 
this  part  of  the  country  many  years  after  any  sem- 
blance of  legal  title  had  passed  away. 

Meanwhile,  even  during  the  Revolution,  dissensions 
had  arisen  between  the  States  regarding  the  owner- 
ship of  the  vast  country  lying  between  the  Alle- 
ganies,  the  great  lakes  and  the  Mississippi.  Several 
of  the  States  had  conflicting  claims,  based  on  royal 
charters  or  other  grounds,  while  those  who  had  no 
such  claims  insisted  that  that  unoccupied  territory 
ought  to  belong  to  all  the  States  in  common,  since  it 
had  been  rescued  from  the  power  of  Great  Britain  by 
their  united  efforts.  We  will  endeavor  to  give  a  brief 
sketch  of  the  principal  j)reteusions  put  forth  by  the 
States,  so  far  as  they  relate  to  this  locality.  An  elabo- 
rate account  of  them  all,  with  all  their  ramifications, 
would  require  a  volume. 

In  1606,  James  the  First  granted  a  charter 
to  certain  noblemen,  gentlemen  and  merchants  of 
England,  conveying  to  them  all  the  eastern  sea-coast 
of  North  America,  between  the  thirty-fourth  and 
forty-fifth  degrees  of  north  latitude;  that  portion 
between  the  thirty-fourth  and  thirty-eighth  degrees 
being  granted  to  a  company  resident  in  London 
and  vicinity,  and  that  between  the  forty-first  and 
forty-fifth  degrees  to  a  company  resident  in  the  west  of 
England,  while  both  had  the  privilege  of  establishing 
colonies  between  the  thirty-eighth  and  forty-first  de- 
grees, and  of  __  occupying  the  land  for  fifty  miles 

each  way  along  the  coast  from  the  point  of  settle- 
ment, and  fifty  miles  back.  The  western  company 
failed  to  establish  a  colony  in  the  territory  granted 
to  it.  The  London  company,  with  great  difficulty, 
succeeded  in  planting  one  in  Virginia. 

So,  in  1609,  King  James  gave  a  new  charter  to  the 
Loudon  company,  under  the  title  of  "The  Treasurer 
and  Company  of  Adventurers  and  Planters  of  the 
City  of  London  for  the  first  colony  of  Virginia."  In 
this  charter  his  majesty  granted  to  the  company  all 
Virginia,  from  Old  Point  Comfort,  at  the  outlet  of 
Chesapeake  bay,  two  hundred  miles  northward  and 
the  same  distance  southward  along  the  coast,  "and 
all  up  into  the  mainland  throughout,  from  sea  to  sea, 
west  and  northwest."  It  was  on  this  charter,  and 
this  alone,  that  Virginia  afterwards  claimed  the  great 
northwestern  territory,  giving  the  terms  "west  and 
northwest"  the  widest  range  of  whicJi  they  were 

In  1620,  King  James  gave  a  charter  to  the  "Second 
Colony  of  Virginia,"  commonly  called  the  Plymouth 
Company,  comprising  all  the  territory  between  the 
fortieth  and  forty-eighth  degrees  of  north  latitude, 
under  the  title  of  New  England,  granting  it  to  them 
"  in  length  of  and  within  all  the  breadth  aforesaid, 
throughout  all  the  mainlands,  from  sea  to  sea, 
together  with  all  the  firm  lands,  etc.,  upon  the  main, 
and  within  the  said  islands  and  seas  adjoining,"  pro- 
vided it  was  not  actually  possessed  by  any  Christian 
prince  or  State. 

In  1634  the  charter  of  the  London  or  First  Virginia 
company,  covering  Virginia  proper,  was  set  aside  and 
declared  void  by  the  English  courts,  under  a  writ  of 
quo  ivarranto,  on  account  of  the  misconduct  or  neg- 
lect of  the  proprietors.  The  next  year  King  Charles 
the  First  declared  that  the  territory  previously  cov- 
ered by  the  forfeited  charter  should  thenceforth  be 
dependent  on  him,  and  it  was  treated  and  considered 
as  a  royal  government;  the  right  of  granting  vacant 
lands  being  vested  in  the  crown.  Maryland,  Dela- 
ware, North  Carolina,  South  Carolina  and  parts  of 
Pennsylvania  and  Georgia  were  afterwards  formed 
out  of  the  territory  covered  by  the  forfeited  charter, 
without  any  protest  on  the  part  of  the  people  or  gov- 
ernment of  Virginia. 

In  1628  the  council  of  Plymouth,  in  whom,  as 
before  stated,  had  been  vested  the  title  of  New  Eng- 
land, granted  to  Governor  Endicott  and  others  all  the 
lands  from  three  miles  north  of  the  Merrimac  river  to 
three  miles  south  of  Massachusetts  Bay,  extending 
west  "from  sea  to  sea,"  except  lands  occupied  by  any 
foreign  prince  or  State.  This  became  the  province 
of  Massachusetts  bay,  which  claimed  a  territory  about 
seventy  miles  wide  and  four  thousand  miles  long, 
running  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific.  As^  how- 
ever, the  strip  in  question  would  all  go  north  of 
Cuyahoga  county,  we  need  giye  no  farther  attention 
to  it. 

In  1630  the  council  of  Plymouth  also  conveyed  to  its 
president,  Robert,  Earl  of  Warwick,  the  territory  em- 

THE  PEMOD  FROM  1783  TO  .1794. 


braced  inthe  following  description :  "All  that  part  of 
New  England  in  America  which  lies  and  extends  itself 
from  a  river  there  called  NaiTagansett  river,  the  space 
of  forty  leagues  upon  a  straight  line  near  the  sea  shore, 
towards  southwest,  west  and  by  south,  or  west,  as  the 
coast  lieth,  towai'ds  Virginia,  accounting  three  English 
miles  to  the  league;  all  and  singular,  the  lands  and 
hereditaments  whatsoever,  lying  and  being  within  the 
bounds  aforesaid,  north  and  south,  in  latitude  and 
breadth,  and  in  length  and  longitude,  and  within  all 
the  breadth  aforesaid,  throughout  all  the  main  lands 
there,  from  the  Western  ocean  to  the  South  Seas." 

In  1631,  the  territory  thus  diabolically  described 
was  conveyed  by  the  Earl  of  Warwick  to  Lord  Brooke 
and  Lord  Say  and  Seal,  and  their  associates,  who  be- 
came the  founders  of  Connecticut.  It  was  on  the 
ground  of  the  above  grant  that  Connecticut  after- 
wards claimed  the  northern  part  of  Ohio,  and  really, 
considering  the  extraordinarily  puzzling  nature  of  the 
description  just  given,  we  see  no  reason  why  that 
State  should  not  have  claimed  all  North  America  by 
the  same  title.  The  northern  limit  of  Connecticut 
was,  however,  fixed  by  the  English  authorities  at 
forty-two  degrees  and  two  minutes,  and  the  southei-n 
one  at  forty-one  degrees  north  latitude,  and  we  believe 
the  officials  of  the  colony  and'  State  translated  the 
unintelligible  lingo  of  Earl  Warwick's  deed  to  mean 
that  those  noi'thern  and  southern  limits  should  be 
extended  westward  to  the  Pacific  ocean. 

The  deed  to  Earl  Warwick  and  the  subsequent 
charter  confirming  Connecticut  in  its  political  powers 
were  never  annulled  nor  forfeited,  and  were  the  foun- 
dation of  Connecticut's  claim,  not  only  to  northern 
Ohio,  but  to  the  celebrated  Wyoming  valley  in  Penn- 
sylvania, where  many  bitter  and  even  bloody  contests 
took  place  before  the  Revolution,  between  the  factions 
of  the  two  States  just  named. 

Moreover,  New  York  had  a  claim  to  northwestern 
Ohio  nearly  as  good  as  that  of  Connecticut,  and  much 
better  than  that  of  Virginia.  The  nations  of  Indians 
who  resided  on  the  frontiers  of  its  settlement,  were 
always  considered  as  particularly  pertaining  to  her 
jurisdiction,  and  her  colonial  assembly  had  frequently 
been  at  considerable  expense  in  keeping  a  commis- 
sioner among  them  and  conciliating  their  good  will. 
The  State,  therefore,  claimed  a  pre-emptive  title  to 
their  lands,  and  insisted  that  those  lands  reverted  to 
her  after  they  were  forfeited  by  the  hostility  of  the 
Irequois  during  the  Revolution.  But  it  was  generally 
admitted  that  the  Iroquois  lands  extended  to  the 
Cuyahoga  river;  consequently  New  York  asserted 
her  title  thus  far  west,  as  the  successor  of  those 

The  claims  of  Massachusetts,  Connecticut  and  Vir- 
ginia were  all  interfered  with  by  the  actual  possession 
established  by  the  French  and  Dutch,  but  when  the 
colonics  founded  by  these  nations  were  conquered  by 
the  English,  Massachusetts,  Connecticut  and  Virginia 
insisted  that  the  crown  should  make  good  its  original 
grants.     But  the  king's  ministers  took  no  such  view 

of  the  matter;  they  did  not,  when  New  York  was 
acquired,  extend  the  dominion  of  Massachusetts  nor 
Connecticut  over  it,  and  when  the  Ohio  country  was 
acquired  it  was,  as  we  have  seen,  made  a  part  of  the 
province  of  Quebec. 

Thus  it  was  near  the  close  of  the  Revolution  nu- 
merous conflicting  claims  wei-e  put  forth  to  the  fair 
land  between  Lake  Erie  and  the  Ohio  river,  which 
it  was  easy  to  see  would  be  the  home  of  a  thriving 
population.  But  all  the  other  States  than  those 
named  above  were  strongly  opposed  to  the  recogni- 
tion of  tliose  claims.  They  argued,  and  with  justice, 
that  not  only  had  some  of  those  pretensions,  particu- 
lai'ly  those  of  Virginia,  been  long  since  annulled  by 
due  course  of  law,  but  that,  no  matter  what  might 
be  the  technical  title  derived  from  some  old  yellow 
parchment,  the  valley  of  the  Ohio  and  of  the  lakes 
had  actually  been  conquered  both  from  France  and 
from  Great  Britain  by  tiie  blood  and  treasure  of  all 
the  colonies,  and  that  all  were  equally  entitled  to 
share  in  the  results.  Maryland  had  been  especially 
active  in  opposing  the  pretensions  of  Virginia  On  this 
subject,  and  had 'been  with  difficulty  persuaded  to 
enter  the  old  Confederation  (in  1777)  by  the  pledge 
that  she  should  be  justly  treated  regarding  the  public 

It  was  evident  to  every  one  that  the  only  way  to 
settle  these  disputes  without  violence  was  to  cede  the 
land  west  of  the  Alleganics,  or  the  greater  part  of  it, 
to  the  Confederation,  and  the  patriotism  of  the  diiy 
was  equal  to  the  occasion.  Now  York  led  the  way, 
in  the  forepart  of  1780,  by  ceding  to  the  general  gov- 
ernment all  her  claims  to  the  territory  west  of  a  line 
drawn  north  and  south  through  the  westernmost  part 
of  Lake  Ontario.  In  December  of  the  same  year, 
Virginia  followed  with  a  cession  of  all  her  right  to 
both  the  soil  and  the  jurisdiction  of  the  whole  tract 
northwest  of  the  Ohio  river.  These  cessions  were 
contirmcd  after  the  treaty  of  peace,  and  accepted  by 
the  Congress  of  the  Confederation.  Massacluisetts 
abandoned  her  claim  to  the  country  west  of  the  west 
boundary  of  New  York,  as  defined  just  above,  and 
compromised  with  that  State  in  regard  to  a  hirge 
tract  east  of  that  line. 

Coriuecticut,  however,  being  a  very  small  State,  was 
naturally  more  tenacious  than  tlie  others  regarding 
her  laud.  Besides,  she  had  been  engaged  in  a  long, 
bitter  controversy  with  Pennsylvania  regarding  the 
colony  She  had  planted  in  the  Wyoming  valley,  a  con- 
troversy in  which  much  blood  had  been  shed,  and  in 
which  the  passions  of  tlie  people  of  Coimecticut  liad 
been  warmly  aroused  in  favor  of  their  title  to  the  land 
lying  west  of  them,  from  "  sea  to  sea."  NevertJieloss, 
after  much  negotiating,  in  the  year  1780  she  ceded  to 
the  United  States  her  claims  to  all  the  laud  west  of  a 
line  a  hundred  and  twenty  miles  west  from  tlie  west 
boundary  of  Pennsylvania.  The  tract  between  that 
boundary  and  the  line  first  mentioned  she  retained 
for  herself,  and  the  other  States  seem  to  have  acceded 
to  her  position.     The  tract  thus  excepted  from  the 



general  cession  was  tliencefortli  known  as  the  Connec- 
ticut Western  Reserved  Lands,  or,  more  briefly,  as  the 
Western  Reserve. 

Meanwhile  measures  had  been  speedily  taken  to 
obtain  a  cession  of  tlie  "right  of  occupancy"  of  the  In- 
dians. It  should  be  understood  that  in  all  the  dealings 
of  Europeans  with  the  Indians  it  was  taken  for  granted 
that  the  absolute  title  to  bhe  land — what  in  law  is  called 
the  fee  simple — was  vested  in  whatever  European  gov- 
ernment could  establish  its  power  over  it,  by  discovery, 
by  building  forts  on  it,  or  by  conquest.  But,  as  a  gen- 
eral rule,  tribes  of  Indians  with  whom  the  European 
nation  might  be  at  peace  were  considered  as  having  a 
certain  inferior  title,  called  the  right  of  occupancy. 
So  long  as  they  refused  to  sell  the  land  and  remained 
at  peace,  it  was  considered  illegal  to  remove  them  by 
force,  but  they  were  not  permitted  to  sell  to  any  one 
except  the  government  or  colony  holding  the  title, 
unless  the  purchaser  had  obtained  a  grant  fi"om  that 
government  or  colony.  The  same  system  prevails  to 
the  present  day;  the  United  States  claiming  the  title 
to  all  the  unoccupied  lands  within  its  boundaries,  but 
not  attempting  to  settle  any  given  tract  until  it  has 
first  purchased  the  Indian  "right  of  occupancy" — at 
the  same  time  forbidding  ony  one  else  to  purchase  the 
Indian  title. 

In  colonial  times,  and  perhaps  at  a  later  day,  it 
would  appear  as  if  speculators  and  frontiersmen  had 
sometimes  got  up  wars  for  the  express  purpose  of 
driving  the  Indians  from  their  lands.  But  the  great 
confederacy  of  tiie  warlike  Iroquois  was  too  powerful, 
and  too  good  a  guard  of  the  colony  of  New  York 
against  the  hostile  French,  to  be  treated  in  this  manner, 
and  down  to  the  time  of  the  Revolution  they  had 
hunted  over  their  broad  domain  with  rarely  any  mo- 
lestation. In  that  contest,  however,  they  had,  in  spite 
of  many  pledges  to  the  contrary,  waged  deadly  and 
unsparing  war  against  the  colonists,  and  at  the  treaty 
of  peace  had  been  abandoned  by  the  British  withoui  a 
single  stipulation  in  their  favor.  The  United  States 
did  not  directly  confiscate  any  portion  of  the  laud  tlie 
Iroquois  had  claimed,  but  they  brought  such  a  pres- 
sure to  bear  that  the  latter  very  well  understood  that 
some  of  it  must  be  given  up. 

Accordingly,  at  a  council  held  at  Fort  Stanwix,  in 
1784,  between  commissioners  of  the  United  States 
and  the  chiefs  of  the  Six  Nations,  the  latter  ceded  to 
the  former,  besides  a  small  tract  in  New  York,  all 
their  laud  west  of  the  west  bounds  of  Pennsylvania 
and  of  the  Ohio  river. 

But  Indian  titles  are  usually  very  indefinite,  and 
notwithstanding  the  long  established  pretensions  of 
the  Iroquois  it  was  thought  best  to  obtain  a  distinct 
renunciation  of  the  claims  of  the  western  Indians  to 
the  same  tract.  In  January,  1785,  a  treaty  was  made 
at  Fort  Mcintosh,  by  George  Rogers  Clark,  Richard 
Butler  and  Arthur  Lee,  with  those  who  called  them- 
selves the  chiefs  of  the  Wyandofs,  Delmvares,  Ghiji- 
pewas  and  Ottaivas,  by  which  tiiose  tribes  were  placed 
under   the  protection  of   the  United  States    and  a 

definite  boundary  of  their  territory  was  established. 
The  boundary  between  the  United  States  on  the  one 
hand  and  the  Wyandots  and  Delawares  on  the  other, 
was  to  begin  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga  river,  go 
up  that  stream  to  the  portage  and  across  to  the  Tus- 
carawas; thence  down  to  the  forks  of  the  Muskingum; 
thence  west  to  the  portage  of  the  Big  Miami;  thence 
to  the  Miami  of  the  Lakesor  Omee  (Maumee) ;  thence 
down  that  stream  to  its  mouth. 

The  United  States  allotted  the  lands  thus  bounded 
to  the  Wyandots  and  Delawares  and  to  such  of  the 
Ottawas  as  then  dwelt  there,  to  live  and  hunt  on.  It 
was  provided  that  no  citizen  of  the  United  States 
should  settle  on  those  lands,  and  if  any  did  so  that 
the  Indians  might  punish  them  as  they  pleased.  The 
claims  of  these  tribes  to  all  the  lands  east,  south  and 
west  of  those  above  described  were  formally  relin- 
quished. It  was  further  provided  that  if  any  Indian 
should  murder  a  citizen,  his  tribe  should  deliver  him 
to  the  nearest  military  post.  Three  military  reserva- 
tions were  excepted  from  the  Indian  territory  by  the 
United  States,  but  none  of  them  were  within  the  pre- 
sent county  of  Cuyahoga. 

The  territory  of  Cuyahoga  county  was  thus,  for  the 
time  being,  divided  by  the  Cuyahoga  river  into  two 
sections;  the  western  section  being  devoted  to  Indian 
occupancy,  while  the  eastern  part  was  intended  for  the 
home  of  Caucasian  civilization.  It  was  not,  however, 
occupied  for  some  time  afterwards,  on  account  of  its 
distance  from  the  settlements  already  established. 

Down  to  this  time  there  had  been  only  a  slight  trade 
in  Indian  goods  and  furs,  back  and  forth  between 
Pittsburg  and  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga.  In  the 
spring  of  1786,  we  find  the  first  account  of  any  con- 
siderable commercial  operation  between  those  two 
points.  The  firm  of  Duncan  &  Wilson,  of  Pittsburg, 
had  made  a  contract  with  Caldwell  &  Elliott,  of  De- 
troit, to  deliver  to  their  agent  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Cuyahoga  a  large  quantity  of  flour  and  bacon.  In 
May  they  began  to  forward  it  from  Pittsburg,  employ- 
ing for  that  purpose  about  ninety  pack-horses  and 
thirty  men.  Mr.  James  Hillman,  (afterwards  known 
as  Col.  Hillman,  of  Youngstown,)  was  one  of  the  men 
employed,  and  has  given  an  interesting  account  of 
the  transaction  in  a  letter  published  in  Col.  Whittle- 
sey's Early  History  of  Cleveland. 

The  long  train  of  burdened  animals  followed  the 
great  Indian  trail,  leading  from  Pittsburg  to  the 
Sandusky,  as  far  as  "  Standing  Stone,"  on  the  Cuya- 
hoga, near  the  present  village  of  Franklin,  passing 
thence  along  a  smaller  trail  to  the  mouth  of  Tinker's 
creek,  in  the  present  town  of  Independence  in  this 
county.  There  the  train  forded  the  Cuyahoga  and 
proceeded  down  the  west  side,  passing  a  small  log 
house,  which  a  trader  named  Maginnis  had  lately  left. 
At  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga  the  men  found  an 
Englishman  named  Hawder,  sent  thither  by  Caldwell 
and  Elliott  to  receive  the  freight,  Avho  had  put  up  a 
tent  in  which  he  resided.  No  one  else  was  at  the 
mouth  of  the  river. 

THE  PERIOD  FROM  1783  TO  1794. 


As  the  freight  was  delivered,  it  was  forwarded  by 
the  sail-boat  "  Mackinaw"  to  Detroit.  The  mouth 
of  the  Cuyahoga  was  then  where  it  is  remembered  to 
have  been  by  old  residents  before  the  opening  of  the 
present  channel;  the  water  running  through  what  is 
now  called  the  "old  bed."  There  was,  however,  a 
pond,  called  by  the  packmen  "Sunfish  pond,"  lying 
still  further  west,  and  having  been,  apparently,  a  still 
older  bed  of  the  river. 

As  the  work  of  transportation  was  expected  to  last 
all  summer,  the  men  desired  to  establish  themselves 
on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  partly,  perhaps,  to  get 
off  from  Indian  ground,  but  principally  on  account 
of  a  fine  spring  of  water  which  bubbled  forth  near 
the  present  foot  of  Superior  street.  But  it  was  diffi- 
cult to  cross  the  river,  and  to  sail  up  it  in  the  "Mack- 
inaw" was  impracticable,  because  the  mouth  was 
closed  by  a  sand-bar.  It  was  opened  by  a  very  sim- 
ple piece  of  engineering.  The  men  made  some  wood- 
en shovels,  waded  out  upon  the  sand-bar,  and  dug  a 
ditch  through  which  the  water  ran  with  sufficient 
force  to  clear  a  channel  navigable  for  the  "Macki- 

Having  sailed  up  to  the  desired  locality,  they  made 
collars  for  their  horses  out  of  blanketSj  and  tugs  out 
of  the  raw  elk-hide  tent-ropes,  drew  together  some 
small  logs,  and  built  a  cabin  near  the  spring  before 
mentioned.  This  is  the  first  house  that  is  known 
with  certainty  to  have  been  erected  on  the  site  of  the 
city  of  Cleveland,  though  it  is  quite  probable  that 
there  had  previously  been  a  temporary  trading-post 
on  one  side  or  the  other  of  the  Cuyahoga  at  its  mouth. 

The  traffic  described  by  Mr.  Hillman  continued 
throughout  the  season;  six  round  trips  being  made  by 
the  trains.  We  infer  from  the  language  of  a  letter 
from  Mr.  Hillman,  published  in  the  Early  History 
of  Cleveland,  that  some  other  goods  besides  flour 
and  bacon  wei*e  taken  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga, 
and  that  some  furs  were  transported  back  to  Pitts- 
burg. Some  of  the  upward-bound  freight  was  taken 
to  Detroit  by  water  and  some  by  land. 

Meanwhile,  and  almost  simultaneously  with  the  be- 
ginning of  this  traffic,  the  first  settlement  was  made 
in  Cuyahoga  county  by  people  who  designed  to  de- 
vote themselves  to  the  arts  of  peace  and  civilization, 
though  most  of  them  were  not  of  the  proud  Caucas- 
ian race.  It  was  about  the  7th  of  June,  1786,  that  a 
weary  band  of  travel-worn  men  and  women  ci'ossed 
the  western  border  of  Cuyahoga  county,  and  made 
their  way  along  the  lake  shore  toward  the  mouth  of 
the  Cuyahoga  river.  They  arrived  there  on  the  8th, 
and  almost  at  the  same  time  a  flotilla  of  canoes  came 
down  the  lake,  with  the  old  men  and  women  and  some 
of  the  children  belonging  to  the  households,  whose 
more  vigorous  members  had  marched  on  shore.  The 
schooner  "  Mackinaw"  had  just  previously  brought 
their  heavy  luggage  and  the  most  infirm  of  their 

All,  save  two  leaders,  were  of  unmixed  Indian 
blood,  yet  they  bore  upon  their  tawny  features  an 

expression  rarely  seen  among  those  fierce,  relentless 
denizens  of  the  forest — an  expression  of  mildness, 
of  patience,  of  resignation,  lightened  up  only  by 
occasional  gleams  of  religious  enthusiasm.  Their 
principal  leaders  were  two  sturdy,  broad-shouldered 
men,  with  the  unmistakable  round,  German  physiog- 
nomy, but  whose  fair  Teutonic  complexion  had  been 
bronzed  by  long  exposure  almost  to  the  aboriginal 
hue.  These  were  John  Heckewelder  and  David  Zcis- 
berger,  and  their  followers  were  the  remnant  of  that 
celebrated  band  of  Moravian  Indians,  whose  cruel 
fate  forms  at  once  one  of  the  saddest  and  one  of  the 
darkest  pages  of  American  history. 

Converted  to  Christianity  by  the  efforts  of  the  Mo- 
ravian missionaries,  they  had  established  themselves 
in  the  fertile  valley  of  the  Muskingum  before  the 
Revolution,  where,  unmoved  by  the  sneers  of  their 
bi'ethren  of  the  woods,  they  sought  to  live  by  agri- 
culture and  the  chase,  eschewing  war,  performing  the 
duties  of  their  religion,  and  manifesting  every  evi- 
dence of  a  sincere  abhorrence  both  for  the  theoretical 
errors  and  practical  crimes  of  paganism.  During  the 
Revolution  they  were  objects  of  distrust  to  both  par- 
ties, though,  so  far  as  can  be  ascertained,  without 
cause  on  the  part  of  either.  As  the  war  went  on,  nu- 
merous outrages  were  committed  on  the  frontier  of 
Pennsylvania  by  Indians,  especially  by  Delawares, 
to  which  tribe  a  large  part  of  the  Moravian  Indians 
had  belonged.  The  fierce  Scotch-Irish  frontiersmen 
were  furious  for  revenge,  and  they  cared  little  on 
whom  it  fell.  It  was  easy  to  concoct  stories  that  the 
Moravian  Indians  harbored  and  aided  the  marauders, 
though  all  the  circumstances  showed  that  such  was 
not  the  case. 

At  the  same  time  the  pagan  Indians  and  the  British 
officers  insisted  that  the  Moravians  should  move  back 
farther  into  the  wilderness,  where  they  could  not  be 
of  any  assistance  to  the  Americans.  This  they  in  fact 
did  in  1783,  but  a  portion  of  them  returned  to  the 
Muskingum  to  take  care  of  their  crops.  In  the  sum- 
mer of  that  year  a  battalion  of  militia,  under  Col. 
Williamson,  marched  swiftly  to  the  Moraivian  towns, 
disarmed  the  hunters,  got  all  of  the  pcojile  into  their 
power  under  false  pretenses,  and  then  in  cold  blood 
murdered  the  whole  number — over  a  hundred  men, 
women  and  chddren.  No  more  infamous  ati'ocity  was 
ever  perpetrated  by  the  worst  of  those  who  are  com- 
monly called  savages. 

Yet  those  who  had  not  returned  to  the  Muskingum, 
together  with  some  who  were  at  another  village  and 
thus  escaped  the  massacre,  nearly  all  still  adhered  to 
their  religion.  A  few,  only,  joined  the  hostile  Indians 
and  chunored  fiercely  for  revenge — as  might  well  be 
expected.  But  the  main  body  gathered  sadly  together 
on  the  Sandusky,  under  the  leadership  of  their  de- 
voted missionaries,  Heckewelder  and  Zeisberger,  and 
again  devoted  themselves  to  the  arts  of  peace  and  the 
duties  of  religion.  But  here  they  were  constantly 
persecuted  by  their  kinsmen,  the  Delawares,  and 
other  savage  Indians,  and  were  taken  under  the  pro- 



tcction  of  the  British  commander  at  Detroit.  They 
established  tliemselves  near  that  post,  where  tliey  re- 
mained until  the  spring  of  1786.  They  then  deter- 
mined to  locate  themselves  on  the  Cuyahoga,  appar- 
ently hoping  to  be  allowed  to  establish  themselves  at 
their  old  home  on  the  Muskingum,  for  which  they 
always  manifested  a  strong  attraction.  The  schooners 
"Beaver"  and  "Mackinaw,"  belonging  to  the  North- 
west Fur  Company,  were  employed  to  bring  them,  but 
occupied  so  much  time  on  account  of  adverse  winds 
that  the  "Beaver"  was  ordered  back  from  Sandusky. 
The  "Mackinaw,"  as  has  been  stated,  brought  the  lug- 
gage and  the  infirm,  wliile  the  rest  came  on  foot  or  in 
canoes,  under  the  leadership  of  Heckewelder  and 

They  pitched  their  camp  on  the  site  of  Cleveland. 
One  of  their  number  proceeded  to  Pittsburg  to  ob- 
tain provisions,  and  Zeisberger  set  forth  to  explore 
the  river  and  find  a  suitable  location.  On  the  second 
day  he  came  to  a  lofty  plateau  on  the  west  side  of  the 
river,  a  little  below  the  mouth  of  what  is  now  called 
u'inker's  creek,  where  had  once  stood  the  Ollawa  vil- 
lage of  which  mention  has  previously  been  made. 
There  being  already  some  partially  cleared  ground 
here,  and  the  locality  being  high  and  healthy,  the 
missionary  selected  it  as  the  projjer  place  for  his  peo- 
ple. The  latter  immediately  removed  their  camp 
thither,  and  began  to  erect  huts  and  plant  corn,  ex- 
pecting to  go  to  the  Muskingum  after  harvest.  They 
named  their  temporary  abiding  place  Pilgerruh. 

By  the  end  of  June  they  were,  as  they  considered, 
quite  comfortably  housed.  Congress  had  voted  them 
five  hundred  bushels  of  corn,  but  it  was  to  be  deliv- 
ered at  Port  Mcintosh  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Mus- 
kingum valley,  and  thither  they  never  went.  They 
were  almost  destitute  of  provisions,  but  they  devoted 
themselves  assiduously  to  the  chase,  and  with  good 
success — numerous  elks  being  especially  named  as 
among  the  victims  of  their  skill.  The  man  sent  to 
Pittsburg  also  returned  with  an  order  from  Duncan 
&  Wilson,  directing  the  agent  in  charge  of  their  pack- 
train  to  sell  Zeisberger,  on  credit,  all  the  flour  the 
Indians  needed.  A  large  quantity  of  goods  also 
arrived,  which  had  been  devoted  to  their  use  by  the 
Moravian  churches  at  Bethlehem,  Pennsylvania,  three 
years  before,  but  had  failed  to  reach  them  on  account 
of  their  distant  wanderings.  Thus  their  immediate 
wants  were  relieved,  and  on  the  13th  of  August 
they  celebrated  the  Lord's  Supper.  But  their  friends 
at  Pittsburg  assured  them  that  they  could  not  return 
to  their  lands  on  the  Muskingum  without  great  pro- 
bability of  another  bloody  outbreak  on  the  part  of 
the  frontiersmen.  So  they  concluded  to  remain,  at 
least  through  the  winter,  on  the  Cuyahoga. 

The  good  missionaries  were  sadly  troubled  about 
those  Indians  who  had  formerly  belonged  to  their 
congregation,  but  who  had  apostatized  to  paganism. 
In  September  Zeisberger  sent  to  the  apostates  some 
of  his  most  trusty  converts,  bearing  a  very  pathetic 
"speech,"  beseeching  them  to  return;  but  all  in  vain. 

Samuel  Nanticoke,  one  of  Zuisberger's  delegates,  met 
his  brother,  who  had  apostatized,  and  added  his  own 
entreaties  to  those  of  the  missionary,  but  the  son  of 
the  forest  fiercely  rejected  his  pleadings,  saying: 

"By  the  waters  of  the  Tuscarawas  the  whites 
gained  the  end  for  which  they  strove  so  long.  There 
lie  all  our  murdered  friends.  I  avoid  the  whites  and 
flee  from  them.  No  man  shall  induce  me  to  trust 
them  again.  Never,  while  I  live,  will  I  unite  with 
you  Christians.  If  your  town  were  near,  I  might 
perhaps  visit  you,  but  that  would  be  all.  Our  fore- 
fathers went  to  the  devil,  as  you  say,  and  where  they 
are  I  am  content  hereafter  to  be." 

In  October  the  houses  of  the  Moravians,  rude  but 
comfortable,  were  completed,  and  promised  sufficient 
shelter  through  the  coming  winter. 

Heckewelder  thereupon  left  the  mission,  with  which 
he  had  so  long  been  connected,  for  the  East;  leaving 
Zeisberger  in  charge,  assisted  by  a  lately  arrived 
brother  named  William  Edwards.  Heckewelder  con- 
tinued to  labor  as  a  minister  until  his  death,  many 
years  afterward,  and  was  the  author  of  a  valuable 
work  on  the  Indians,  from  which  most  of  these  facts, 
relating  to  the  transient  Moravian  colony  in  Cuya- 
hoga county,  have  been  derived. 

Zeisberger  was  fearful  lest  the  Indians  under  his 
charge  should  become  a  burden  on  the  Moravian 
mission  board,  and,  having  labored  beyond  his 
strength  to  prevent  it,  fell  seriously  ill.  The  mission 
board  heard  of  this  with  deep  regret,  and  united  in 
a  remonstrance,  urging  him  to  draw  on  them  for 
what  he  might  needs  After  their  cabins  were  com- 
pleted, the  Indians  labored  zealously  to  build  a 
chapel,  in  which  divine  service  might  be  held.  It 
was  soon  finished,  and  was  consecrated  on  the  10th 
of  November. 

As  stated  a  short  distance  back,  it  was  in  this  year 
(1780)  that  Connecticut  ceded  to  the  Confederation 
all  the  western  lands  which  she  claimed,  except  what 
now  constitutes  the  "Western  Reserve."  This  ces- 
sion was  made  on  the  14th  day  of  September.  About 
the  same  time  the  legislature  of  that  State  authorized 
three  of  its  citizens  to  sell  all  that  part  of  the  Re- 
serve lying  east  of  the  Cuyahoga  river  and  the  port- 
age path;  that  is,  all  to  which  the  Indian  title  had 
been  extinguished.  It  was  to  be  sold  m  townships  of 
six  miles  square,  at  not  less  than  three  New  England 
shillings  (fifty  cents)  per  acre.  Pive  hundred  acres 
were  to  be  reserved  in  each  township  for  the  support 
of  ministers,  and  five  hundred  for  the  support  of 
schools.  The  first  minister  in  each  township  was 
also  to  receive  two  hundred  and  forty  acres  besides. 
Until  a  republican  government  should  be  established 
there,  the  law  declared  that  the  general  assembly  of 
Connecticut  should  provide,  for  the  maintenance  of 
order  among  the  settlers.  It  was  evident  that  that 
State  still  claimed  not  only  the  title  to  the  land  of 
the  Western  Reserve,  but  the  political  jurisdiction 
over  its  inhabitants.  But  the  land  was  so  far  from 
the  older  settlement  that  no  sales  of  any  extent  could 

THE  PERIOD  FROM  1783  TO  1794. 


be  made,  the  surveys  were  not  executed,  and  the 
whole  scheme  fell  to  the  ground. 

Late  in  the  autumn  of  1786,  the  two  schooners  of 
the  Northwestern  Fur  Company,  the  "Beaver  "and 
the  "Mackinaw,"  were  coming  up  the  lake,  on  their 
way  to  Detroit.  It  was  snowing  fast  when  they 
arrived,  late  in  the  afternoon,  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Cuyahoga,  and  they  both  tried  to  run  into  that  river 
for  shelter.  Both  failed.  The  "Beaver,"  com- 
manded by  Captain  Thorn,  was  driven  ashore  near 
the  present  foot  of  Willson  avenue,  in  the  city  of 
Cleveland;  but,  so  far  as  we  can  judgefrom  the  vague 
accounts  which  have  come  down  to  us,  without  loss  of 
life.  The  captain  and  crew  of  the  "  Mackinaw  "  were 
not  aware  of  the  wreck  of  the  "  Beaver,"  and  after 
they  had  ridden  out  the  storm  sailed  away  to  Detroit. 

This  was  the  last  trip  of  the  season,  and  the  lake 
would  soon  be  frozen  up;  so  Captain  Thorn  and  his  men 
did  not  think  it  advisable  to  attempt  escaping  until 
spring.  They  accordingly  built  a  cabin  on  the  bank  of 
the  lake,  opposite  the  wreck,  and  prepared  to  winter 
there.  There  were  three  small  brass  field-pieces  on 
the  schooner,  as  seems  to  have  been  the  custom  on  the 
Fur  Company's  vessels,  which'frequently  had  to  visit 
regions  which  might  be  infested  with  hostile  Indians. 
These  were  taken  ashore,  greased,  plugged  uj),  wrapped 
in  pieces  of  sail,  and  buried  on  the  shore  between  the 
wreck  and  the  cabin. 

From  Captain  Thorn's  subsequent  statements  it  ap- 
pears there  was  then  an  Indian-trader  by  the  name  of 
Williams  at  the  mouth  of  Rocky  river,  from  whom  he 
bought  provisions  when  the  stock  taken  from  the  ves- 
sel ran  low.  Mr.  Williams  is  mentioned  in  no  other 
account,  and  it  is  not  known  how  long  he  had  been 
at  the  point  mentioned.  From  the  fact  that  he  is  not 
spoken  of  by  Mr.  Hillman,  who  came  to  the  mouth  of 
tlie  Cuyahoga  six  times  during  the  summer  of  1780, 
and  would  undoubtedly  have  heard  of  him  if  he  had 
then  been  at  Rocky  river,  it  may  be  presumed  that 
Mr.  Williams  did  not  locate  there  until  the  fall  of  that 
year — but  this  is  quite  uncertain. 

Captain  Thorn  also  bought  some  provisions  of  the 
Moravians.  He  and  his  crew  remained  through  the 
winter,  but  left  with  the  opening  spring.  He  con- 
tinued to  sail  the  lakes  or  to  live  near  them  all  his 
life.  He  was  a  Canadian,  but  took  the  side  of  the 
United  States  during  the  war  of  1812.  He  afterwards 
resided  on  the  St.  Clair  river,  in  Michigan,  until  his 
death,  which  occurred  about  twenty  years  ago;  he 
being  then  nearly  a  hundred  years  old.  He  was  well 
known  to  many  of  the  early  settlers  of  Cleveland, 
especially  to  Captain  Allen  Gaylord,  from  whose  man- 
uscript statement,  preserved  in  the  archives  of  the 
Historical  Society,  the  above  facts  are  mostly  ob- 

Meanwhile  Zeisberger  and  his  followers  were  in 
great  perplexity  as  to  what  they  should  do  next. 
Pilgerruh  was  not  considered  a  desirable  residence. 
They  would  all  have  been  glad  to  return  to  the  Mus- 
kingum, but  feared  attacks  both  from  frontiersmen 

and  hostile  Indians.  Their  kindred  Delawares  of- 
fered them  an  abiding  place  at  Sandusky.  At  length 
they  determined  to  go  to  the  mouth  of  Black  river. 
They  celebrated  Lent  and  Easter  at  Pilgerruh,  and 
then  prepared  for  their  journey. 

On  the  19th  of  April  the  persecuted  little  band  as- 
sembled for  the  last  time  at  their  chapel,  and  Joined 
in  prayer  to  God  with  hearts  apparently  still  devoted 
to  their  religion,  notwithstanding  all  they  had  suf- 
fered from  those  who  called  themselves  the  champions 
of  that  faith.  Their  simple  service  being  concluded, 
they  immediately  set  forth.  One  party  went  by  land 
under  Zeisberger,  while  the  rest  entered  their  canoes 
and  followed  the  lead  of  Edwards  down  the  river. 
Ere  they  could  reach  the  lake  a  great  storm  checked 
their  progress;  so  they  remained  to  fish.  The  chron- 
icler of  their  movements  narrates  that  in  one  night's 
work  with  torch  and  spear  they  obtained  three  hun- 
dred fish  of  good  quality,  weighing  from  three  to  fif- 
teen pounds  each.  What  they  did  not  want  to  eat 
they  dried  for  future  use,  They  then  proceeded  to 
their  destination,  where  both  jjurties  arrived  on  the 
24th  and  25th  of  April,  having  dwelt  in  the  territory 
of  Cuyahoga  county  about  ton  months  and  a  half. 

Their  fortunes,  after  leaving  our  county,4were  al- 
most as  sad  as  before.  Scarcely  had  they  reached 
Black  river  when  they  were  driven  on  to  Sandusky 
by  the  hostile  Delatvares.  They  remained  there  till 
1790,  when,  being  again  ordered  by  their  jealous 
kinsmen  to  remove  into  the  western  wilderness,  they 
besought  the  aid  of  the  British  commander,  who  took 
them  to  the  banks  of  the  Thames  river,  in  Canada. 
In  1797  the  lands  they  had  occupied  on  the  Mus- 
kingum were  conveyed  to  them  by  the  United  States, 
and  a  part  of  them  returned  thither.  These,  too, 
subsequently  sold  their  lands  and  improvements  to 
the  United  States  and  returned  to  Canada,  where 
their  descendants  still  reside. 

In  July,  1787,  the  Congress  of  the  Confederation 
passed  an  ordinance  organizing  the  vast  district  be- 
tween the  Ohio,  the  great  lakes  and  the  Mississippi, 
under  the  name  of  the  "Northwestern  Territory,"  and 
providing  for  civil  government  over  it.  They  also 
elected  General  Arthur  St.  Clair  as  governor,  together 
with  a  secretary  and  three  judges.  The  ordinance  was 
drawn  by  Nathan  Dane,  of  Massachusetts,  and  pro- 
vided that  from  all  the  territory  thus  organized  slavery 
should  be  forever  excluded.  Connecticut  protested 
against  the  inclusion  of  the  Western  Reserve  in  the 
now  Territory,  but  without  effect. 

It  was  not  till  the  next  spring  (1788)  that  the  first 
white  settlement  was  planted  in  the  present  State  of 
Ohio;  the  location  being  at  Marietta,  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Muskingum.  When  Governor  St.  Clair  and  the 
judges  (in  whom  the  temporary  legislative  power  was 
vested)  arrived  in  the  new  Territory,  they  proceeded  on 
the  27th  of  July,  1788,  to  form  the  county  of  Wash- 
ington, of  which  Marietta  was  made  the  county  seat, 
and  which  extended  from  the  Ohio  to  Lake  Erie,  with 
the  Cuyahoga  river  and  the  portage  path  as  its  west- 



eni  boundary;  thus  embracing  the  eastern  part  of  the 
present  county  of  Cuyahoga.  The  section  thus  in- 
cluded was  a  liundred  and  fifty  miles  distant  from  the 
county  seat,  at  Marietta,  but  as  no  one  resided  liere 
that  was  of  little  consequence. 

In  1789  the  first  congress  under  the  Federal  Con- 
stitution re-enacted  the  ordinance  of  1787; "thus  giv- 
ing the  Northwestern  Territory  a  permanent  position 
in  the  new  political  arrangement. 

The  same  year  another  treaty  was  made  at  Fort 
Ilarmar,  by  which  the  Indians  again  ceded  to  the 
United  States  the  country  west  of  the  Cuyahoga  and 
the  portage  path. 

About  this  period,  or  a  little  later,  one  Joseph  Du 
Chatar  had  a  trading  post  on  the  west  side  of  the 
Cuyahoga,  some  nine  miles  above  the  mouth.  Jean 
Baptiste  Fleming  and  Joseph  Burall  were  with  him  a 
part  of  the  time.  Du  Chatar,  then  in  middle  age, 
had  been  from  his  youth  in  the  employ  of  the  North- 
western company,  and  afterwards  described  the  mouth 
of  the  Cuyahoga  as  having  been  one  of  their  princi- 
pal points  for  the  sale  of  goods  and  purchase  of  furs. 
At  the  time  mentioned,  however,  he  was  trading  for 

Large  profits  were  usually  made  by  the  early  fur- 
traders,  but  there  were  some  serious  drawbacks.  At 
one  time  Du  Chatar  and  his  companions  had  a  sharp 
confiict  with  some  Indians  over  the  ownership  of  a 
rifle.  At  another  time  a  number  of  them  demanded 
liquor,  which  Du  Chatar  refused  to  let  them  have, 
either  because  they  could  not  pay  for  it  or  because  he 
thought  them  already  too  well  supplied.  They  at- 
tacked his  cabin,  which  he  and  his  men  defended  with 
their  rifles.  Some  of  the  Indians  were  killed  and  the 
rest  retreated.  It  would  seem  to  have  been  very  dan- 
gerous to  remain  in  the  country  after  that,  but  the 
French  had  ways  of  conciliating  the  savages  which 
hardly  any  one  else  could  imitate. 

In  1790,  the  western  Indians  engaged  in  open  hos- 
tilities against  the  frontier,  and  General  Harmar 
marched  against  them,  only  to  be  defeated.  This  was 
followed  the  next  year  by  the  defeat  of  Governor 
St.  Clair,  at  the  head  of  another  army.  The  Indians 
became  extremely  elated,  and  it  began  to  look  as  if 
the  course  of  western  emigration  was  to  be  perma- 
nently checked.  Of  course,  under  these  circumstances, 
there  was  no  sale  for  frontier  land,  and  the  Western 
Reserve  remained  on  the  hands  of  the  State  of  Con- 

In  1792,  that  State  gave  five  hundred  thousand 
acres  off  from  the  west  end  of  the  Reserve,  for  the 
benefit  of  those  of  her  citizens  who  had  suft'ered  from 
the  burning  of  their  property  by  the  British  during 
the  Revolution.  This  tract  was  commonly  called  the 
"Fire  Lands,"  and  has  been  considered  as  a  distinct 
section  under  that  nvime  ever  since,  although  a  part 
of  the  original  Western  Reserve. 

Meanwhile,  the  administration  of  President  Wash- 
ington was  making  constant  efl'orts  to  conciliate  the 
Indians,   and   secure  a  permanent  jjcace.     In   1793, 

General  Benjamin  Lincoln,  Hon.  Beverly  Eandolph, 
and  Colonel  Timothy  Pickering,  postmaster-general 
of  the  United  States,  commissioners  appointed  by  the 
President,  passed  up  the  south  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  on 
their  way  to  Detroit,  still  held  by  the  British,  to 
endeavor  to  make  a  treaty  with  the  hostile  Indians. 
This  effort,  like  all  the  others,  was  in  vain. 

But  in  1791,  Mad  Anthony  AVayne  went  ont  to  the 
West,  at  the  head  of  a  well  appointed  army,  and 
inflicted  a  terrible  defeat  on  the  horde  of  warriors  who 
ventured  to  confront  him.  Another  treaty  was  made, 
which,  being  authorized  and  sanctioned  by  victory, 
was  well  observed  by  the  red  men.  So  far  as  this  part 
of  the  Territory  was  concerned,  Wayne's  treaty  merely 
confirmed  the  line  in-eviously  drawn  along  the  center 
of  the  Cuyahoga.  All  the  eleven  tribes  who  joined  in 
the  treaty  agreed  to  acknowledge  the  United  States 
aa  their  sole  superior,  and  never  to  sell  any  of  their 
land  to  any  one  else. 



Connecticut  sells  Three  Million  Acres  in  a  Body— Names  of  the  Pur- 
chasers-Formation of  the  Connecticut  Land  Company— A  Deed  of 
Trust— The  Excess  Company— First  Directors  of  the  Connecticut  Com- 
pany-The  plan  of  Survey  and  Division  decided  on— The  first  Survey 
Party— Its  Leaders  and  Surveyors— British  Annoyance— A  Council  at 
Buffalo- Arrival  at  Conneaut— Trouble  among  the  Employees— How 
it  was  Settled- Beginning  of  the  Surveys— Gen.  Cleavelaud  comes  to 
the  Cuyahoga— The  First  White  Family— Tracing  the  Coast  Line- 
Laying  off  Townships- Chagrin  River  mistaken  for  the  Cuyahoga— 
Organization  of  Wayne  County— Directors  Impatient— Laying  out  of 
Cleveland— A  Bear  in  the  River— The  Party  start  east  but  return- 
Formal  Agreement  to  let  the  Surveyors  have  Euclid— Rough  Weather 
—The  Return— Persons  left  at  Cleveland- Gen.  Cleaveland's  subse- 
quent Career— Porter's  Later  Life— Annual  Meeting  of  the  Land  Com- 
pany—Failure of  the  Excess  Company— Alexander  Henry's  Claim— 
The  Survey  Party  of  1797— Its  Officers,  etc— It  goes  to  the  Reserve— 
The  Fiist  Funeral— Rations  tor  the  Survey  ors- Kingsbury,  Carter  and 
Hawley— The  First  Marriage— D.  &  G.  Bryant  and  R.  Edwards— ITorm- 
ation  of  Jefferson  County — Atwater's  Adventure— Tinker's  Creek— 
Sickuesss— Heallh  on  the  Ridge. 

Wayne's  victory  and  treaty  caused  many  eyes  to 
turn  toward  the  Western  Reserve,  as  a  more  secure 
and  desirable  place  of  residence  than  it  had  previously 
been  considered.  At  the  session  of  1795,  the  legisla- 
ture of  Connecticut  abandoned  the  idea  of  dividing 
up  the  Reserve  in  small  tracts  and  selling  it  out,  and 
adopted  a  new  system.  A  commission  of  eight  citi- 
zens was  appointed,  one  from  each  county,  who  were 
authorized  to  sell  three  million  acres  adjoining  Penn- 
sylvania for  not  less  than  one-third  of  a  dollar  per 
acre;  the  whole  to  be  sold  before  any  part  of  it  was 
conveyed.  The  purchasers  were  to  take  all  risks,  and 
were  to  receive  their  deeds  by  shares,  not  by  acres; 
being  then  obliged  to  divide  the  land  among  them- 
selves as  best  they  could. 

The  scheme  seems  to  have  been  quite  popular,  and 
the  commission  succeeded  in  selling  the  whole  tract 
by  the  first  of  September,  1795,  at  forty  cents  per 
acre  making  the  total  amount  one  million  two  hun- 
dred thousand  dollars.     The  purchasers  were  Joseph 



Howland,  Daniel  L.  Coit,  Elias  Morgan,  Caleb  At- 
water,  Daniel  Holbrook,  Joseph  Williams,  William 
Love,  William  Jiidd,  Elisha  Hyde,  Uriah  Tracey, 
James  Johnson,  Samuel  Mather,  Jr.,  Ephraira  Kirby, 
Elijah  Boardman,  Uriel  Holmes,  Jr.,  Solomon  Gris- 
wold,  Oliver  Phelps,  Gideon  Granger,  Jr.,  William 
Hart,  Henry  Cliampion,  3nd,  Asher  Miller,  Robert 
0.  Johnson,  Ephraim  Root,  Nehemiah  Ilnbbard,  Jr., 
Solomon  Cowles,  Asahel  Hathaway,  John  Caldwell, 
Pcleg  Sanford,  Timothy  Burr,  Luther  Loomis,  Bben- 
ezor  King,  Jr.,  William  Lyman,  John  Stoddard, 
David  King,  Moses  Cleaveland,  Samuel  P.  Lord, 
Roger  Newberry,  Enoch  Perkins,  Jonathan  Brace, 
Ephraim  Starr,  Sylvanus  Griswold,  Joseb  Stocking, 
Joshua  Stow,  Titus  Street,  James  Bull,  Aaron  Olm- 
sted, John  Wyles,  Pierpoint  Edwards. 

The  subscriptions  were  of  all  sizes,  from  one  of  one 
thousand  six  hundred  and  eighty-three  dollars,  made 
by  Sylvanus  Griswold,  up  to  that  of  Oliver  Phelps, 
who  subscribed  one  hundred  and  sixty-eight  thousand 
one  hundred  and  eighty-five  dollars  alone,  and  eighty 
thousand  dollars  in  company  with  Gideon  Granger, 
Jr.,  but  were  generally  in  sums  of  from  ten  thou- 
sand to  thirty  thousand  dollars.  Henry  Champion, 
3nd,  was  the  second  largest  subscriber,  with  eighty- 
five  thousand  six  hundred  and  seventy-five  dollars. 

The  committee,  in  behalf  of  the  State,  at  once 
deeded  to  the  subscribers  as  many  "twelve  hundred 
thousandths "  of  the  whole  tract,  as  they  had  sub- 
scribed dollars  respectively  to  the  purchasing  fund  of 
twelve  hundred  thousand  dollars.  The  deeds  were 
recorded  in  the  office  of  the  secretary  of  state  of 
Connecticut,  and  subsequently  in  the  recorder's -office 
of  Trumbull  county,  Ohio.  They  were  of  the  char- 
acter commonly  called  "quit-claim"  deeds;  the  State 
warranting  nothing,  but  conveying  all  its  rights, 
more  or  less,  to  the  purchasers.  There  had,  at  this 
time,  been  no  definite  surrender  of  the  State's  political 
jurisdiction  over  the  Reserve  to  the  general  govern- 
ment, (although  that  government  had  assumed  juris- 
diction by  including  the  Reserve  in  the  Northwestern 
Territory),  and  many  of  the  buyers  supposed  they 
could  establish  a  State  of  their  own,  and  make  such 
laws  as  they  pleased  for  it. 

On  the  5th  of  Septembei-,  the  purchasers  proceeded 
to  organize  themselves  into  an  association  called  the 
"Connecticut  Land  Company,"  but  did  not  obtain 
an 'act  of  incorporation  from  the  State.  In  law  they 
were  only  a  simple  partnership.  All  the  members  of 
this  association  joined  in  a  deed  of  trust  to  Jonathan 
Brace,  John  Caldwell  and  John  Morgan,  authorizing 
them  to  give  deeds  of  various  tracts  to  the  owners, 
according  to  the  division  to  be  made  by  the  officials 
of  the  company.  It  will  be  understood  that  a  large 
part  of  the  three  million  acres  purchased  was  known 
to  be  on  the  west  side  of  the  Cuyahoga,  and  it  was, 
therefore,  known  that  it  could  not  be  divided  until 
the  Indian  right  of  occupancy  was  extinguished  by 
purchase.  It  was  supposed,  however,  that  there  was 
considerably  more  than  three  million  acres  in  the  Re- 

serve, exclusive  of  the  "Eire  Lands,"  and  several 
gentlemen  proposed  to  take  the  balance  from  the 
State.  They  were  commonly  called  'the  "Excess 
Company,"  and  until  the  land  was  surveyed  it  was 
supposed  they  would  secure  a  large  tract. 

By  the  articles  of  association,  the  management  of 
the  company's  concerns  was  intrusted  to  seven  direc- 
tors, who  were  instructed  to  proceed  as  rapidly  as 
])ossible  to  sell  that  portion  of  the  tract  east  of  -the 
Cuyahoga.  For  the  purpose  of  electing  officers  and 
making  assessments,  the  whole  was  divided  into  four 
hundred  shares  of  three  thousand  dollars  each;  dis- 
tributed among  the  various  projjriotors  in  proportion 
to  the  amounts  they  had  subsci'ibed.  The  first  hoard 
of  directors  consisted  of  Oliver  Phelps,  Henry 
Champion,  3d.,  Moses  Cleaveland,  Samuel  W.  John- 
son, Ephraim  Kirby,  Samuel  Matlier,  Jr.,  and  Roger 

The  articles  of  association  also  provided  that  the 
tract  should  be  surveyed  into  townships  five  miles 
square;  that  part  east  of  the  Cuyahoga  as  soon  us 
possible,  and  the  rest  when  the  Indians  were  bought 
out.  Six  townships  of  the  former  portion  were  to  be 
sold  to  pay  the  general  ex])enses.  Four  more  were 
to  be  divided  into  a  hundred  lots  each,  making  four 
hundred  lots  of  a  hundred  and  sixty  acres  each, 
which  were  to  bo  conveyed  to  the  owners  of  the  four 
hundred  s'hares  respectively.  The  remainder  of  the 
tract  east  of  the  Cuyahoga  was  to  be  divided  into 
portions,  of  which  the  best  township  was  to  form  the 
basis;  other  townships  to  bo  brought  up  to  the  standard 
by  dividing  some  of  them  into  fractions,  and  adding 
them  to  tlie  rest.  The  part  west  of  the  river  was 
subsequently  to  be  divided  in  the  same  way.  Tiie 
board  of  directors  selected  Gen.  Moses  Cleaveland,  a 
lawyer  of  Canterbury,  Windham  county,  then  about 
forty  years  old,  to  act  as  the  general  agent  of  the 
comjiaiiy  and  manage  the  surveys  east  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga, which  it  was  expected  would  all  be  completed 
the  next  year. 

During  the  winter  of  1795-6  further  preparations 
were  made,  and  in  the  spring  of  the  latter  year  a  large 
surveying  party  was  organized.  General  Cleaveland 
was  superintendent;  Augustus  Porter,  who  was  a  na- 
tive of  Connecticut  but  had  been  engaged  for  many 
years  on  important  surveys  in  western  New  York,  was  , 
the  j)rincipal  surveyor  and  deputy  superintendent; 
Seth  Pease  was  astronomer  and  surveyor;  AmosSpaf- 
ford,  John  M.  Holley,  Ricluird  M.  Stoddard  and 
Moses  Warren  were  the  surveyors;  Joshua  Stow  was 
the  commissary,  and  Dr.  Theodore  Shepard  was  the 
physician  of  the  party.  There  were  also  thirty-six 
other  employees,  including  chainmen,  axenieji,  cooks, 

The  expedition  set  forth  in  May.  General  Cleave- 
land and  most  of  the  members  came  by  way  of  Alba- 
ny, Syracuse,  Canandaigua,-  etc.,  to  Buffalo.  Mr. 
Stow,  with  several  men,  took  the  provisions,  instru- 
ments and  other  freight  in  four  large  boats  by  way 
of  the  Oswego  river,  Lake  Ontario  and  the  Niagara 



river.  Oswego,  like  the  other  frontier  posts,  was 
still  in  the  hands  of  the  British,  and  their  ofiScers 
seemed  anxious  to  annoy  the  Americans  in  every 
possible  way.  Mr.  Stow  applied  to  the  commandant 
at  Oswego  for  permission  to  pass  with  his  boats,  but 
was  peremptorily  refused.  In  vain  he  represented 
that  without  the  instruments  and  provisions' which  he 
had  with  him  tlie  survey  party  could  not  begin  work, 
and'that  the  greatest  inconvenience  would  be  sure  to 
result;  the  officer  was  inexorable. 

Finally,  Mr.  Htow  apparently  gave  up  the  contest, 
and  retired  up  the  river  with  his  boats.  The  first 
dark  night,  however,  the  flotilla  sped  quietly  down 
the  stream,  glided  undiscovered  past  the  sleepy  sen- 
tinels, and  escaped  into  Lake  Ontario.  The  deten- 
tion, howevei',  caused  the  boats  to  be  caught  in  a 
severe  storm  on  the  lake,  in  which  one  of  them  was 
stove  u^j  and  another  of  thcQi  seriously  injured. 
What  made  the  affair  more  provoking  was  that  both 
Fort  Ontario,  at  Oswego,  and  Fort  Niagara,  at  the 
moutli  of  the  river  of  that  name,  were  about  to  be 
delivered  to  the  United  States,  under  the  provisions 
of  Jay's  treaty.  Fort  Ontario  was  thus  surrendered 
on  the  fourth  day  of  July  following,  and  Port  Niag- 
ara still  earlier;  so  that  when  the  boats  of  the  survey 
party  approached  the  latter  post  the  men  saw  with 
delight  the  stars  and  stripes  floating  over  its  ramparts. 

On  the  31st  of  June  the  tSix  Nations  held'a  council 
at  Buffalo,  at  which  General  Cleaveland  was  present, 
togetlier  with  some  whom  the  surveyors  called  west- 
ern Indians,  but  whom  from  the  circumstances  we 
should  infer  to  have  been  Mohawks,  who  lived  west 
of  Buffalo,  in  Canada.  Notwithstanding  the  numer- 
ous treaties  by  which  the  claims  of  these  Indians  to 
the  country  east  of  the  Cuyahoga  were  supposed  to 
be  extinguished,  they  still  put  forth  some  preten- 
sions to  it,  and  it  was  thought  better  to  conciliate 
than  to  oppose  them.  The  celebrated  Josejih  Brant, 
or  Thayendenegea,  was  the  principal  manager  on  the 
part  of  the  Mt  Nations,  and  gave  General  Cleaveland 
a  "speecli"  in  writing,  but  the  equally  distinguished 
Red  Jacket  was  the  principal  orator.  The  council 
was  adjourned  over  the  a2nd,  because  the  chiefs  in- 
sisted on  getting  drunk. 

On  the  23rd,  after  numerous  speeches  on  both  sides, 
Cleaveland  agreed  to  give  the  Indians  five  hundred 
pounds.  New  York  currency,  (11,250)  in  goods,  as  a 
present,  aud  also  agreed  to  use  his  influence  to  ob- 
tain for  them  an  allowance  of  five  hundred  dollars  a 
year  from  the  United  States;  failing  which  the  Con- 
iiocticut  Land  Company  was  to  give  them  an  addi- 
tional present  of  fifteen  hundred  dollars.  The  chiefs 
on  their  side  agreed  that  the  Indians  should  not  in- 
terfere with  the  settlers  on  the  Reserve,  a  stipulation 
which  they  appear  to  have  faithfully  observed.  In 
fact,  they  could  hardly  avoid  losing  their  hearts  to 
General  Cleaveland,  for,  tlfter  the  counciling  and  bar- 
gaining was  over,  he  gave  them  two  beef-cattle  for  a 
feast,  with  an  accom^janiment  of  no  less  than  one 
hundred  gallons  of  whisky! 

The  expedition  then  proceeded  in  boats  up  the  lake 
to  Conneaut,  in  the  extreme  northeast  corner  of  the 
Reserve,  where  they  arrived  on  the  4th  of  July. 
They  celebrated  the  day  by  firing  with  their  rifles  a 
"federal  salute"  of  fifteen  rounds— one  for  each  State 
then  in  the  Union— and  a  sixteenth  for  -'New  Con- 
necticut.'' The  Reserve  was  frequently  spoken  of  by 
the  first  settlers  and  surveyors  as  New  Connecticut, 
and  they  evidently  were  not  exactly  certain  whether 
it  was  a  part  of  the  Northwest  Territory  or  a  separate 
nation  of  itself. 

At  Conneaut  nearly  all  the  surveyors  and  other  em- 
ployees manifested  a  very  insubordinate  disposition. 
Amzi  Atwater,  himself  an  employee,  says  they  muti- 
nied. At  all  events,  they  manifested  a  strong  disposi- 
tion not  to  go  on  with  the  work  unless  they  could 
derive  some  compensation  for  it  besides  their  wages. 
At  that  time  it  was  thought  that  the  ownership  of 
land  in  "New  Connecticut"  was  the  sure  road  to 
fortune,  and  the  men  were  anxious  to  become  pro- 
prietors. General  Cleaveland  yielded,  and  informally 
agreed  that  if  the  men  would  go  on  and  work  through 
the  season  they  should  have  a  township  of  land  at  a 
dollar  an  acre. 

As  soon  as  this  question  was  settled,  some  of  the 
surveyors  ran  south  from  the  northe.ast  corner  of  the 
Reserve,  along  the  Pennsylvania  line,  to  the  forty- 
first  parallel,  and  thence  west  along  that  parallel, 
making  it  their  base  line.  From  it,  at  intervals  of 
five  miles,  they  ran  meridians  north  to  the  lake;  the 
spaces  between  them  constituting  "ranges."  These 
were  to  be  subdivided  into  townships  by  east  and  west 
lines,  also  five  miles  apart.  They  depended  entirely 
on  their  compasses,  and  as  that  instrument  is  subject 
to  numerous  variations  the  meridians  were  by  no 
means  accurately  laid  down.  Some  of  them  varied  as 
much  as  half  a  mile  from  the  true  line  before  reach- 
ing the  lake.  The  early  government  surveyors  varied 
in  the  same  manner,  but  they  soon  learned  to  correct 
each  township  line,  as  run  by  the  compass,  by  meas- 
urement to  the  preceding  one. 

While  the  surveyors  were  doing  the  work  just  men- 
tioned. Superintendent  Cleaveland  came  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Cuyahoga,  reaching  that  point  on  the  22d  of 
July,  1791,  and  established  the  headquarters  of  the 
party  there.  With  him,  among  others,  came  Job  P, 
Stiles  and  Tabitha  Cumi  Stiles,  his  wife,  for  whom  a 
cabin  was  erected,  and  who  were  placed  in  charge  of 
of  the  company's  stores  at  that  point.  This  was  the 
first  white  family,  and  Mrs.  Stiles  was  the  first  white 
women,  who  ever  resided  in  the  present  county  of 
Cuyahoga.  Their  cabin  and  the  company's  store- 
house were  on  the  low  ground  on  the  east  side  of  the 
Cuyahoga,  convenient  to  a  spring  which  issued  from 
the  side  of  the  hill.  This  was  the  same  location'that 
had  been  chosen  by  the  freighters,  in  1786,  as  de- 
scribed by  Colonel  Hillman,  but  the  slight  cabiif  then 
erected  had  probably  entirely  disappeared,  having 
very  likely  been  used  for  fuel  by  Indians  or  travel- 
ers; at  all  events  it  is  not  mentioned  in  the  notes  of 



any  of  the  surveyors.  The  more  substantial  struc- 
ture, built  by  Captain  Thorn  and  his  crew,  near  the 
foot  of  the  present  Willson  ayenue,  was  still  standing. 

Mr.  Porter,  the  principal  surveyor,  took  on  him- 
self the  difficult  task  of  tracing  the  coast  line,  so  as 
to  find  where  the  west  line  of  theEeserve  would  strike 
Lake  Erie.  The  other  surveyors,  after  runuing  out 
the  meridians,  as  before  stated,  began  to  run  parallels 
from  the  Pennsylvania  line  to  the  Cuyahoga.  Warren 
ran  the  line  between  townships  six  and  seven  (Bed- 
ford and  Warrensville);  Pease  between  townships 
seven  and  eight  (Warrensville  and  Euclid);  Spafford 
and  Stoddard  between  townships  eight  and  nine, 
(Mayfield  and  Willoughby);  and  HoUey  still  farther 
north.  Pease's  line  ran  through  the  present  city  of 
Cleveland.  No  one  knew  anything  about  the  Cliagrin 
river,  and  every  surveyor,  when  he  reached  it  in  run- 
ning his  parallel,  supposed  it  to  be  the  Cuyahoga  and 
went  down  to  the  mouth  before  discovering  his  misr 

We  may  mention,  in  passing,  that  Wayne  county 
was  organized  by  the  authorities  of  the  Northwest 
Territory  on  the  15th  of  August  in  this  yeai-,  nomi- 
nally embracing  the  whole  tract  from  the  Cuyahoga 
westward  and  northwtu'd  beyond  Detroit,  which  place 
was  made  the  county  seat.  Thus  the  county  seats 
(Marietta  and  Detroit)  of  the  two  counties  (Washing- 
ton and  Wayne)  which  then  embraced  tlie  present 
Cuyahoga  were  over  three  hundred  miles  apart.  As 
all  of  this  county  west  of  the  river  was  still  Indian 
land,  the  formation  of  Wayne  county  had  no  practical 
effect  here;  nor  was  any  part  of  this  county  ever  ac- 
tually organized  in  connection  with  either  Washington 
or  Wayne. 

August  and  September  passed  rapidly  away  in  the 
task  of  surveying  the  various  lines.  Holley  and  Pease 
left  journals  describing  their  labors,  but  of  course 
only  a  small  portion  of  them  were  performed  in  Cuy-, 
ahoga  county,  and,  moreover,  the  mere  details  of  the 
distances  and  courses  which  they  ran  on  successive, 
days  would  hardly  be  interesting  to  our  readers.  .  As 
indicative  of  the  primitive  utensils  employed  in  their 
traveling  kitchen,  we  may  notice  Holley's  memoran- 
dum  the  Chagrin  river  the  cook  got  mad  because 
the  bark  would  not  peel,  so  that  he  had  nothing  to  mix 
bread  on,  and  declared  that  he  could  give  the  party 
nothing  to  eat.  One  of  the  men,  however,  solved  the 
difficulty  by  mixing  the  flour  in  a  bag,  thus  restoring 
serenity  to  the  cook  and  food  to  the  party. 

Meanwhile  the  board  of  directors  at  Hartford  be- 
came impatient  to  have  the  laud  divided  among  the 
proprietors,  and  on  the  26  th  of  August  wrote  to 
Cleaveland,  constituting  him.  Stow,  Porter  and  the 
four  other  surveyors  a  committee  to  equalize  and  di- 
vide the  land  east  of  the  Cuyahoga,  according  to  the 
plan  already  mentioned,  and  urging  him  to  accom- 
plish the  work  that  season  if  possible.  This,  how- 
ever, was  entirely  impracticable. 

It  had  from  the  first  been  determined  by  the  direc- 
tors to  lay  out  one  "capital  town,"  or  city,  at  the  most 

eligible  place  on  the  Reserve,  the  township  around 
which  was  to  be  cut  into  smaller  lots  than  the  rest  of 
the  tract,  which  were  to  be  sold  to  actual  settlers. 
The  selection  was  doubtless  left  to  General  Cleaveland, 
to  be  made  on  the  ground.  He  selected  the  site  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga.  Porter  ran  out  the 
streets  of  the  embryo  city,  and  left  Holley  to  survey 
it  into  lots.  Only  twelve  streets  and  lanes  were  then 
laid  out,  which  might  fairly  be  considered  sufficient, 
as  there  was  not  a  solitary  permanent  resident  of  the 
"city."  Cleaveland  bestowed  his  own  name  upon 
the  place,  and  it  was  forthwith  dubbed  the  "City  of 
Cleaveland."  The  township  around  it,  however,  was 
at  first  called  "Cuyahoga  town."  The  locality  at  the 
mouth  of  the  river  is  also  sometimes  mentioned  in  the 
surveyors'  minutes  as  "Cuyahoga,"  but  after  Septem- 
ber, 1796,  is  always  "Cleaveland." 

The  morning  of  the  21st  of  September  the  survey- 
ors, to  the  number  of  about  tiiirty,  who  had  collected 
at  the  "city,"  found  themselves  without  meat,  and 
with  only  a  little  flour,  two  cheeses  and  some  choco- 
late, in  the  way  of  provisions.  It  would  not  do  to  start 
into  the  woods  again,  nor  even  to  wait  long  where 
they  were.  While  they  were  wondering  at  the  non- 
arrival  of  expected  provisions  from  Conneaut,  and 
debating  as  to  what  next  should  be  done,  a  shout  was 
heard,  and  a  bear  was  discovered  swimming  across 
the  river  from  the  west  side.  Instantly  every  man 
was  on  his  feet.  Porter  and  Holley  jumped  into  a 
canoe  and  paddled  toward  the  shaggy  visitor;  anoth- 
er man  went  up  the  shore  with  a  gun,  and  the  rest  of 
the  shouting  crowd  assembled  to  stop  the  brute  as 
soon  as  he  should  reach  the  laud.  They  succeeded 
only  too  well,  for  the  noise  and  confusion  were  such 
that  the  animal  took  the  alarm,  swam  back  to  the 
western  shore  and  escaped. 

As  a  compensatien  for  this  loss,  Holley's 'journal 
notes  mimediately  afterwards:  "Munson  caught  a 
rattlesnake,  which  we  boiled  and  ate." 

By  noon  they  had  become  so  well  assured  that  no 
provisions  were  coming  from  Couneaut  that  they  all 
set  out  for  that  place  in  two  boats  and  a  bark  canoe. 
After  sailing  about  eight  miles,  however,  they  met  a 
party  with  cattle  and  provisions,  and  returned  to  the 
Cuyaiioga  with  much  lighter  hearts  than  when  they 
left  it.  On  arriving  after  dark  they  saw  a  fire  blazing 
on  the  western  shore.  As  they  passed  it,  they  dis- 
charged a  volley  from  their  rifles  by  way  of  a  salute, 
in  honor  of  the  sojourners  who  had  built  the  fire,  and 
in  accordance  with  a  custom  which  seems  to  have  been 
quite  common  on  the  frontier,  among  both  whites  and 
Indians.  The  travelers  were  discovered  to  bo  a  party 
of  Grand  river  Indians,  who  had  been  west,  hunting. 

After  a  week  more  of  surveying  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  river,  the  whole  party  assembled  at  its  mouth  on 
the  30th  of  September,  when  the  informal  agreement 
made  at  Conneaut,  in  the  forepart  of  July,  was  re- 
duced to  a  written  contract,  in  whicli  "  Cleaveland  " 
is  first  mentioned  as  the  name  of  the  embryo  city  at 
the    mouth  of    the    Cuyahoga.     Moses    Cleaveland 



signed  the  coiitniot  on  tlie  purt  of  the  company,  while 
forty-one  of  the  employees  put  their  bauds  to  it  in 
their  own  behalf.  Six  of  the  employees,  including 
.Toshua  Stow,  were  not  parties  to  the  arrangement. 
The  township  which  tliey  selected  was  number  eight 
in  the  eleventh  range,  being  the  one  next  down  the 
lake  from  Cleveland.  With  great  propriety,  consid- 
ering that  they  were  all  surveyors  or  assistaiits,  and 
that  surveying  is  eminently  a  mathematical  profes- 
sion, they  gave  to  their  now  township  the  name  of 
the  great  Greek  mathematician,  Euclid.  The  sug- 
gestion is  credited  by  Mr.  Holley  to  Moses  Warren. 
Each  of  the  men  was  to  serve  the  company  faithfully 
till  tiie  end  of  the  season,  and  was  to  have  an  erpial 
share  in  the  township  at  a  dollar  an  acre,  on  making 
certain  improvements.  "J'hese  were  carefully  speci- 
fied in  the  contract,  and  are  more  fully  set  forth  in 
the  township  history  of  Euclid. 

On  the  same  day  the  employees  held  a  meeting,  at 
which  they  arranged  the  order  in  which  they  would 
make  their  improvements,  and  transact  other  busi 
ness..  The  record  of  their  proceedings  was  also  dated 
at  the  "City  of  Cleaveland,"aud  the  locality  has  ever 
since  retained  that  name,  except  that  the  "a"  has 
been  discarded. 

On  the  tentli  of  October,  Surveyor  Holley  notes  in 
his  journal  that  he  with  bis  party  "left  Cleaveland  at 
tlie  moutii  of  the  Cuyahoga,  to  finish  dividing  the 
east  part  of  the  township  into  lots."  By  the  sixteenth 
the  weather  began  to  interfere  seriously  with  their 
work.  On  that  day  Mi'.  H.  motions  that  they  came 
into  camp  wet  and  cold,  but  after  "pushing  the  bot- 
tle and  getting  a  fire  and  some  supper,  all  were  as 
merry  as  grigs."  But  Gen.  Cleaveland  evidently 
thought  that,  considering  the  long  journey  before 
them,  it  was  time  to  be  starting  homeward.  He  and 
the  majority  of  the  men  appear  to  have  left  about  the 
sixteenth,  and  on  the  eighteenth  Porter,  Holley, 
Pease,  Stoddard,  Atwater  and  nine  others  set  out  for 
their  distant  and  much-longed-for  homes. 

The  only  white  persons  left  on  the  Reserve  were 
Job  N.  Stiles  and  Tabitha  his  wife,  and  Joseph  Lan- 
don.  These  were  supplied  with  provisions  for  the 
winter,  and  then  abandoned  to  a  solitude  almost  as 
complete  as  that  of  Selkirk  on  his  island.  To  be  sure 
there  were  plenty  of  Indians  and  squaws,  but  consid- 
ering that  many  of  the  former  had  been,  not  long  be- 
fore, in  arms  against  the  United  States,  and  were 
liable  at  any  moment  to  break  out  again,  it  would 
seem  as  if  their  absence  would  have  been  more  desir- 
able than  their  company. 

The  object  in  leaving  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stiles  in  this 
isolated  locality  is  not  certainly  known,  but  it  was 
pi-obably  thought  that  the  buildings  would  be  less  lia- 
ble to  be  destroyed  it'  some  one  was  in  charge  of  them, 
and  if  any  tools  or  other  property  were  left  behind, 
it  was  absolutely  necessary  that  some  one  should  keep 
watch  of  them:  for  the  noble  red  men,  though  civil 
enough  in  their  ordinary  intercourse  with  the  sur- 
veyors, would  certainly  have  been  unable  to  resist  the 

temptation  presented  by  any  thing  they  could  con- 
veniently-carry  off. 

Landon,  who  had  heen  connected  with  the  survey 
partv,  ])robably  intended  to  trade  with  the  Indians. 
He  soon  left,  however,  his  place  being  taken  by  Ed- 
ward Paine,  afterwards  known  as  General  Paine  of 
Painesville,  who  boarded  with  Stiles,  and  was  cer- 
tainly at  that  time  an  Indian-trader.  He  was  the  first 
resident  in  the  county  unconnected  with  the  survey- 
party.  The  nearest  white  neighbors  were  at  a  settle- 
ment made  that  fall  in  the  present  town  of  Willough- 
by,  Geauga  county.  Tradition  asserts  that  the  first 
white  child  born  in  this  county  came  to  light  in  the 
cabin  of  Job  and  Tabitha  Stiles,  in  the  winter  of 
1796-7,  and  that  a  squaw  acted  as  its  nurse,  but  there 
is  no  positive  evidence. 

All  the  party,  except  those  who  remained  at  Cleve- 
land, reached  their  distant  homes  without  more  serious 
difficulty  than  was  necessitated  by  a  journey  of  six  or 
seven  hundred  miles,  largely  through  the  wilderness. 
Noitiier  General  Cleaveland  nor  Mr.  Porter  ever  re- 
turned to  tlie  Reserve,  unless  possibly  the  latter  may 
have  done  so  as  a  casual  traveler.  General  Cleave- 
land continued  to  practice  his  profession  in  his  native 
town  of  Canterbury,  sometimes  representing  it  in  the 
State  legislature,  and  always  occupying  a  prominent 
position  among  his  fellow  citizens,  until  his  death  in 
180G.  Though,  as  before  stated,  he  never  returned 
to  the  Reserve,  yet  he  always  manifested  a  warm  in- 
terest in  its  welfare,  and  especially  in  the  village 
which  he  had  founded  and  which  bore  his  name. 
One  cannot  but  regret  that  he  was  not  spared  to  see 
at  least  the  beginning  of  its  greatness  as  a  city. 

Augustus  Porter  soon  after  settled  at  Niagara  Falls, 
where  he  became  one  of  the  leading  men  of  western 
New  Y.ork.  He  erected  extensive  mills  there,  and 
was  also  the  first  man  who  built  a  bridge  from  the 
mainland  to  Goat  Island.  In  1808,  he  was  appointed 
the  first  presiding  judge  of  the  court  of  common  pleas 
of  Niagara  county.  New  York,  (of  which  Buffalo  was 
then  the  county  seat),  a  post  which  he  held  for  thir- 
teen years.  He  died  at  Niagara  Palls  at  a  very 
advanced  age.  Judge  Porter  was  an  elder  brother  of 
Peter  B.  Porter,  the  distinguished  general  in  the  war 
of  1812,  and  secretary  of  war  under  President  J.  Q. 

In  January,  1797,  the  members  of  the  Connecticut 
Land  Company  held  their  annual  meeting.  There 
was  much  complaint  of  the  large  cost  of  the  work  of 
the  past  year,  but  after  an  investigation  by  a  commit- 
tee the  proceedings  of  the  directors  and  superintend- 
ent were  entirely  approved.  Cleaveland's  agreement 
with  Brant  and  the  other  chiefs  at  Buffalo  was  also 

The  stockholders  were  seriously  discomposed  by 
another  matter.  Mr.  Porter,  having  during  the  sea- 
son made  a  traverse  of  the  line  of  the  Reserve  along 
Lake  Erie,  now  reported  that  the  total  contents  of 
the  original  tract  were  only  three  million  four  hun- 
dred and   fifty   thousand   seven  hundred    and  fifty- 



three  acres,  and  that,  after  deducting  the  five  hundred 
thousand  acres  granted  to  the  sufferers  by  British 
spoliation,  (commonly  called  the  Fire  Lands,)  there 
remained  only  two  million  nine  hundred  and  fifty 
thousand  seven  hundred  and  fifty-three  acres  for  the 
Connecticut  Land  Company.  This  was  about  fifty 
thousand  acres  less  than  they  had  bought. 

Moreover,  the  "Excess  Company,"  the  members  of 
which  had  been  paying  fancy  prices  for  a  share  in  the 
surplus  of  the  Western  Reserve  above  three  million 
acres,  (besides  the  "Fire  Lands")  suddenly  found  that 
there  was  no  surplus,  and  many  of  them  became 
bankrupt  on  account  of  the  4'scovery.  Fault  was 
found  with  Porter's  survey,  but  subsequent  work 
showed  tliat  the  estimated  amount  was  too  large 
rather  than  too  small;  a  very  close  eomputation  by 
Leonard  Case  making  the  whole  amount  in  the  Re- 
serve, besides  the  Fire  Lands,  two  million  eight  hun- 
dred and  thirty -seven  thousand  one  hundred  and 
nine  acres.  This  great  reduction  fropi  the  amount 
estimated  before  the  survey  was  caused  by  the  fact 
that,  in  going  west.  Lake  Erie  trended  much  farther 
south  than  had  been  supposed  before  exact  calcula- 
tions were  made. 

In  the  spring  of  1797,  the  company  again  made 
preparations  to  send  a  party  to  finish  the  surveys. 
While  they  were  doing  so,  Mr.  Cleaveland  received  a 
letter  from  one  Alexander  Henry,  who  had  been  an 
Indian  trader  from  Montreal  to  the  upper-lake  region 
ever  since  the  treaty  of  peace  between  Prance  and 
England,  in  1763.  He  claimed  that  he  and  others 
had  bought  of  the  Indians  a  large  tract  west  of  the 
Cuyahoga  and  north  of  Wayne's  treaty-line,  which 
included  all  of  the  Western  Reserve  west  of  the  river 
just  mentioned.  This  he  offered  to  sell  to  the  com- 
pany at  one  shilling  per  acre;  guaranteeing  a  confirm- 
ation of  the  deed  by  the  Indians.  He  stated  that  the 
deed  was  in  the  hands  of  Alexander  Macomb,  (father 
of  the  general  of  that  name  in  the  war  of  1813,)  a 
great  land-speculator  of  that  day  and  a  co-proprietor 
with  Henry.  It  is  quite  likely  that  some  of  the  chiefs 
of  the  Delawares  or  Chippewas  had  made  such  a  deed^ 
but,  as  the  United  States  had  invariably  refused  to 
recognize  sales  made  by  the  Indians  to  any  one  but 
the  general  government,  no  attention  was  paid  to 
Mr.  Henry's  claim.  He  afterwards  published  an 
account  of  his  adventures  among  the  Indians,  which 
is  a  valuable  authority  on  the  subject  of  aboriginal 

In  the  letter  in  question  Mr.  Henry  mentioned  that 
one  John  Askin,  one  of  the  proprietors  under  the 
alleged  purchase,  was  then  residing  with  his  family 
"at  Cuyahoga,"  but  there  is  nowhere  else  any  account 
of  such  a  person.  Among  all  the  numerous  state- 
ments made  by  surveyors  and  their  friends,  it  is 
hardly  possible  that  Askin  would  have  been  passed 
over  if  he  had  lived  on  or  near  either  bank  of  the 
Cuyahoga.  Henry  may  have  falsified  entirely,  or  may 
have  mistaken  Askin's  location,  or  the  latter  may 
have  moved  away  before  the  surveyors  came. 

The  survey  party  of  1797  was  organized  at  Schenec- 
tady, New  York,  by  Mr.  Seth  Pease,  who  had  been 
selected  as  principal  surveyor  for  the  coming  season, 
and  who  proceeded  to  that  point  during  the  forepart 
of  April.  After  the  company  was  formed,  Rer.  Seth 
Hart  was  made  the  superintendent.  Besides  the  two 
officials  just  named,  there  were  no  less  tlian  eight 
surveyors:  Richard  M.  Stoddard,  Moses  Warren, 
Amzi  Atwater,  Joseph  Landon,  Amos  Spafliord,  War- 
ham  Shepard,  Phineas  Barker  and  Nathan  Redfield. 
Dr.  Theodore  Shepard  was  again  employed  as  the 
physician.  There  were,  in  addition,  fifty-two  other 
employees,  to  perform  the  numerous  duties  necessary 
in  an  extensive  survey;  the  most  prominent  of  these 
being  Colonel  Ezra  Waite  and  Major  William  Sliep- 
ard,  who  seem  to  have  had  charge  of  the  others  when 
the  latter  were  not  under  the  immediate  direction  of 
the  surveyors.  Nathaniel  Doan,  the  blacksmith  of 
1796,  was  also  a  member  of  the  present  expedition. 
There  were  in  all  sixty-three  members,  of  whom  only 
twelve  had  been  on  the  previous  expedition;  and,  of 
these  latter,  seven  were  surveyors.  Evidently  the 
work  of  carrying  a  chain  or  wielding  an  axe  in  the 
tangled  forest,  living  on  indigestible  bread  and  sleep- 
ing on  the  wet  ground,  had  lost  all  their  romantic 
charms  during  one  year's  experience. 

The  expedition  took  the  usual  route  to  the  western 
world,  by  way  of  the  Mohawk  river,  Onedia  lake, 
Oswego  river,  Lake  Ontario,  Niagara  river  and  Lake 
Erie,  though  a  portion  went  by  land,  by  way  of  Oanan- 
daigua,  under  charge  of  Major  William  Shepard. 
After  leaving  some  of  the  men  at  work  in  the  eastern 
part  of  the  Reserve,  the  head  of  the  main  portion  of 
the  expedition  arrived  at  Cleveland  on  the  first  day 
of  June.  Mr.  Pease's  journal  mentions  finding  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Stiles  well,  and  also  Mrs.  Gun,  who,  with 
her  husband,  had  moved  from  Conneaut  that  spring, 
though  Mr.  Gun  was  then  absent.  He  says  nothing 
of  there  being  a  child  in  the  Stiles  family,  which  it  is 
exceedingly  probable  he  would  have  done  if  one  had 
been  born  during  the  winter,  at  least  if  it  had  then 
been  living. 

Boats  belonging  to  the  expedition  kept  coming  for 
several  days  afterwards.  In  the  afternoon  of  June 
4th,  one  of  them  brought  the  body  of  David 
Eidridge,  one  of  the  hands,  who  had  been  drowned 
the  same  day,  in  attempting  to  swim  his  horse  over 
Grand  river.  The  next  morning  the  north  part  of 
lots  ninety-seven  and  ninety-eight,  in  Cleveland,  were 
selected  as  a  burial  ground.  There  were  a  few  boards 
in  the  vicinity,  and  a  strong,  rude  coffin  was  quickly 
made.  The  body  of  Eidridge  was  placed  in  it,  the 
coffin  was  fastened  with  cords  to  a  stout  pole,  by 
which  means  it  was  supported  on  the  shoulders  of  the 
comrades  of  the  deceased,  and  the  procession  moved 
slowly  to  the  burial  ground.  There  the  body  was 
solemnly  interred;  Superintendent  Hart  reading  the 
burial  service.  A  rough  fence  was  also  built  around 
the  grave.  This  was,  so  far  as  known,  the  first  funeral 
in  Cuyahoga  county. 



Parties  were  at  once  sent  out  in  various  directions 
to  recommence  the  surveys.  Mr.  Pease  mentions  the 
articles  furnished  to  each  party,  which  certainly  form 
a  somewhat  miscellaneous  collection,  viz. :  Porlc,  flour, 
tea,  chocolate,  sugar,  ginger,  spirits,  vinegar,  cheese, 
pepper,  empty  bags,  fire-steel,  punk,  candles,  a  tent, 
axes,  hatchets,  pocket  compasses,  measuring  pins, 
salt,  soap  and  horses.  From  a  previous  entry,  we 
learn  that  the  daily  rations  for  a  mess  of  six  men 
were  five  pounds  of  pork,  a  pound  of  chocolate,  a 
"  small  porringer "  of  sugar,  a  half  bottle  of  tea,  a 
bottle  of  rum,  and  flour  without  limit.  The  most 
noticeable  difference  between  these  rations  and  those 
issued  to  soldiers  and  explorers  at  the  present  day  is  the 
absence  of  coffee  from  the  former.  Jlodern  campers- 
out  would  hardly  find  tea,  chocolate,  or  even  a  bottle  of 
rum,  a  sufficient  substitute. 

The  main  headquarters  were  established  at  Cleve- 
land, but  on  the  tenth  of  June  Mr.  Pease  with  -a  small 
party  went  up  the  Cuyahoga,  and  soon  after  estab- 
lished the  "  upper  headquarters,"  near  Cuyahoga 
Palls,  in  the  present  county  of  Summit. 

On  the  11th  of  June,  1797,  James  Kingsbury  and 
his  family  arrived  at  Cleveland.  He  was  a  native  of 
Connecticut,  but  had  moved  from  Now  Hampshire  to 
Conneaut  the  previous  season.  Por  a  short  time  he 
lived  in  a  dilapidated  house  on  the  west  side  of  the 
river,  which  may  have  been  the  one  occupied  by  John 

Early  this  season,  also,  Lorenzo  Carter,  of  Rutland, 
Vt.,  and  his  brother-in-law,  Ezekicl  Ilawloy,  came  to 
Cleveland  with  their  families.  According  to  a  state- 
ment made  in  his  lifetime  by  Alonzo  Carter,  son  of 
Lorenzo,  his  father  arrived  on  the  2d  of  May;  having 
stayed  the  previous  winter  in  Canada.  Carter  and 
Hawley  both  located  in  Cleveland.  One  of  the  chil- 
dren of  the  latter  was  Fanny  B.,  then  five  years  old. 
She  is  still  living,  at  tlic  age  of  eighty-seven  years, 
being  now  the  venerable  widow  of  Mr.  Theodore 
Miles,  of  the  eighteenth  ward  of  Cleveland,  formerly 
Newburg.  She  is  unquestionably  the  earliest  sur- 
viving resident  of  Cuyahoga  county,  and  her  memory 
spans  the  whole  time  and  all  the  wonderful  changes 
from  the  unbroken  forest  to  the  teeming  county  and 
the  mighty  metropolis. 

Mr.  Carter,  afterwards  universally  known  as  Major 
Carter,  was  well  calculated  to  succeed  in  a  new  coun- 
try; being  an  exti'cmely  active,  enterprising  man,  an 
expert  hunter,  and  withal  peculiarly  adroit  in  gain- 
ing an  influence  over  the  Indians,  who  were  constant 
neighbors  and  frc((uent  visitors.  He  at  once  began 
entertaining  travelers,  and  his  was  the  first  hotel  in 
Cuyahoga  county. 

The  first  marriage  followed  quickly  after  the  first 
funeral.  Carter's  hired  girl  bore  the  peculiar  name 
of  Chloe  Inches.  While  Mr.  Carter  was  residing  in 
Canada,  during  the  previous  winter,  she  had  formed 
the  acquaintance  of  one  William  Clement,  who  speed- 
ily followed  her  to  Cleveland.  They  were  married  by 
Rev.  Mr.  Hart,  and,  as  no  further  mention  is  made 

of  Clement  in  Cleveland  annals,  we  presume  he  re- 
turned with  his  bride  to  Canada. 

In  June  David  Bryant  and  his  son  Oilman  (the 
latter  being  afterwards  a  well  known  citizen  and  one 
of  the  latest  surviving  pioneers)  came  to  Cleveland  by 
boat;  being  on  their  way  to  a  grindstone  quarry  on 
Vermillion  river.  They  made  trips  back  and  forth 
all  that  summer,  carrying  grindstones  oast,  probably 
into  Pennsylvania.  Their  stopping  place  was  at  Car- 
ter's tavern.  Besides  those  already  named,  Rudolphus 
Edwards  became  a  resident  of  Cleveland  during  the 

Up  to  this  time  all  that  part  of  the  Western  Re- 
serve east  of  the  Cuyahoga  had  continued  to  be  a  por- 
tion of  the  county  of  Washington,  created  in  1788, 
with  its  county-seat  at  Marietta.  No  one  in  this 
vicinity  paid  any  attention  to  its  authority,  and  the 
directors  of  the  Land  Company  were  very  anxious  to 
have  a  "legal  and  practicable  government."  The 
legislature  of  Connecticut  declined  to  assume  any 
political  authority.  On  the  29th  of  June,  1797, 
Washington  county  was  divided;  all  the  north  part, 
including  that  portion  of  Cuyahoga  east  of  the  river, 
being  formed  by  the  legislature  of  the  Northwest  Ter- 
ritory into  the  county  of  Jefferson,  with  the  seat  of 
justice  at  Steubenville.  The  latter  place  was  fifty 
miles  nearer  than  Marietta,  but  still  no  attention  was 
paid  to  the  authorities  there  by  the  few  inhabitants 
of  the  Reserve,  nor  did  those  authorities  attempt  to 
organize  any  townships  within  that  district. 

The  surveyors  and  their  men  were  soon  nearly  all 
engaged  in  running  the  lines  in  the  southern  part  of 
the  Reserve;  their  headquarters  in  the  field  being,  as 
before  stated,  a  short  distance  below  Cuyahoga  Falls. 
A  sad  but  interesting  event,  the  last  scene  of  which 
was  in  Cuyahoga  county,  is  narrated  by  Amzi  Atwater, 
then  a  youth  scarcely  twenty-one  years  old.  While 
he  and  Warham  Sliepard  were  running  the  south  part 
of  the  fifth  meridian  (now  the  line  between  Trumbull 
and  Portage  counties),  in  the  latter  part  of  July, 
Minor  Bicknell,  one  of  the  assistants,  was  taken 
violently  sick  with  a  fever.  There  was  no  medicine 
and  no  comforts  for  the  sick,  and  the  only  hope 
of  saving  the  man  was  to  get  him  to  Cleveland  or  the 
upper  headquarters  as  soon  as  possible.  Shepard 
agreed  to  go  on  with  the  survey  with  one  man,  while 
Atwater  withoneortwo  others  undertook  to  convey 
Bicknell  to  a  more  desirable  location. 

Placing  one  horse  far  enough  behind  another  to 
admit  of  a  man's  lying  lengthwise  between  them, 
Atwater  and  his  helpers  put  two  long  poles,  one  on 
each  side  of  the  horses,  and  fastened  them  to  the 
pack-saddles  with  strips  of  bark.  With  other  pieces 
of  the  same  material  they  made  a  kind  of  net  work 
between  the  polos.  On  this  they  made  a  bed  -of 
blankets,  and  laid  the  sick  man  upon  them.  On  the 
20th  day  of  July  they  started  out,  with  no  guide  but 
Atwater's  compass  and  the  marks  made  along  the 
lines  already  run.  After  going  a  short  distance  south, 
they   proceeded    west  along  the   third  parallel.      A 



man  was  sent  ahead  to  have  a  boat  ready  at  the  upper 
headquarters,  if  there  were  any  there.  * 

Bicknell  was  delirious  a  large  part  of  the  time,  and 
so  serious  was  the  diiBculty  in  advancing  through  the 
forest  with  such  an  unwieldy  carriage,  and  so  great 
was  the  necessity  of  moving  the  sick  man  carefully,  that 
the  cortege  was  only  able  to  make  about  ten  miles  a 
day.  Proceeding  west  to  the  present  corner  of  Stow 
and  Hudson  townships,  Summit  county,  Atwftter 
turned  south  to  the  old  Indian  trail  from  the  Ohio 
river  to  Sandusky.  There  he  met  his  messenger,  who 
said  that  the  camp  at  upper  headquarters  was  taken 
up,  and  all  the  boats  had  gone  down  the  river.  The 
same  man  was  then  directed  to  go  to  Cleveland  and 
get  a  boat  to  come  up  to  the  present  south  line  of 
Independence,  where  the  party  would  meet  it. 

Atwater  then  went  north,  on  the  west  line  of  Stow 
and  Hudson,  to  the  northwest  corner  of  the  latter 
townsliip,  where  he  again  turned  to  the  west.  Plod- 
ding wearily  along  tlie  faint  track  which  went  straight 
over  hill  and  through  valley,  camping  where  night 
overtook  him,  listening  to  the  occasional  howl  of 
the  wolves  in  the  distance,  and  burdened  all  the  time 
with  the  care  of  a  delirious  invalid  who  was  hourly 
growing  worse,  the  young  surveyor  found  his  own 
nervous  and  muscular  system  subjected  to  a  terrible 
strain,  and  afterwards,  no  doubt  truly,  described  this 
as  the  most  exciting  event  of  his  life.  At  length,  in 
the  forenoon  of  the  25th  of  July,  they  reached  the 
Cuyahoga,  on  the  line  between  Independence  and 
Brecksville,  and  rested  to  await  the  arrival  of  the 
boat  from  Cleveland. 

But  no  aid  could  come  quickly  enough  to  help  the 
smitten  man,  who  died  within  two  hours  of  his 
arrival  at  the  river.  Soon  after  noon  Joseph  Tinker 
came  with  the  expected  boat,  having  Dr.  Shepard  on 
board.  The  only  thing  that  could  then  be  done  was 
to  bury  the  unfortunate  Bicknell,  and  he  was  accord- 
ingly interred  near  the  river,  close  to  the  south  line 
of  Independence.  Exhausted  as  Atwater  was  by 
fatigue  and  anxiety,  he  was  obliged  almost  immedi- 
ately to  retrace  his  steps,  in  order  to  find  Warham 
Shepard  and  help  him  out  with  the  surveys. 

Apropos  of  this  last  event,  it  may  be  remarked  that 
''^Joseph  Tinker,  who  came  up  in  charge  of  the  boat, 
seems  to  have  acted  as  the  principal  master  of  trans- 
portation for  the  company;  sometimes  going  back  to 
Conneaut  and  other  points  for  supplies,  with  four  or 
five  men  and  a  boat,  at  other  times  transporting  the 
needed  articles  on  pack-horses  to  the  various  parties 
of  surveyors.  He  was  drowned  in  the  lower  part  of 
Lake  Erie  while  returning  home  the  next  fall,  but  his 
name  is  preserved  in  "Tinker's  creek,"  which  is  the 
principal  stream   that   flows   intjji  the  Cuyahoga  in 

this  county;  heading  in  Portage  county  and  running 
through  the  townships  of  Solon,  Bedford  and  Inde- 

The  township  lines  were  ?oon  completed,  and  all 
the  surveyors  and  their  assistants  returned  to  Cleve- 
land. A  few  remaining  lots  of  Cleveland  township 
were  then  run  out,  and  Warronsville  and  part  of 
Bedford  were  also  divided  into  lots.  Meanwhile  the 
"equalizing  committee,"  composed  of  the  principal 
surveyors,  was  hard  at  work,  exploring  the  townships 
and  settling  on  the  size  of  the  fractions  which  should 
be  added  to  other  townships,  so  as  to  make  them  all 
of  substantially  the  same  value. 

Work  progressed  slowly,  for  sickness  had  become 
extremely  prevalent.  Fever  and  ague  was  the  princi- 
pal disease,  but  dysentery  and  bilious  fever  were  also 
common.  One  of  the  workmen,  named  William  An- 
drews, died  in  August,  as  did  also  Peleg  Washburn, 
an  apprentice  to  Nathaniel  Doan,  the  blacksmith. 
On  the  8th  of  August  the  sick  list  numbered  seven; 
on  the  37th  it  had  arisen  to  eleven,  and  on  the  13th 
of  September  the  number  who  could  not  work  was 
twelve.  The  men  having  almost  none  of  the  appli- 
ances and  comforts  of  civilized  life,  the  ague  racked 
them  with  extreme  violence.  The  fits  often  came  on 
every  day,  and  when  they  passed  off  it  was  all  the 
poor,  exhausted  men  could  do  to  crawl  from  their 
blanket  beds  to  the  spring,  and  get  water  enough  to 
last  them  through  the  next  attack. 

On  the  13th  of  September  nine  sick  persons  were 
discharged  and  sent  east.  About  the  first  of  October 
some  of  those  who  had  acquired  claims  in  Euclid, 
under  the  agreement  of  the  year  before,  made  im- 
provements in  accordance  with  that  agreement.  But 
the  groat  anxiety  to  obtain  land  on  the  Eeserve  had 
passed  away  under  the  influence  of  hardship  and  ague, 
and  very  few  of  the  original  contractors  performed 
their  agreements  and  received  their  land.  In  the  lat- 
ter part  of  October  the  surveyors  and  their  assistants 
all  left  for  the  east. 

The  families  left  at  Cleveland  were  those  of  Carter, 
Ilawlcy,  Kingsbury  and  Edwards.  These,  like  the 
surveyors,  had  been  terribly  afflicted  by  ague,  and  Mr. 
Kingsbury  determined  to  seek  a  healthier  location. 
He  accordingly  removed  to  the  high  ridge  running 
from  what  has  since  been  called  "Doan's  Corners" 
to  Newburg,  at  a  point,  about  five  miles  from  the 
lake,  where  the  present  Kinsman  street  strikes  Wood- 
land Hills  avenue,  and  where  his  descendants  still  re- 
side. There  he  built  him  a  cabin,  which  he  occupied 
with  his  family  on  the  11th  of  December;  being  the 
first  permanent  resident  in  the  county  away  from  the 
immediate  shore  of  the  lake. 




THE  PEEIOD  PROM  1798  TO  1800. 

The  Best  Townships— Annual  Meeting  of  1798-  New  Assessment— Report 
of  the  Equalizing  Committee— Subsequent  Career  of  Setli  Pease- 
Bounty  on  Gristmills— Road  built  to  the  Pennsylvania  Line— Escaping 
the  Ague— Carter's  Generosity  -Settlement  of  Euclid— An  Ague-Smit- 
ten Family— Description  of  a  Plumpiug-Mill— Kingsbury's  Hand  Grist- 
mill—Lack of  Medicine— Annual  Indian  Hunts  in  Cuyahoga  County — 
Annual  Drunks— Carter's  Quarrel  with  Indians— His  Influence  over 
them -Fishing  at  Roolcy  River— The  First  Gristmill-The  Surveyore 
give  up  Euclid— The  First  Sawmill— The  First  School— Formation  of 
Trumbull  County -First  Election  in  it— First  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions 
of  TrumbuU-First  Justices  of  the  Peace  from  the  Present  Cuyahoga 
—Organization  of  Civil  Townships -Boundaries  of  Cleveland— First 
Constables— Kirtland's  Remonstrance  against  High  Prices. 

As  before  stated,  it  had  beeu  decided  by  the  direc- 
tors to  take  some  of  the  most  valuable  to-wnships  as 
the  standard,  and  bring  the  others  up  to  that  stand- 
ard by  the  addition  of  fractious.  Those  selected  by 
the  committee  as  the  most  valuable  in  the  whole  Re- 
serve (outside  of  those  chosen  to  be  sold  for  the  gen- 
eral benefit),  were  townships  five,  six  and  seven  of 
range  eleven,  and  township  eleven  of  I'ange  seven; 
now,  respectively,  Middlefield  in  Summit  county, 
Bedford  and  Warreusville  in  Cuyahoga  county,  and 
Perry  in  Lake  county. 

At  their  annual  meeting  on  the  23d  of  January, 
1798,  the  stockholders  confirmed  the  action  of  the 
directors,  in  giving  a  city  lot,  a  ten-acre  lot  and  a  hun- 
dred-acre lot  to  Mrs.  Stiles,  a  hundred-acre  lot  to  Mrs. 
Gun,  and  a  hundred-acre  lot  to  James  Kingsbury; 
also  a  city  lot  to  Nathaniel  Doau,  conditioned  on  his 
living  on  it  as  a  blacksmith.  At  the  same  time  an- 
other assessment  of  twenty  dollars  a  share  was  ordered; 
thirty-five  dollars  a  share  having  already  been  raised 
during  the  preceding  summar. 

.  The  question  of  political  jurisdiction  was  still  not 
quite  decided,  but  the  stockholders  offered  all  their  po- 
litical authority,  more  or  less,  to  Congress;  at  the  same 
time  requesting  that  the  authorities  of  the  Northwest 
Territory  should  form  a  new  county,  to  embrace  the 
Western  Reserve.  Some  small  donations  of  land  were 
also  offered  to  actual  settlers.  A  committee  reported 
in  favor  of  building  a  road  near  Lake  Erie  from  the 
Pennsylvania  line  to  Cleveland,  with  a  branch  to  the 
salt  springs  in  the  present  county  of  Mahonino-.  The 
stockholders  voted  that  the  fifteen  hundred  dollars 
})romised  to  the  Indians,  through  Brant,  should  be 
paid  to  the  United  States  superintendent  of  Indian 
affairs,  to  be  divided  among  the  Six  Nations  as  he 
should  think  just. 

On  the  39th  of  the  same  month  the  stockholders 
were  again  convoked  by  the  directors  to  receive  the 
report  of  the  committee  on  partition,  consisting  of 
Pease,  S])afford,  Warren  and  Holbrook.  Six  town- 
shijis  were  to  be  sold  for  the  general  benefit;  two  of 
them  being  Euclid  and  Cleveland  (then  including 
Newburg)  and  four  being  outside  of  Cuyahoga  county. 
Pour  other  townships  (Warreusville,  Bedford  and 
two  outside  the  county)  were  drawn  in  four  hundred 
parcL^ls,  one  to  each  share.  All  the  rest  of  the  Re- 
serve east  of  the  Cuyahoga  was  drawn  in  ninety- 
three  parcels;  each  consisting  of  a  township  or  more. 

These,  as  before  arranged,  were  received  by  the  pro- 
prietors, who  clubbed  together  in  groups  for  the  pur- 
pose; each  group  dividing  its  portion  among  its  mem- 
bers  as  they  could   agree.      This   ended  the  direct 
connection  of  Mr.  Pease  with  the  Connecticut  Land 
Company.     He  was  afterwards  employed  by  the  "  Hol- 
land Company  "  in  surveying  its   land,  which  com- 
prised six   or  eight  of  the  westernmost  counties  of 
New  York.     When  his  brother-in-law,  Gideon  Gran- 
ger, became  postmaster-general  of  the  United  States 
in  1801,    Mr.  Pease  was  made  assistant  postmaster- 
general.    While  holding  that  position  he  was  employed 
by  the  government  to  relocate  the  south  line  of  the 
Western  Reserve,  in  1806. 

The  stockholders  were  still  in  trouble  because  Con- 
gress had  failed  to  take  any  special  action  regarding 
their  territory,  and  again  petitioned  the  legislature  of 
Connecticut  to  afford  them  relief,  but  that  body  wisely 
decided  to  make  no  movement  which  might  bring  it 
into  collision  with  the  national  authorities.  The 
company  also  voted  to  give  two  hundred  dollars,  or 
loan  five  hundred,  to  any  one  who  would  put  uj)  a 
gristmill  near  the  Cuyahoga,  and  likewise  to  others, 
to  do  the  same  in  other  localities.  Two  more  assess- 
ments were  levied,  of  ten  dollars  per  share  each. 

In  the  spring  of  1798  a  party  of  eighteen  came  out 
to  the  Reserve  and  built  a  road  from  Cleveland  to  the 
Pennsylvania  line,  near  the  lake  shore,  which  occu- 
pied them  the  greater  part  of  the  season.     The  same 
year  Doau,  (who  had  returned  from  the  East  to  settle,) 
Edwards,  Stiles   and  Gun   followed  the  example  of 
Kingsbury  and  located  themselves  four  or  five  miles 
each  from  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga.     Doau  made 
his  home  at  the  point  long  known  as  Doan's  Corners, 
and  the  others  along  the  ridge  south  from  that  point. 
The  object  of  all  of  them  was  to  escape  the  ague,  then  so 
terribly  prevalent  in  the  "city,"  and  to  a  great  extent 
they  succeeded.     Their  removal  left  the   "city"  to 
the  occupancy  of  Mr.  Carter,  Mr.  Amos  Spafford,  (who 
came  there  tlie  same  year)   and  their  families,  and  to 
Joseph  Landon  and  Stephen  Gilbert  who  cleared  land 
and  sowed   some  wheat.     The  early  accounts  speak 
frequently  of  the  generous  assistance  afforded  by  Mr. 
Carter  and  his  wife  to  the  fever-smitten  inhabitants. 
He  seems  to  have  escaped  sickness  to  a  considerable 
extent,  and  his  expertness  with  his  rifle  enabled  him 
to  make  frequent  and  most  welcome  presents  of  game 
to   his   afflicted   neighbors.     Deer   were  plenty,  and 
could  be  seen  forty,  fifty  or   even  sixty  rods  away, 
owing  to  the  fact  that  there  was  very  little  underbrush 
in  any  part  of  the  county.      Mr.  Carter  also  brought 
goods  that  year  to  trade  with  the  Indians  ;    thus  be- 
coming the  first  merchant  in  the  county  after   the 
settlement  by  the  whites.     The  same  year  Mr.  John 
Morse  and  others  made  a  settlement  in  Euclid. 

As  illustrative  of  the  hardships  undergone  by  the 
early  settler,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  Nathaniel 
Doau  and  his  whole  family,  numbering  nine  persons, 
were  sick  during  a  considerable  part  of  the  season. 
The  only  one  able  to  do  anything  was  his   nephew, 

THE  PERIOD  FEOM  1798  TO  1800. 


Seth  Doan,  a  boy  of  thirteen,  and  he  had  the  inevita- 
ble shakes.  For  two  months  Seth  went  to  Mr. 
Kingsbury's  and  got  corn,  which  he  then  crushed  in 
Ml".  Kingsbury's  hand-mill  and  took  home  to  the 
family.  When  he  was  unable  to  go  they  had  no 
vegetable  food  but  turnips,  though  Carter  and  his 
hounds  ke])t  them  pretty  well  supplied  with  venison. 

The  mill  spoken  of,  at  least  the  first  one  built  by 
Mr.  Kingsbury,  was  of  the  foi'm  which  was  common 
in  all  the  new  country  during  the  first  years  of  settle- 
ment. An  oak  stump  was  hollowed  out  so  that  it 
would  hold  about  half  a  bushel  of  corn.  Above  it  a 
heavy  wooden  pestle  was  suspended  to  a  "spring- 
pole,"  the  large  end  of  which  was  fastened  to  a  neigh- 
boring tree.  A  convenient  quantity  of  corn  being 
poured  into  the  hollow,  the  pestle  was  seized  with 
both  bauds  and  brought  dowu  upon  it.  Then  the 
spring-pole  drew  it  up  a  foot  or  two  above  the  corn, 
when  it  was  again  brought  down,  and  thus  the  work 
continued  until  the  coru  was  reduced  to  a  quantity  of 
very  coarse  meal.  These  machines  were  commonly 
called  "plumping-mills,"  and  probably  each  of  the 
first-settled  townships  in  the  county  had  one  or  more 
of  those  rude  but  convenient  articles.  For  three  or 
four  years  there  was  no  water-mill  nearer  than  Penn- 

Mr.  Kingsbury,  however,  being  a  particularly  en- 
terprising pioneer,  soon  constructed  something  more 
effective  than  his  plumping-mill,  though  still  unable 
to  compass  a  regular  gristmill.  Getting  a  couple  of 
large  stones  in  the  vicinity,  he  shaped  them  into 
some  similitude  to  mill-stones  and  fastened  the  lower 
firmly  in  position.  To  the  upper  one  he  affixed  a 
long  lever,  by  which  it  could  be  rotated  back  and 
forth,  and  with  this  simple  machinery  he  and  his 
neighbors  were  able  to  grind  their  corn  finer  and 
more  rapidly  than  with  the  discarded  plumping-mill. 

The  doctor  who  attended  the  surveyors  having  re- 
turned with  them,  there  was  no  physician  in  all  this 
part  of  the  Reserve.  It  fact  it  was  twelve  years 
more  before  one  located  in  Cuyahoga  county.  The 
people  had  to  do  their  own  doctoring  and  provide 
their  own  medicine.  Instead  of  calomel  they  used  an 
infusion  of  butternut  bark;  instead  of  quinine,  a  de- 
coction of  dogwood  and  cherry.  These  were  crude 
remedies,  yet,  notwithstanding  the  extreme  sickliness 
of  the  locality,  which  is  admitted  by  all  the  early  set- 
tlers, it  does  not  appear  that  the  mortality  was  much 
larger  than  in  sections  where  there  was  an  ample  sup- 
ply of  physicians.  Doubtless,  however,  a  good  phy- 
sician would  have  stopped  the  prevalent  fevers  more 
quickly  than  they  "wore  themselves  out,"  and  would 
thus  have  prevented  much  suffering. 

The  last  three  years  of  the  eighteenth  century  were 
remarkable  in  this  locality  for  the  early  appearance  of 
warm  weather.  Pinks  and  other  flowers  bloomed  in 
February  each  year,  and  peach  trees  were  in  full 
blossom  in  March. 

All  along  during  the  early  years  of  settlement  the 
Chippewas,  Ottawas  and  other  western  Indians,  to 

the  number  of  several  hundred,  were  in  the  habit  of 
coming  every  autumn  from  their  summer  homes  on 
the  Sandusky  and  Maumee,  where  they  raised  their 
corn,  and  assembling  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga. 
There  they  piled  their  canoes,  and  then  scattered  out 
into  the  interior  to  spend  the  winter  in  hunting  and 
trapping.  Having  acquired  an  ample  supply  of  moat 
for  summer  use,  and  a  quantity  of  valuable  furs,  they 
would  return  in  the  spring  to  the  point  where  they 
had  left  their  canoes. 

Here  they  would  sell  their  furs,  and  before  return- 
ing home  would  indulge  in  a  grand,  annual  drunk. 
For  this  festive  occasion  they  prepared,  with  praise- 
worthy caution,  by  giving  their  tomahawks,  knives,- 
rifles  and  all  other  weapons  to  the  squaws.  These 
articles  the  latter  would  hide  in  some  secluded  place, 
carefully  concealed  from  the  warriors.  Sometimes  an 
ample  allowance  of  whisky  would  be  purchased  "  in 
bulk  "  of  the  nearest  trader,  with  which  the  Indians 
would  retire  to  some  forest  nook  and  there  celebrate 
their  frantic  orgies.  Sometimes  they  bought  it  by  the 
drink;  increasing  the  amount  and  the  frequency  as 
the  hours  progressed. 

Whichever  way  was  adopted  a  terrific  scene  was 
the  result.  The  warriors,  as  the  whisky  mounted  to 
their  brains,  tiirew  off  all  the  usual  stolidity  of  their 
demeanor;  told  with  braggart  shouts  of  the  wars  in 
which  they  had  been  engaged  and  the  number  of 
scalps  they  had  taken;  tore  off  even  the  scanty  gar- 
ment they  generally  wore;  rent  the  air  with  blood- 
curdling yells,  and  often  fought  among  themselves 
with  nature's  weapons  or  such  clubs  aiid  stones  as 
they  could  pick  up.  At  such  times  they  frequently 
sought  zealously  for  the  knives  and  rifles  of  which 
they  had  previously  dispossessed  themselves,  but  the 
squaws  generally  performed  their  duty  as  custodians 
with  great  fidelity,  and  a  severe  pounding  was  the 
most  serious  injury  the  irate  warriors  received  at  each 
other's  hands. 

Nor  were  the  squaws  entirely  deprived  of  their 
share  of  amusement.  After  their  lords  had  awakened 
from  the  sleep  which  followed  their  debauch,  and  had 
received  back  their  weapons,  the  gentler  sex  were  al- 
lowed (provided  there  was  any  whisky  left  or  any  fur 
to  buy  it  with)  to  indulge  in  a  lively  drunk  of  their 
own.  Their  demonstrations  were  almost  as  frantic, 
but  not  usually  as  pugnacious,  as  those  of  the  warriors. 

After  all  had  satiated  themselves  with  pleasure — 
according  to  their  ideas — they  launched  their  canoes, 
loaded  in  their  dried  deer  meat  and  bear  meat,  and 
those  skins  which,  being  unsalable  to  the  wlates,  they 
destined  for  the  furnishing  of  their  lodges,  and 
paddled  swiftly  away  to  their  fertile  cornfields  at  the 
head  of  the  lake. 

In  the  spring  of  1799,  the  Indians  obtained  the 
whisky  for  their  annual  celebration  from  Mr.  Car- 
ter. After  using  up  their  first  supply  they  sent  him 
furs  and  obtained  more,  and  this  was  often  repeated. 
Doubtless  thinking  that  the  less  liquor  they  drank 
the  better  off  they  would  be,  the  worthy  trader,  as 



the  tradition  goes,  diluted  the  whisky  with  larger  and 
hirger  ([iiantities  of  water,  as  his  customers  became 
more  and  more  intoxicated.  The  result  was  that 
they  became  sober  long  before  they  expected,  and 
knew  that  a  fraud  had  been  perpetrated.  Nine  of 
them  came  to  Carter's  cabin  in  a  great  rage;  swearing 
vengeance  because  tliey  had  been  cheated  out  of  a 
part  of  their  drunk.  Luckily  all  their  arms  were  still 
in  the  possession  of  the  sqnaws.  They  quickly  burst 
open  the  cabin  door,  but  the  burly  trader,  standing 
behind  it,  knocked  down  three  or  four  of  them  as  they 
entered,  sprang  over  their  prostrate  forms,  rushed 
upon  those  outside,  and  drove  them,  unaccustomed 
to  fist-fights,  in  tumultuous  disorder  to  their  canoes. 
Ere  he  returned  to  the  cabin,  his  other  foes  gathered 
themselves  up  and  slipped  quietly  away. 

For  a  while  Carter  was  somewhat  anxious  lest  they 
should  all  return  with  their  weapons,  but  instead  of 
that,  after  a  considerable  time  had  passed,  a  de])uta- 
tiou  of  squaws  appeared  and   professed   themselves 
desirous  to  make  peace.     The  trader  readily  assented, 
walked  over  alone  to  the  camp  of  his  enemies,  and 
easily   succeeded   in    pacifying    them.      Whether  he 
was  able  to  convince  them  that  it  was  a  highly  moral 
transaction   to  water   an   Indian's    whisliy   when    he 
was  getting  too  drunk,  and  then  knock  him  down 
for  resenting  it,   history   saith  not,  but  there  is  no 
doubt  that  he  exercised  an  immense  influence  over  the 
Indians,  and  could  take  liberties  with  them  which  no 
one  else  could.     His    bold,   rough-and-ready   ways, 
his  great  physical  strength,  and  his  expertness  as  a 
marksman  and  hunter,  far  superior    to    their   own 
were  all  attributes  which  naturally  gained  the  intense 
admiration    of  the  rude,  untutored  cliildren   of  the 
forest.    Some  of  tlicm  declared  lie  was  a  magician,  and 
could  kill  an  animal  with   his  rifle  without  breakino- 
its  hide. 

On  their  way  to  and  from  their  summer  residence, 
the  Indians  usually  stopped  at  Rocky  river  to  fish,  and 
ihis  was  also  a  favorite  resort  of  the  whites.  The 
former  generally  fished  at  night  in  their  canoes,  with 
torchlight  and  spears;  the  whites  used  these  means 
but  also  frequently  resorted  to  the  hook  and  line 
and  sometimes  managed  to  construct  a  small  seine. 

In  the  spring,  summer  aud  fall  of  1799,  "VV.  W. 
Williams  and  Major  Wyatt  built  the  first  gristmill  in 
the  present  county  of  Cuyahoga.  It  was  located  at 
the  falls  of  Mill  creek,  in  what  was  long  known  as 
the  village  of  Ncwburg,  but  is  now  a  part  of  the  city 
of  Cleveland.  The  Land  Company  gave  the  proprie- 
tors a  hundred  acrts  of  land  and  all  the  irons  for 
their  mill,  in  consideration  of  their  putting  it  up. 
The  irons  were  the  most  important  part  of  the  struct- 
ure, as  it  was  absolutely  necessary  to  bring  them  from 
the  East,  while  all  the  rest  of  the  ai3pliances  could  be 
procured  in  the  vicinity. 

The  water  was  conveyed  in  a  trough  dug  out  of 
logs  to  an  undershot  wheel,  "twelve  feet  over" 
which  had  but  one  set  of  arms,  with  brackets  fifteen 
inches  long,  running  inside  the  trough.     David  and 

Gilman  Bryant,  who  were  still  engaged  in  their  grind- 
stone trade  from  Vermillion  river,  made  the  mill- 
stones out  of  material  obtained  by  the  side  of  the 
creek,  half  a  mile  below  the  mill. 

By  this  time  it  had  become  evident  that  almost  all 
the  surveyors  had  given  up  their  idea  of  settling  in 
Euclid,  and  about  all  that  remains  in  evidence  of 
their  design  is  the  name  of  the  great  mathematician, 
applied  by  them  to  their  favorite  township.  Other 
settlers,  however,  came  into  that  township  and  Cleve- 
land, of  whom  more  particular  mention  will  be  made 
in  the  township  histories. 

The  next  year,  1800,  Williams  and  Wyatt  built  a 
sawmill,  near  their  gristmill,  on  Mill  creek;  the 
former,  like  the  latter,  being  the  fii'st  institution  of 
its  kind  in  the  county.  As  in  the  case  of  the  first 
mill,  too,  the  irons  for  the  sawmill  were  presented  by 
the  company. 

This  year  was  also  distinguished  by  the  establish- 
ment of  the  first  school  in  the  county.     It  was  kept 
by  Miss  Sarah  Doan  in  the  Kingsbury  neighborhood, 
which,  as  before  stated,  was  long  a  part  of  Newburo- 
but  has  now  been  absorbed  in  the  omnivorous  city. 

Some  important  movements  were  made  regarding 
the  fee-si mi)le  and  the  political  Jurisdiction  of  the 
Western  Reserve.  The  United  States  at  length  for- 
mally convoyed  all  its  title  to  the  soil  of  that  terri- 
tory to  the  State  of  Connecticut  (by  which  State  it 
had  been  legally  vested  in  the  members  of  the  Land 
Company  and  in  the  "Fire  Lands"  proprietors),  while 
on  the  other  hand  the  State  formally  released  to  ihe 
United  States  all  its  claims  to  the  political  jurisdic- 
tion of  the  territory  in  question. 

On  the  10th  of  July,  1800,  the  legislature  of  Ohio 
formed  a  new  county  out  of  parts  of  Jefferson  and 
Wayne,  comprising  all  of  the  Western  Reserve,  in- 
cluding the  "Fire  Lands"  and  the  neighboring  is- 
lands in  the  lake.  To  this  county  was  o-iven  the 
name  of  "Trumbull,"  in  honor  of  Jonathan  Trum- 
bull, then  governor  of  the  State  of  Connecticut,  and 
a  son  of  the  celebrated  Revolutionary  governor  of  the 
same  name,  who  was  the  original  "  Brother  Jonathan." 
The  county-seat  was  located  at  Warren;  the  most  of 
the  settlers,  who  were  very  few,  being  in  the  south- 
eastern corner  of  the  Reserve. 

On  the  aand  of  September,  1800,  Gov.  St.  Clair 
issued  his  proclamation,  directed  to  David  Abbott, 
who  had  been  appointed  sherifE  of  Trumbull  county, 
and  who  lived  near  the  mouth  of  Chagrin  river  in 
the  present  county  of  Lake,  requiring  him  to  hold  an 
election  at  Warren  on  the  second  Tuesday  of  October, 
for  the  purpose  of  choosing  a  representative  in  the 
Territorial  legislature.  The  election  was  duly  held 
at  the  time  and  place  specified,  when  only  forty-two 
votes  were  cast  for  the  whole  county  of  Trumbull; 
that  is  to  say  in  the  whole  Western  Reserve.  As  it 
was  about  sixty  miles  from  the  county-seat  to  Cleve- 
land and  the  same  distance  to  Conneaut,  it  is  quite 
probable  that  some  of  the  voters  stayed  at  home. 
Edward  Paine,   whom  we  have  mentioned  as  living 

THE  PERIOD  PROM  1801  TO  1806. 


with  the  Stiles  fMinily  during  the  llrst  winter  tliat 
Cleveland  was  occupied  by  white  people,  received 
thirty-eight  of  the  forty-two  votes,  and  was  declared 
duly  elected.  This  was  the  first  election  in  which  the 
settlers  on  the  Reserve  had  taken  part,  and  they  were 
highly  pleased  to  find  themselves  once  more  perform- 
ing the  accustomed  duties  of  citizens. 

Meanwhile,  however,  the  first  court  of  quarter  ses- 
sions had  been  held  at  Warren,  on  the  fourth  Monday 
of  August,  1800,  by  the  judge  of  probate  and  the 
"justices  of  quorum"  of  the  new  county.  The  for- 
mer was  John  Leavitt.  The  latter  were  John  Young, 
Turhand  Kirtland,  Camden  Oleaveland,  Bliphalet 
Austin  and  James  Kingsbury;  the  last  named  being 
the  only  member  from  the  present  county  of  Cuya- 
hoga. The  first  justice  of  the  peace  not  "of  quo- 
rum," from  this  county,  was  Amos  SpafEord.  The 
court  appointed  a  commission  consisting  of  Amos 
Spafloi-d,  David  Hudson,  Simeon  Perkins,  John  Mi- 
nor, A.  Wheeler,  Edward  Paine  and  Benjamin  David- 
sou,  to  report  a  proper  division  of  Trumbull  county 
into  townships  with  convenient  boundaries. 

On  their  report  the  county  was  organized  in  eight 
townships,  of  which  Cleveland  was  the  westernmost. 
It  comprised  all  of  Cuyahoga  county,  together  with 
the  townships  of  Chester,  Russell  and  Bainbridge  in 
Geauga  county.  It  also  embraced  the  whole  Indian 
country  to  the  western  boundary  of  the  Reserve,  (in- 
eluding  the  Fire  Lands,)  which  was  also  the  western 
boundary  of  the  county.  Its  jurisdiction  over  the 
tract  west  of  the  Cuyahoga  was,  however,  merely 
nominal;  as  there  were  no  white  men  there  to  govern, 
and  no  one  in  those  days  thought  of  subjecting  the 
Indians  on  their  own  ground  to  civil  law.  Thus  the 
township  of  Cleveland  had  an  area  of  about  two  thou- 
sand three  hundred  and  forty  square  miles;  of  which, 
however,  only  about  two  hundred  and  sixty  square 
miles  were  open  to  occupation  by  the  whites.  The 
next  township  east  of  Cleveland  was  Painesville. 

The  distinction  between  survey  townships  and  civil 
townships  should  always  be  borne  in  mind  by  those 
studying  the  early  history  of  this  section.  Thus, 
while  the  civil  township  of  Cleveland  embraced  the 
immense  territory  above  described,  the  survey  town- 
ship of  the  same  name  comprised  only  a  small  district 
about  five  miles  by  eight,  out  of  which  were  after- 
wards formed  the  civil  townships  of  Cleveland  and 

After  the  county  had  been  thus  divided  into  town- 
ships, the  court  appointed  constables  for  them;  those 
for  Cleveland  being  Stephen  Gilbert  and  Lorenzo 

In  this  year  Turhand  Kirtland,  writing  to  General 
Cleaveland  from  the  town  which  bore  the  name  of 
the  latter,  declared  that  the  prices  of  land  were  too 
high;  objecting  especially  to  the  demand  of  twenty- 
five  dollars  per  acre  for  city  lots.  He  stated  that 
the  crops  were  extremely  good,  the  settlers  healthy 
and  in  good  spirits,  and  their  numbers  increasing  as 
rapidly  as  could  be  expected.     There  was  a  universal 

scarcity  of  cash,  however,  which  of  course  made  pay- 
ments difficult.  The  settlers  were  anxious  that  the 
company  should  build  a  store,  and  take  grain  and 
other  produce  in  payment  for  their  land.  This,  how- 
ever, was  not  done. 


THE  PERIOD   FROM  1801  TO  1806. 

Samuel  Huntington— No  Laws— Irand  Fourth  of  July  Celebration— 
Gilman  Bryant  and  his  Lady— The  Ball— A  Traveling  Minister— First 
Town  Meeting— First  Township  Officers- Mr.  Huntington  made  Jus- 
tice of  the  Quorum— His  Politics— Attempt  to  sell  Six  Townships- 
Failure,  and  the  Cause— The  Townships  divided— Huntington  a  Judge 
of  the  Supreme  Court— First  Indiotment^The  First  Murder— "Me  no 
'f  raid  "—A  Treacherous  Blow— Thro  its  of  Eevenge— A  Compromise- 
Two  Gallons  of  Consolation— Organization  of  Militia— Carter  elected 
Captain— A  Useless  Protest— The  Captain  promoted  to  Major— The 
Sloop  Cuyahoga  Packet-Purchase  of  the  Ijand  West  of  the  Cuyahoga 
—Proposed  Council  at  Cleveland— Indians  stay  Away— Council  at  San- 
dusky—Terms  of  the  Treaty— Silver  in  Payment— First  Post-Offlce— 
Collection-District  ut  Erie— Settlement  of  Mayfleld— Another  Mliitia 
Election— List  of  Voters— Formation  of  Geauga  County— Survey  of 
West-Side  Lands— The  Perils  of  the  Lake— A  Terrible  Scene— Rescue 
of  "Ben" — Loss  of  the  Schooner  "  W^ashington." 

Early  in  the  spring  of  1801,  Samuel  Huntington, 
of  Connecticut  (a  nephew  of  the  governor  of  that  State 
of  the  same  name),  who  had  been  examining  the 
lands  on  the  Reserve  during  the  previous  summer, 
and  had  at  the  same  time  obtained  admission  to  the 
bar  of  the  State,  came  to  Clevelaud  and  selected  thac 
point  as  his  future  home.  He  immediately  employed 
workmen  to  build  him  a  large,  hewed-log  house, 
which,  notwithstanding  its  humble  materials,  ap- 
peared quite  aristocratic  in  comparison  with  the 
cabins  of  the  other  settlers.  He  also  employed  Mr. 
Samuel  Dodge  to  build  him  a  framed  barn;  tiiis  being 
the  first  framed  edifice  in  the  county.  The  boards 
were  of  course  obtained  from  Williams  and  Wyatt's 
mill  at  Newburg. 

Mr.  Huntington  was  the  first  lawyer  in  the  county. 
He  did  not,  however,  obtain  any  considerable  prac- 
tice; for  the  immigrants  from  the  land  of  steady 
habits  were  not  litigious,  and  were  too  few  in  number 
to  make  much  business  for  an  attorney.  Huntington 
was  evidently  ahead  of  his  time,  as  were  many  others, 
in  expecting  that  Cleveland  would  soon  be  a  large 
town.  In  fact  no  one  could  have  appeared  more  in- 
congruous among  the  rude  settlers,  the  red  Indians, 
the  log  cabins  and  the  frowning  forests  of  this  ex- 
treme frontier  than  tiie  slight,  dapper  counselor, 
thirty-five  years  old,  about  five  feet  eight  inches  tall, 
highly  educated,  and  having  acquired  in  European 
travel  not  only  a  knowledge  of  the  French  language 
but  a  demonstrative  affability  of  manner,  described  by 
Americans  by  the  general  title  of  "Prenchy."  Yet 
so  impartially  were  his  bows  and  smiles  distributed 
to  all  around,  and  so  shrewd  was  his  political  man- 
agement, that  important  public  trusts  were  soon  con- 
fided to  him,  and  he  rose  in  no  long  time  to  the 
highest  honors  of  the  State.  His  first  advancement 
was  an  appointment  as  lieutenant-colonel  of  the 
Trumbull-county  militia  regiment. 



Down  to  tliis  time  there  had  been  no  laws  of  any  kind 
in  the  vicinity.  There  were  no  officials  to  enforce  them, 
and  in  fact  it  had  previously  been  some  what  doubt- 
ful whether  the  laws  of  the  Noithwestern  Territory 
applied  to  the  Connecticut  Reserve.  For  a  wonder, 
there  had  been  no  cases  of  lynch-law,  and  there 
had  been  but  a  single  instance  of  what  might  be 
called  club-law  —  the  row  between  Carter  and  the 

It  might  appear  that  there  was  now  a  prospect  of 
more  lively  times,  for  in  this  year  the  first  distillery 
in  the  present  county  was  erected  at  Cleveland  by 
David  Bryant.  This,  however,  was  entirely  a  matter- 
of-conrse  proceeding;  a  distillery  being  invariably  one 
of  the  first  institutions  of  a  new  settlement,  and 
being  generally  erected  by  one  of  the  most  respecta- 
ble and  responsible  men  in  it. 

All  the  old  chronicles  speak  enthusiastically  of  the 
grand  celebration  and  ball  in  honor  of  the  Fourth  of 
July,  in  1801.  The  writer  was  at  first  in  doubt 
whether  this  should  be  iuchided  in  the  general  history 
of  the  county  or  be  relegated  to  the  more  restricted 
details  of  Cleveland  local  annals.  But  after  duly 
considering  that  it  was  the  first  Fourth-of-July  cele- 
bration in  tlie  eonnty,  (at  least  the  first  that  has  found 
its  way  into  history,)  and  was  likewise  the  first  ball  in 
the  county,  and  was  probably  attended  by  almost  all 
the  citizens  of  the  county,  he  has  concluded  to  assign 
it  a  place  among  the  county  annals. 

Of  the  patriotic  observances  during  the  day  no  ac- 
count has  been  preserved,  but  the  grand  ball  has  been 
described  in  glowing  terms.  Gilman  Bryant,  one  of 
the  p:irticipants,  has  narrated,  in  a  letter  published  by 
Colonel  Wliittlesey,  the  appearance  and  mode  of  travel 
of  himself  and  bis  lady,  in  terms  doubtless  applicable 
with  some  modifications  to  many  others  of  the  guests. 
The  youthful  knight,  only  seventeen  years  old,  waited 
on  "  Miss  Doan,  who  had  just  arrived  at  Doan's  Cor- 
ners four  miles  east  of  Cleaveland,"  and  who  was 
probably  the  daughter  of  Timothy  Doan,  who  came 
thither  tliat  year  but  afterwards  removed  to  Euclid. 
The  lady  was  but  fourteen  years  old. 

The  cavaher  attired  himself  gorgeously,  in  what  he 
assures  us  was  the  prevailing  mode;  wearing  a  suit  of 
gingham,  a  good,  wool  hat  and  a  pair  of  substantial, 
brogan  shoes.  His  long  hair  was  bound  behind  in  a 
queue  about  as  long  and  as  thick  as  an  ordinary  corn- 
cob, tied  round  with  a  yard  and  a  half  of  black  ribbon, 
below  which  the  hair  extended  in  a  small  tuft.  Those 
were  the  days  of  powdered  wigs  among  the  gentry, 
and  the  youth  came  as  near  the  genteel  standard  as 
be  could  by  annointing  his  hair  with  tallow,  and  then 
sifting  on  it  as  much  flour  as  he  could  make  stick. 
Thus  arrayed,  he  mounted  a  horse  and  rode  out  to  his 
lady's  mansion  of  logs.  She  climbed  upon  a  stump, 
and  be  i-ode  up  beside  it;  she  kirtled  her  calico  dress 
about  her  waist  to  keep  it  clean,  spread  her  under- 
petticoat  on  the  horse's  back,  mounted,  and  clasped 
her  cavalier  about  the  waist  to  steady  herself,  and 
away  they  went  in  splendid  style  to  the  double  log- 

house  of  Mr.  Carter,  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  at  the 
west  end  of  Superior  street. 

Thither,  too,  came  the  whole  elite  of  the  Cuyahoga 
county  which  was  to  be.  Wagons  rolled  in  from  the 
lake-washed  shores  of  Euclid  ;  horsemen  with  dames 
behind  them  rode  down  from  the  mills  of  Mill  creek, 
and  young  farmei-s  came  in  high  glee  with  their  girls 
from  the  Kingsbury  ridge,  which  had  attracted  so 
many  settlers  on  account  of  its  healthy  location.  No 
less  than  twenty  gentlemen  and  fifteen  ladies  graced 
the  festive  occasion.  John  Wood,  Benjamin  Wood 
and  R.  H.  Rlinn  were  the  managers;  Samuel  Jones, 
afterwards  quite  noted  as  Major  Jones,  was  the  chief 
violinist  and  floor-manager.  His  ringing  tones  called 
off  the  figures  in  "Fisher's  Hornpipe,"  "Hi,  Betty 
Martin  "  and  the  '■'  Virginia  Reel,"  and  cavaliers  and 
dames,  old  and  young,  married  and  single,  responded 
with  a  vigor  which  marked  the  rude  floor  with  the 
dent  of  many  a  heavy  brogan,  while  the  rough  ceiling 
was  almost  reached  by  the  heads  of  some  of  the  taller 
dancers.  If  their  spirits  flagged  they  were  speedily 
renovated  with  a  beverage  concocted  of  whisky,  water 
and  maple  sugar,  and  the  5th  of  July  was  well  under 
way  eie  the  jovial- revelers  returned  to  their  homes 
by  means  of  the  same  primitive  conveyances  which 
had  borne  them  to  the  scene  of  festivity. 

The  first  minister  in  the  county,  of  whom  there  is 
any  record,  (aside  from  Seth  Hart,  whose  business  as 
superintendent  of  the  Land  Company  was  of  a  secular 
nature,)  was  the  Reverend  Joseph  Badger,  a  mission- 
iiry  from  Connecticut,  who  came  along  the  lake  shore 
about  the  middle  of  August,  1801.  After  lodging  at 
Carter's  he  and  a  companion  crossed  the  Cuyahoga  in 
a  canoe,  (leading  their  horses  which  swam  the  stream,) 
and  then  pursued  the  Indian  path  to  Rocky  river. 
There,  while  cutting  brush,  they  were,  as  he  says, 
saluted  with  a  "sing,"  which  on  investigation  proved 
to  be  that  of  a  "large,  yellow  rattlesnake,"  which 
they  immediately  dispatched. 

In  1803,  at  the  February  term  of  the  court  of  quar- 
ter-sessions for  Trumbull  county,  it  was  ordered  that 
the  first  town  meeting  of  the  township  of  Cleveland 
should  be  held  at  the  house  of  James  Kingsbury.  It 
was  accordingly  so  held,  Rudolphus  Edwards  serving 
as  chairman,  and  the  following  Officers  were  elected: 
town  clerk,  Nathaniel  Doan  ;  trustees,  Amos  Spaf- 
ford,  Timothy  Doan  and  W.  W.  Williams  ;  apprais- 
ers of  houses,  Samuel  Hamilton  and  Elijah  Gun  ; 
lister,  Ebenezer  Ayer  :  supervisors  of  highways,  Sam- 
uel Huntington,  Nathaniel  Doan  and  Samuel  Hamil- 
ton ;  overseers  of  the  poor,  W.  W.  Williams  and 
Samuel  Huntington  ;  fence-viewers,  Lorenzo  Carter 
and  Nathan  Chapman ;  constables,  Ezekiel  Hawley 
and  Richard  Craw. 

While  Mr.  Huntington's  neighbors  were  thus  elect- 
ing him  to  the  honorable,  but  not  very  important, 
offices  of  supervisor  of  highways  and  overseer  of  the 
poor,  Gov.  St.  Clair  had  in  January  appointed  him 
one  of  the  justices  "of  the  quorum"  for  Trumbull 
county,  and  when  the  court  of  quarter  sessions  met, 

THE  PEmoB  PROM  1801  TO  1806. 


although  he  was  the  jimior  member,  his  attainments 
were  such  that  all  his  colleagues  gladly  consented 
that  he  should  act  as  chairman. 

This  year  an  act  was  passed  by  Congress,  providing 
for  a  convention  to  form  a  State  constitution  for  Ohio. 
In  November  an  election  was  held  for  members  of 
the  convention,  and  Mr.  Huntington  was  chosen  a 
delegate  for  Trumbull  county.  In  the  division  of 
parties  Mr.  Huntington  ranked  himself  among  the 
Republicans,  or  followers  of  Jefferson,  in  opposition 
to  the  Federalists,  who  believed  in  the  principles  of 
Washington  and  Hamilton.  The  former  party  ere 
long  took  the  name  of  "  Democrat,"  which  it  has  re- 
tained to  the  present  time,  while  its  own  old  name 
of  "Republican"  was  adopted  some  twenty-five 
years  ago  by  the  new  party  formed  to  resist  the  ag- 
gressions of  slavery.  Mr.  Huntington,  however,  was 
a  moderate  member  of  the  Republican  party,  and  the 
old  Federalists,  finding  they  had  no  chance  of  party 
success  in  Ohio,  willingly  contributed  to  the  advance- 
ment of  the  ambitious  Cleveiander,  who  thus  mounted 
rapidly  to  high  honors. 

In  July,  1802,  Mr.  Badger  again  visited  this  part 
of  the  Reserve.  In  his  account  of  his  former  journey 
he  makes  no  mention  of  preaching  within  the  limits 
of  Cuyahoga  county,  but  this  year  heprcached  to  the 
five  families  whom  he  found  at  Newburg,  which  name 
had  already  been  given  to  the  settlement  around  the 
mills  on  Mill  creek.  Even  there,  the  reverend 
gentleman  could  find  no  apparent  piety.  In  Cleve- 
land he  states  there  were  but  two  families,  though 
we  cannot  make  out  less  than  three.  In  Euclid,  al- 
together, there  were  four  or  five  families. 

About  this  period  the  six  townships,  reserved  as 
before  stated  for  the  general  benefit  of  the  Laud  Com- 
pany, were  put  upon  the  market.  The  company  was 
grievously  disappointed  at  the  results,  for  only  very 
little  land  was  sold  and  very  low  prices  were  obtained. 
"City  lots"  also  fell  from  fifty  dollars  each  in  cash  to 
twenty-five  dollars  on  credit.  Emigration,  at  least 
into  this  part  of  the  Reserve,  was  very  slow — slower 
than  into  almost  any  other  newly  opened  portion  of 
the  United  States  since  the  Revolution. 

The  reason  is  evident.  Wlien  the  Connecticut 
L;ind  Company  made  its  great  purchase,  it  was  ex- 
pected that  large  numbers  of  emigrants  would  go  to 
New  Connecticut  by  way  of  Lake  Erie.  But  ere  long 
the  great  tract  of  several  millions  of  acres  in  western 
New  York,  known  as  the  Holland  Purchase,  was 
bought  from  the  Indians  and  opened  to  settlement  at 
low  lates.  Consequently  no  one  would  go  through 
that  tract  and  two  hundred  miles  beyond,  unless  he 
could  obtain  land  at  i-uinously  low  prices.  Add  to 
that  that  in  the  early  days  this  section  had  a  pecu- 
liarly unfortunate  reputation  regarding  feverand  ague, 
and  it  is  easy  to  see  why  settlement  was  extremely  slow. 

Many  of  the  Land  Company  were  heavy  losers  by 
the  speculation,  and  even  the  most  fortunate  gained 
but  little  immediate  benefit.  Those,  however,  who  were 
able  to  make  their  payments  to  the  State  of  Connecti- 

cut, and  their  numerous  assessments  to  the  company 
for  necessary  improvements,  and  to  keep  their  prop- 
erty twenty  or  thirty  years,  either  secured  good  in- 
vestments for  their  old  age  or  left  handsome  estates 
to  their  children.  In  December,  1802,  it  being  found 
impracticable  to  sell  the  six  townships,  they  were 
divided  by  draft  among  the  shareholders;  thus  dis- 
posing of  all  the  Company's  lands  east  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga, except  a  few  city  lots. 

After  the  adoption  of  the  State  constitution  for 
Ohio,  and  the  admission  of  the  new  State  into  the 
Union,  Mr.  Huntington,  in  the  forepart  of  1803,  was 
elected  a  State  senator  for  the  county  of  Trumbull, 
and  on  the  meeting  of  the  first  legislature  he  was 
made  president  of  the  senate.  Even  this  rapid  ad- 
vancement was  not  all;  on  the  second  day  of  April, 
1803,  he  was  appointed  a  judge  of  the  supreme  court. 
His  commission  was  the  first  one  emanating  from  the 
governor  of  the  State  of  Ohio. 

Civilization  steadily  progressed;  about  this  same 
time  the  first  indictment  against  any  one  in  the  pre- 
sent Cuyahoga  county  was  found  by  the  grand  jury 
of  Trumbull  county  against  our  active  friend,  the 
landlord,  constable  and  Indian-trader,  Lorenzo  Carter, 
for  assault  and  battery  on  James  Hamilton,  of  New- 

The  same  year  the  legislature  divided  the  State  into 
four  military  districts;  Trumbull  county  falling  into 
the  fourth  district,  (under  Major-General  Elijah 
Wadsworth,  of  Canfield,)  which  also  embraced  Col- 
umbiana aud  Jefferson  counties  and  included  all  that 
part  of  the  State  north  of  the  south  line  of  the  latter 

It  was  also  in  this  year,  as  near  as  can  be  ascer- 
tained, (some  say  1802,)  that  the  first  murder  of  which 
there  is  any  record  took  place  in  the  county;  though, 
as  both  the  parties  were  Indians,  it  is  not  improbable 
that  some  similar  transaction  occurred  here  long  be- 
fore any  wliite  man  took  the  trouble  to  write  about  it. 
The  crime  sprang  partly  from  superstition  and  partly 
from  alcohol;  the  latter  cause  could  not  operate  be- 
fore the  advent  of  the  whites,  but  the  former  had 
an  open  field  before  as  well  as  after  that  epoch. 

Although,  as  before  stated,  there  were  but  two  or 
three  families  at  Cleveland,  yet  there  were  several 
persons,  without  families,  in  active  business  there. 
David  Bryant  was  running  his  distillery,  Elisha  Nor- 
ton aud  David  Clark  were  trading  with  the  Indians, 
and  a  Scotchman  named  Alexander  Campbell  also 
built  a  small  trading-house  for  the  same  purpose. 
This  little  cluster  of  cabins  around  the  distillery, 
under  tlie  hill,  formed  a  constant  attraction  for  both 
Indians  and  squaws,  especially  at  the  time  of  their 
annual  return  from  their  hunting  expeditions  up  the 
river.  The  squaws  bought  the  gaudiest  calicos  they 
could  find  and  scarfs  of  the  brightest  hues,  and  were 
not  averse  while  trading  to  exchanging  amorous 
glances  with  the  traders,  who  were  great  men  because 
they  had  so  much  calico.  The  warriors,  more  simple 
in  their  desires,  bought  whisky. 



Among  the  Indians  who  frequented  the  little  gronp 
of  cabins  was  a  Seneca,  called  by  the  whites  "Big 
Son,"  a  brother  of  a  chief  named  Stigwanish;  the 
latter  being  a  person  of  considerable  influence,  to 
whom  was  given  the  distinctive  appellation  of  Seneca — 
he  being  considered  the  especial  representative  of  that 
powerful  Iroquois  tribe,  of  whom  only  a  few  were 
settled  in  this  section.  Big  Son's  wife  fell  sick,  and 
he  employed  as  her  physician  a  "medicine-man  "  be- 
longing to  the  Oliippewa  tribe,  whose  name  was 
Menompsy — generally  abbreviated  by  the  whites  to 
"  Nobsy."  The  sqnaw  died  and  the  disconsolate  hus- 
band attributed  her  death  to  the  medicine-man.  Big 
Son  made  some  threats,  but  he  was  generally  consid- 
ered a  coward,  even  by  his  brother,  Stigwanish,  who 
had  treated  him  with  great  coldness  in  consequence, 
and  it  was  not  supposed  there  would  be  any  serious 

Late  one  afternoon  Menompsy  was  in  Carter's  tav- 
ern, when  the  subject  of  Big  Son's  threats  was  intro- 
duced. "  Me  no  fraid,"  said  the  medicine  man;  "me 
charmed — no  ball,  no  knife  can  kill  me.  See!"  he 
exclaimed,  throwing  open  his  blanket  and  displaying 
several  ugly  scars  on  various  parts  of  his  body,  "  see 
where  Indian  cut  me;  another  Indian  shoot  me,  and 
me  no  dead  man  yet — me  no  dead  man  yet.* 

Shortly  afterwards  he  went  down  to  one  of  the 
trading-houses  at  the  foot  of  the  hill.  There  he  met 
Big  Son,  whose  grief  for  his  defunct  spouse  had  been 
greatly  stimulated  by  deep  potations  of  Bryant's  fiery 
whisky.  A  fierce  altercation  ensued,  in  wliich  the 
Seneca  renewed  his  threat  and  Menompsy  again  re- 
peated: "Me  no  'fraid — me  no  'fraid." 

They  Avent  out  of  the  store  together,  and  ascended 
the  path  which  wound  up  the  bluff,  where  Union 
lane  had  been  laid  out  and  now  runs.  It  was  then 
becoming  quite  dark.  When  partly  up  the  hill  Big 
Son  held  out  his  hand,  as  if  to  shake  hands  in  token 
of  reconciliation.  The  same  instant  he  drew  his  knife 
and  plunged  it  into  the  side  of  the  unguarded  medi- 
cine-man. The  latter  fell  to  the  ground,  while  the 
'Seneca  speedily  made  his  way  to  the  encampment  of 
his  brethren,  below  Carter's. 

An  outcry  was  raised,  and  several  white  men  came 
running  to  the  scene — among  them  Mr.  Cartel-.  The 
wounded  man  looked  up  in  his  face,  saying:  "Me 
dead  man  now — yes,  Nobsy  broke  now,"  and  soon 
afterwards  expired. 

In  a  short  time  some  Cldppeiuas  took  up  the  body 
and  carried  it  across  the  river.  There  a  grand  pow- 
wow was  held  over  it,  and  yells  of  revenge  resounded 
through  the  forest  hour  after  hour.  The  whites  on 
the  east  side  were  in  extreme  fear  lest  the  savage 
Chifpewas  should  attempt  revenge  on  the  small  num- 
ber of  Senecas,  in  which  case  the  settlers  were  liable 
to  be  assailed  m  the  drunken  rage  of  the  two  parties. 
The  next  morning  the  Chijuoewa  warriors  were  seen 

♦This  part  of  the  account  is  derived  from  Mrs.  Miles,  before  men- 
tioned, who  heard  it  from  her  uncle,  Major  Carter,  immediately  after 
the  murder. 

with  their  faces  painted  black  in  token  of  war,  while 
it  was  not  doubted  that  the  Ottavms  would  stand  by 
their  friends  against  the  arrogant  Iroquois. 

Messrs.  Carter  and  SpafEord  interposed,  and  after 
some  negotiations  the  wrathful  Chippewas  were  in- 
duced to  forego  their  vengeance  on  very  reasonable 
terms;  to  wit,  in  consideration  of  a  gallon  of  whisky, 
which  Bryant  was  to  make  for  them  that  day.  It 
was  agreed,  however,  that  the  Indians  should  remove 
their  fallen  brother  to  Rocky  river  before  going 
through  with  the  funeral  ceremonies;  as  it  was  rightly 
supposed  that  an  Indian  "wake  "  at  Cleveland,  under 
the  existing  circumstances,  might  be  even  more  dan- 
gerous than  a  declaration  of  war. 

For  awhile  the  warriors  waited  patiently  for  the 
expected  whisky.  But  Mr.  Bryant,  who  happened  to 
be  busy  at  something  else,  with  singular  recklessness 
neglected  to  manufacture  the  promised  peace-offering, 
and  toward  night  the  savages  became  more  wrathy 
than  before.  They  departed  for  their  camp  across 
the  river,  muttering  threats  of  vengeance,  which  this 
time  distinctly  included  the  faithless  whites.  They 
were  again  followed  by  the  principal  men  of  the 
settlement,  who  solemnly  promised  that  in  view  of 
their  disappointment  the  amount  of  the  peace-offering 
should  be  doubled,  and  they  should  certainly  receive 
two  gallons  of  whisky  the  next  day.  This  time  Bryant 
did  not  fail  to  perform,  and  the  Chippeivas  obtained 
their  consolation  in  time  to  remove  the  body  to  Rocky 
river  the  second  day  after  the  murder,  accompanied 
by  their  friends,  the  Ottawas.  When  the  mournful 
but  fantastic  procession  passed  out  of  sight  into  the 
western  woods,  the  whites  breathed  much  more  freely 
than  they  had  during  the  previous  forty-eight  hours. 

Meanwhile  the  murderer  and  his  brother  Senecas 
do  not  appear  to  have  troubled  themselves  much  about 
the  threats  of  the  western  Indians;  apparently  relying 
on  the  valor  and  warlike  skill  which  pertained  to  them 
as  a  fraction  of  the  all-conquering  Iroquois.  No  one 
seems  to  have  doubted  that  they  would  have  defended 
Big  Son  against  any  attempt  at  vengeance  on  the 
part  of  the  Gliippewas.  So  far  from  being  detested 
as  a  murderer  by  his  countrymen,  the  lately  despised 
coward  had  suddenly  become  a  hero  in  their  eyes. 
The  treacherous  method  in  which  vengeance  was  taken 
did  not  affect  the  glory  of  the  deed,  and  Stigwanish 
promptly  received  his  brother  into  high  consideration. 

Early  in  1804  we  find  the  first  movement  made  to 
organize  the  militia  of  this  section;  an  event  at  that 
time  of  considerable  importance.  The  "trainings" 
were  holidays  attended  by  the  whole  population,  and 
to  be  a  captain  or  major  of  militia  added  in  no  slight 
degree  to  the  consequence  of  the  fortunate  official. 
On  the  sixth  of  April  Major-General  Wadsworth  issued 
an  order  dividing  his  district  into  two  brigade-dis- 
tricts, the  second  of  which  consisted  of  Trumbull 
county.  This  again  was  subdivided  into  two  regi- 
mental districts,  the  first  of  which  embiaced  all  that 
part  of  the  county  north  of  the  north  line  of  town- 
ship five  in  the  several  ranges;  that  is,  north  of  North- 

THE  PERIOD  FROM  1801  TO  1806. 


field,  Twinsburg,  etc.,  and  including  all  of  the  present 
Cuyahoga  county  east  of  the  river,  together  witli 
Lake,  Ashtabula,  Geauga  and  part  of  Trumbull  coun- 
ties. It  contained  eight  company  districts,  the 
fourth  of  which  comprised  the  civil  township  of 
Cleveland;  the  boundaries  whereof  at  that  time  have 
already  been  described.  By  the  same  order  the  com- 
panies were  directed  to  hold  elections  on  the  second 
of  May  following,  at  which  the  members  of  each  were 
to  choose  their  own  company  officers. 

Accordingly,  on  the  appointed  day  the  members 
of  the  fourth  company,  first  regiment,  second  brig- 
ade, fourth  division,  Ohio  State  militia,  assembled 
at  the  house  of  James  Kingsbury  for  the  purpose 
Just  mentioned.  James  Kingsbury,  Nathaniel  Doan 
and  Benjamin  Gold  were  elected  judges.  There 
was  a  hot  contest  for  the  honors  of  the  day, 
but  the  judges  decided  and  certified  that  Lorenzo 
Carter  was  duly  elected  captain,  Natlianiel  Doan 
lieutenant,  and  Samuel  Jones  "ensign;"  the  latter 
officer  corresponding  to  a  second  lieutenant  at  the 
present  time. 

A  protest  was,  however,  put  on  record  by  eight 
voters,  including  several  leading  citizens,  requesting 
the  major-general  to  set  aside  the  election.  They 
alleged  that  persons  under  eighteen,  and  others  not 
liable  to  military  duty,  had  voted  for  the  successful 
men,  as  well  as  some  who  did  not  reside  in  the  town- 
ship. They  also  declared  Carter  ineligible,  firstly 
because  he  had  given  spirituous  liquors  to  the  voters, 
and  secondly  because  he  had  frequently  threatened  to 
set  the  savages  on  the  inhabitants.  The  first  charge, 
considering  the  customs  of  the  period,  may  be  taken 
for  granted  without  any  evidence,  but  the  latter  is  so 
preposterous,  in  i-egard  to  a  man  as  popular  as  Carter 
evidently  was,  that  it  may  safely  be  peremptorily 
rejected.  Very  likely,  however,  the  loud-voiced  cap- 
tain, who,  in  modern  phrase,  "  talked  a  good  deal 
with  his  mouth,"  may  have  used  some  jesting  ex- 
pression in  his  convivial  moments,  which  could  be 
distorted  into  such  a  threat.  The  prayer  of  the  pro- 
test was  not  granted  by  tlie  major-general,  and  in  the 
following  August  Captain  Carter  was  elected  major  of 
the  regiment;  thus  receiving  the  title  by  which  he  was 
known  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

In  this  year  the  sloop  "Cuyahoga  Packet,"  of  twenty 
tons,  was  built  at  the  mouth  of  Chagrin  river;  being 
the  first  sail  vessel  erected  in  this  part  of  the  country, 
though  built  just  outside  the  present  limits  of  the 
county.  The  other  vessels  of  American  build  at  this 
time  running  on  the  lake  were  the  "  Washington,"  of 
sixty  tons,  the  "Harlequin,"  the  "Good  Intent," 
the  "Adams,"  the  "Tracy,"  the  "  Wilkinson "  and 
the  "Contractor."  There  were  also  some  vessels  of 
Canadian  build. 

The  most  imi)ortant  event  of  the  year  1805  was  the 
making  of  a  treaty,  extinguishing  the  Indian  right  of 
occupancy  to  that  part  of  the  Reserve  west  of  the 
Cuyahoga  river.  The  first  council  was  agreed  to  be 
held  at  Cleveland,  and  was  to  be  attended  not  only  by 

the  western  Indians  but  by  a  deputation  from  the 
Six  Nations,  who  still  kept  up  a  kind  of  shadowy 
claim  to  the  lands,  even  west  of  the  Cuyahoga,  over 
which  they  had  once  marched  as  conquerors. 

Accordingly  in  June  thirty  Iroquois  chiefs,  accom- 
panied by  their  interpreter,  Jasper  Parrish,  came  to 
Cleveland  to  attend  the  council.  The  commissioner 
for  the  United  States,  under  whose  auspices  the 
whole  business  was  conducted,  was  Colonel  Charles 
Jewctt,  k  large,  powerful  man,  to  whom  the  Indians 
looked  up  with  the  respect  they  seldom  refuse  to 
gi'eat  physical  strength.  The  representatives  of  the 
Connecticut  Land  Company  were  General  Henry 
Champion,  the  first  president  of  the  company,  Oliver 
Phelps,  and  Gideon  Granger,  postmaster-general; 
while  the  proprietors  of  the  Fire  Lands  were  repren- 
sented  by  Roger  A.  Sherman,  a  distinguished  Connec- 
ticut lawyer,  J.  Mills  and  William  Dean. 

For  some  unknown  reason,  but  probably  to  enhance 
the  price  of  their  lands  by  appearing  to  hold  back, 
the  western  Indians  neglected  to  come  to  Cleveland 
according  to  their  previous  agreement.  After  wait- 
ing a  few  days,  the  commissioners  sought  out  the 
chiefs  of  the  Chippetvas  and  Ottawas,  who,  with  a 
show  of  reluctance,  finally  agreed  to  meet  in  council 
with  the  whites,  at  what  was  called  Ogontz'  Place, 
now  Sandusky  City.  The  usual  ceremonies  and 
speech-making  were  there  gone  through  with,  result- 
ing at  length,  on  the  4th  of  July,  1805,  in  the  cession 
by  all  the  Indians  of  their  right  to  that  part  of  the 
Reserve  west  of  the  Cuyahoga,  including  the  Fire 
Lands.  It  was  said,  at  the  time,  that  after  the  signing 
of  the  treaty  many  of  the  warriors  wept  at  the 
thought  that  they  must  now  yield  up  their  ancient 
hunting-grounds.  A  barrel  of  whisky  was  however 
dealt  out  to  them,  which  doubtless  soon  caused  their 
tears  to  disappear. 

By  the  treaty,  the  proprietors  of  the  Fire  Lands 
and  the  Connecticut  Land  Company  jointly  agreed 
to  pay  the  Indians  seven  thousand  dollars  in  cash, 
and  twelve  thousand  dollars  more  in  six  equal  annual 
payments.  The  United  States  government  also  agreed 
to  pay  the  interest  on  thirteen  thousand  seven  hund- 
red dollars  forever,  to  the  Wyandots,  the  Mimsees, 
and  to  those  ISenecas  actually  occupying  the  land. 
The  Cliipimiuas  and  Ottawas  appear  to  have  had  no 
share  in  the  latter  payment. 

William  Dean,  one  of  the  commissioners,  reported 
the  expense  of  the  treaty,  aside  from  the  payments,  to 
be  about  five  thousand  dollars.  This  included  rum, 
tobacco,  bread,  meat,  presents,  "  expenses  of  se- 
raylio,"  and  commissions  of  agents  and  contractors. 
Meanwhile  the  seven  thousand  dollars  in.  silver,  pro- 
vided by  the  proprietors  to  make  the  first  payment  on 
the  land,  came  through  from  Pittsburg  in  a  wagon, 
by  way  of  Warren  to  Cleveland,  under  the  escort  of 
seven  resolute  men,  among  whom  was  Major  Carter. 
At  Cleveland  it  was  shipped  on  boats,  and  taken  to 
Sandusky.  It  arrived  there  the  day  the  treaty 
was  signed,  and  the  next  day,  together  with  an  ample 


supply  of  inferior  presents,  was  distributed  among 
the  Indians. 

During-  tliis  year  tlie  first  ])ust-ofRce  in  the  county 
was  established  at  Cleveland,  and  on  the  3;Jnd  of 
October  Elisha  Norton  was  appointed  postmaster. 

The  same  year  the  collection-district  of  Erie  was 
established;  eral)racing  the  whole  southern  shore  of 
Lake  Brie,  with  hoadiiuarters  at  Erie,  Pennsylvania. 
Previous  to  this  time  there  has  been  no  collection  of 
revenues  along  the  lake;  the  amount  of  trade  being 
too  small  to  justify  the  expense.  The  mouth  of  the 
Cuyahoga,  was  made  a  port  of  entry  at  the  same  time, 
to  be  under  the  charge  of  an  assistant  collector. 
John  Walworth,  of  Painesville,  was  appointed  to  that 
office,  and  soon  after  removed  to  Cleveland. 

Another  event  of  the  year,  showing  the  gradual 
spread  of  the  population  into  the  wilderness,  was  the 
first  settlement  in  survey  township  number  eight,  in 
range  ten,  now  the  civil  township  of  Mayfleld. 

On  the2i)th  of  May,  1805,  another  military  election 
was  held  for  the  same  company  before  mentioned, 
which,  however,  was  now  designated  as  -the  seventh 
company  of  the  second  battalion;  the  regiment,  brig- 
ade and  division  remaining  as  before.  Nathaniel 
Doan  was  elected  captain  in  place  of  Carter,  promoted 
to  major  of  the  battallion.  Samuel  Jones  was  chosen 
"leuftenant"  (as  the  record  says)  and  Sylvanus  Bark 
(of  Euclid)  ensign.  The  judges  were  Major  Carter, 
W.  W.  Williams  and  William  Erwhi.  The  whole 
number  of  votes  present  was  thirty,  twenty-nine  of 
whom  voted  for  Doan  and  Jones;  each  of  the  worthy 
candidates  declining  to  vote  for  himself.  Sylvanus 
Burk,  however,  received  but  twenty-four  votes;  the 
other  six-  soing  to  Bzekiel  Hawley,  or  Holley,  as  the 
name  was  sometimes  spelled. 

As  the  list  of  voters  at  this  election  comprised 
nearly  all  the  males  between  eigiiteen  and  forty-five 
then  in  the  county,  we  transcribe  it  from  Col.  Whit- 
tlesey's work,  although  the  orthography  of  some  of 
the  names  is  a  little  doubtful.  It  is  as  follows:  Jack 
P.  Mason,  David  Kellogg,  Ebenezer  Charter,  Jacob 
Coleman,  Benjamin  Warder,  Daniel  Parkei',  Cliristo- 
fer  Gun,  William  Coleman,  John  Doan,  Thomas 
Thomas,  Henry  Norton,  Harry  Gun,  Jonathan  Hub- 
bard, iSIasou  Clerk,  Nathan  Chapman,  Neheniiah 
Dille  Timothy  Doan,  Seth  Doan,  Steven  Gilbert, 
Samuel  Hurst,  Richard  Blin,  Bpetary  Rogers,  Samuel 
Jones,  Nathaniel  Doan,  William  Erwin,  Benjamin 
Wood,  Sylvanus  Burk,  Samuel  Dille,  Meage  Deta, 
Charles  Prard. 

On  the  -^st  of  December,  of  this  year,  the  county  of 
Geauga  was  formed  from  Trumbull  by  act  of  the  leg- 
islature. It  embraced  all  that  part  of  the  present 
Cuvahoga  county  east  of  the  river,  and  all  west  as  far 
as  the  west  line  of  range  fourteen;  that  is,  the  west 
line  of  Rockport,  Middleburg  and  Strongsville.  The 
present  townships  of  Dover  and  Olmstead  still  re- 
mained nominally  attached  to  Trumbull  county.  The 
act  did  not  go  into  operation  until  March,  1806. 

The  seat  of  justice  of  the  new  county  was  fixed  at 

Ohardon,  where  it  is  still  located.  This  was  more 
convenient  than  Warren,  but  was  still  very  unsatisfac- 
tory to  the  people  near  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga, 
who  were  patiently  expecting  a  great  city  to  grow  up 
at  that  point,  and  thouglit  it  inconsistent  with  the 
general  fitness  of  things  that  they  should  journey 
nearly  thirty  miles,  to  an  interior  village,  to  settle  their 
quarrels  or  record  their  deeds.  So  they  made  strenu- 
ous efforts  to  promote  the  organization  of  a  county 
extending  on  both  sides  of  the  Cuyahoga,  the  natural 
focus  of  which  should  be  near  the  mouth  of  that 

Soon  after  the  cession  by  the  Indians  of  that  part 
of  the  Reserve  west  of  the  Cuyahoga,  Messrs.  Abram 
Tappen  and  Aaron  Sessions  obtained  a  contract  for 
surveying  it  into  townships.  They  and  their  twelve 
employees  met  at  Cleveland  on  the  15th  day  of  May, 
1806,  to  commence  their  work.  The  United  States 
government  had  directed  Seth  Pease,  then  assistant 
postmaster-general,  to  survey  the  south  line  of  the 
Reserve.  Tappen  and  Sessions  waited  several  days 
for  him  to  come  to  Cleveland,  but  as  he  did  not  do  so 
they  proceeded  without  him;  running  their  meridians 
so  far  south,  that  Pease's  line  would  be  sure  to  cross 
them.  Pease  did  not  begin  his  work  until  the  24th 
of  June,  when  the  meridians  were  nearly  finished. 

The  same  system  was  pursued  on  the  west  side  as 
on  the  east;  the  townships  being  laid  off  five  miles 
square,  the  best  being  taken  as  a  standard,  and  some 
of  the  others  l)eing  divided  and  added  to  the  remaiu- 
der  to  bring  them  up  to  that  standard.  An  equalizing 
committee,  on  behalf  of  the  proprietors,  went  with 
the  surveyors. 

It  was  while  this  survey  was  going  on  that  the  cele- 
brated total  eclipse  of  June  16,  1806,  occurred;  the 
day  becoming  in  the  forest  as  dark  as  night  itself,  and 
giving  the  Indians  cause  to  think  they  had  offended 
the  Great  Spirit  by  selling  the  homes  of  their  fathers 
to  the  intruding  white  men. 

Amos  Spallord,  of  Cleveland,  and  Almon  Rnggles, 
of  Huron,  were  authorized  by  the  Connecticut  Land 
Company  and  the  proprietors  of  the  Fire  Lands  to 
run  the  line  between  their  respective  tracts.  This 
being  done,  there  remained,  as  near  as  could  be 
ascertained,  eight  hundred  and  twenty-nine  thousand 
acres  west  of  the  Cuyahoga  for  the  Connecticut  Land 

Early  in  the  spring  of  this  year,  1806,  an  event 
occurred  which,  though  affecting  but  a  few  persons, 
is  so  typical  of  the  hardships  of  the  pioneer  days, 
when  those  who  met  with  misfortune  often  failed  of 
rescue  on  account  of  the  sparseness  of  the  population, 
that  we  have  thought  best  to  repeat  it  in  the  general 
history  of  the  county.  A  man  named  Hunter,  his 
wife  and  child,  a  colored  man  named  Ben,  and  a 
small  colored  boy,  who  were  moving  to  Cleveland 
from  the  settlements  in  Michigan  in  a  small  boat, 
were  surprised  on  the  lake  by  a  heavy  gale.  They 
were  driven  ashore  a  short  distance  east  of  Rocky 
river.      Unable  to  ascend   the   high,  perpendicular 

ir(^f^^  (T^ 

THE  PERIOD  FROM  1807  TO  1813. 


bluff,  they  all  climbed  up  the  rocks  as  far  as  they 
conld,  and  there  they  waited  with  the  cold  waters  of 
the  lake  beating  continuously  over  them,  hoping  and 
praying  that  some  chance  traveler  on  the  blufl  above 
them  might  hear  their  cries,  or  some  passing  vessel 
might  afford  them  relief.  But  no  traveler  came 
through  the  darksome  forest,  and,  as  the  storm 
increased,  all  vessels  remained  within  the  protection 
of  the  harbors. 

They  wore  wrecked  on  Friday.  On  Saturday  the 
storm  grew  more  violent,  and  the  two  children  per- 
ished from  the  chilling  effect  of  the  waters  which 
washed  over  them.  On  Sunday  Mrs.  Hunter  suc- 
cumbed to  the  same  augry  element  and  expired.  On 
Monday  her  husband,  exhausted  by  cold  and  hunger, 
also  died,  leaving  the  colored  man,  Ben,  clinging 
alone  to  the  wreck  and  breasting  the  storm,  which, 
however,  was  now  abating.  Still  another  night  he 
remained  in  his  terrible  position.  On  Tuesday  some- 
French  traders,  who  had  started  in  a  boat  from  Cleve- 
land for  Detroit,  saw  poor  Ben  on  his  dismal  perch, 
took  him  on  board,  turned  about  and  carried  him 
back  to  Cleveland.  They  left  him  at  the  tavern  of 
Major  Carter,  who  treated  him  with  the  generosity  he 
usually  bestowed  on  outcasts  of  every  description. 
Ben's  toes  were  frozen  so  that  they  came  off,  and  the 
terrible  sufferings  he  had  undergone  brought  on  the 
rheumatism,  which  twisted  his  limbs  out  of  shajje,  so 
that  he  was  hardly  able  to  crawl  around  throughout 
the  whole  of  the  succeeding  season.  In  the  special 
history  of  Cleveland  will  be  found  an  account  of  the 
after  adventures  of  Major  Carter,  poor  Ben  and  his 
Kentucky  master. 

Another  sad  adventure  of  the  year  1806  was  the  loss 
of  the  schooner  "Washington,"  though  only  slight- 
ly connected  with  this  county.  It  received  one  of  the 
first  clearances  from  the  new  port  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Cuyahoga,  sailed  out  upon  the  lake  and  was 
never  heard  of  more. 


THE  PERIOD  FKOM  1807  TO  1812. 

Formation  of  Cuyahoga  County — Its  Boundaries— Still  attached  to 
Geauga— Murder  of  Mohawk  and  Nicksaw— Excitement  in  this  Coun- 
ty—Demand of  Stigwanish  for  Justice— "Snow  cannot  lie"— De- 
scripiion  of  Stigwanish— Scheme  to  open  Rivers  and  make  Portage 
Road- A  Lottery  authorized  for  that  Purpose— Fine  Promises— No 
Performance— Draft  of  Land  west  of  Cuyahoga  -Judge  Huntington 
elected  Governor— Another  Disaster— Wrecked  under  a  Bluff-  A  Son's 
Bravery— A  Difficult  Rescue- Numerous  Deaths  by  Drowning— Cleve- 
land made  the  Seat  of  Justice  of  Cuyahoga— A  Primitive  Bill  for  Serv- 
ices—A United  States  Senator  from  Cuyahoga  County— An  Early  Mail 
Route  —Carrying  the  Mail  under  Difficulties- Organization  of  the  Coun- 
ty—First Officers— Huron  County  attached  to  Cuyahoga— The  First 
Court-Census  of  1810— First  Physician— First  Practicing  Attorney- 
Fears  of  Indian  Hostilities— Extension  of  the  Western  Bounds  of 
Cuyahoga— Increased  Excitement  regarding  War— A  Murder  by  In- 
dians-Trial of  Omic— His  Bravado  after  Conviction— Mrs.  Long's 
Fright -The  Execution— Major  Jones's  Perplexity— Omic's  Terror— A 
Bargain  to  be  hung  for  Whisky -More  Trouble— More  Whisky— Hung 
at  last— Removal  of  the  Body— Declaration  of  War. 

Wb  begin  this  chapter  with  an  actual  Cuyahoga 
county,  ia  place  of  "  the  territory  of  Cuyahoga  coun- 

ty," which  has  hitherto  been  the  scene  of  our  story. 
On  the  10th  day  of  February,  1807,  the  legislature 
passed  an  act  creating  three  new  counties — Ashtabula, 
Portage  and  Cuyahoga.  The  latter  included  all  that 
part  of  Geauga  county  west  of  the  east  line  of  range 
ten — that  is,  the  east  line  of  Solon,  Orange,  May  field 
and  Willoughby,  then  called  Chagrin.  Both  east  and 
west  of  the  river  the  southern  boundary  of  the  counly 
was  the  same  as  now,  but  the  western  boundary  ran 
along  the  westei'ii  side  of  range  fourteen  (Strongsvilie, 
Middlcburg  and  Rockpoi't).  In  short  the  boundaries 
of  the  county  were  the  same  on  its  first  formation  as 
now,  except  that  it  included  Willoughby,  now  in  Lake 
county,  and  excluded  Dover  and  Olmstead.  It  was 
left  attached  to  (leauga  county  for  judicial  purposes 
until  it  should  be  organized  by  the  due  appointment 
of  othcers,  which  was  not  until  three  years  later. 

About  the  time  of  the  formation  of  the  county  the 
people  became  greatly  excited  over  events  which  al- 
most portended  an  Indian  war.  In  the  latter  part  of 
January  an  Indian  called  John  Mohawk  killed  a  white 
man  named  Daniel  Diver  near  Hudson — now  Summit 
county.  Two  of  Diver's  friends  named  Darrovv  and 
Williams  determined  to  avenge  the  murder.  Finding 
a  Seneca  Indian  named  Nicksaw  in  the  woods,  and 
either  believing  him  to  be  the  murderer,  or  not  caring 
whether  he  was  or  not,  they  came  upon  him  without 
a  word  of  warning  and  shot  him  dead  in  his  tracks. 
Major  Carter  and  Mr.  Campbell,  the  trader,  went  with 
the  chief  Stigwanish  and  buried  the  slain  Indian; 
all  agreeing  that  the  snow  showed  no  ajipearance  of 
combat  or  resistance. 

It  was  soon  ascertained  beyond  doubt  that  it  was 
not  Nicksaw  but  John  Mohawk  who  had  killed  Diver. 
Then  the  whites  were  anxious  that  Mohawk  should 
be  demanded  from  the  Indians  and  punished  for  his 
crime.  At  the  same  time  it  was  suggested  by  some 
of  the  leading  men  that  Darrow  and  Williams  should 
be  arrested  and  punished  for  their  crime.  But  their 
neighbors  bitterly  opposed  this,  and  threatened  death 
to  any  officer  who  should  attempt  to  arrest  them. 
The  excitement  spread  ii;to  this  county,  where  some 
of  the  whites  were  opposed  to  the  arrest  of  Darrow 
and  Williams,  while  others  looked  askance  at  the  In- 
dians still  encamped  across  the  river  from  Clevehind, 
and  were  anxious  above  all  else  for  a  course  which 
would  keep  the  peace  with  those  few  but  dangerous 

On  the  tenth  of  February  Judge  Huntington  Avroto 
to  General  Wadsworth  that  he  had  seen  Stigwanish, 
(or  Seneca  as  he  was  commonly  called)  the  same  chief 
befoi-e  mentioned  as  the  brother  of  "  Big  Son,"  and 
who  was  usually  regarded  as  the  head  of  all  the  Sene- 
cas  in  this  section.  Seneca  said  he  wanted  justice  for 
both  sides.  He  was  not  content  to  see  all  the  power 
of  the  whites  used  to  inflict  punishment  of  John  Mo- 
hawk, while  they  were  asfoejj  regarding  the  murder  of 
an  innocent  Indian.  He  offered  to  deliver  up  Mohawk 
when  the  slayers  of  Nicksaw  were  secured.  Referring 
to  the  fact,  to  which  Carter  and  Campbell  certified, 



that  there  was  no  evidence  of  resistance  on  the  part  of 
Nicksaw,  Seneca  said: 

"White  man  may  lie  — Indian  may  lie  —  snow  can- 
not lie." 

He  declared  he  did  not  want  war,  but  did  want  jus- 
tice. The  result  of  the  whole  excitement  was  that 
neither  party  obtained  justice;  Mohawk  was  not  given 
up  by  the  Indians  and  the  murderers  of  Nicksaw  were 
not  punisiied  by  the  whites. 

The  chief  Stigwanish,  or  Seneca,  was  much  re- 
spected by  the  whites.  General  Paine  lauded  him  in 
extravagant  terms  as  having  the  honesty  of  Aristides, 
the  dignity  of  a  Roman  senator  and  the  benevolence 
of  William  Penn.  Unlike  the  average  "  noble  red 
man,"  he  never  asked  for  a  gift,  and  when  one  was 
voluntarily  made  to  him  he  would  always  return  it  by 
another  of  equal  value.  The  general  also  stated  that 
he  abjured  all  spirituous  liquors,  but  was  obliged  to 
add  that  this  abstinence  was  caused  by  his  having,  in  a 
drunken  fury,  split  open  the  head  of  his  infant  child 
with  a  tomahawk,  while  aiming  a  deadly  blow  at  his 
squaw,  on  whose  back  the  child  was  strapped.  It  is 
difficult,  after  learning  this,  to  look  with  very  intense 
admiration  upon  the  general's  hero.  Stigwanish  was 
killed  in  Holmes  county  in  1816,  by  a  white  man  who 
said  that  the  chief  had  fired  upon  him;  so  we  are  left 
in  doubt  whether  the  benevolent  and  senatorial  Seneca 
had  not  relapsed  into  his  former  habits. 

About  this  time  a  scheme  was  set  on  foot  to  clear 
the  Cuyahoga  and  Tuscarawas  rivers  of  logs  and  other 
obstructions,  so  as  to  make  them  passable  for  large 
boats,  and  at  tlie  same  time  to  construct  a  good  wagon 
road  over  the  portage  between  the  two  streams  ;  thus 
forminga  continuous  communication  for  heavy  freight 
between  Lake  Erie  and  the  Ohio  river.  As  was  cus- 
tomary in  those  days,  the  legislature  was  called  on  to 
authorize  a  lottery  in  order  to  raise  the  needed  cash. 
It  was  rare  indeed  that  any  important  public  work 
was  attempted  in  the  forepart  of  the  [iresent  century 
without  a  lottery  being  organized  to  provide  the  whole 
or  a  part  of  the  funds.  ' 

In  this  case  the  managers  were  authorized  to  issue 
twelve  thousand  tickets,  at  five  dollars  each;  making  a 
total  of  sixty-four  thousand  dollars.  This  was  done, 
and  in  return  they  offered  one  jirize  of  five  thousand 
dollars;  two  of  two  thousand  five  hundred  each;  five 
of  one  thousand  each;  ten  of  five  hundred  each;  fifty 
of  a  hundred  each;  a  hundred  of  fifty  each,  and  three 
thousand  four  hundred  of  ten  dollars  each.  This 
made  the  total  amount  of  the  prize?  sixty-four  thou- 
sand dollars;  just  the  value  of  all  the  tickets.  A 
deduction  of  twelve  and  a  half  per  cent.,  however,  was 
to  be  made  from  the  various  prizes,  which,  supiDosing 
that  all  the  tickets  were  sold,  would  furnish  eight 
thousand  dollars  with  which  to  pay  the  expenses  of 
the  lottery,  clear  out  the  rivers  and  build  the  portage 
road.  This  does  not  appear  like  a  very  liberal  allow- 
ance, considering  the  amount  likely  to  be  swallowed 
up  by  the  expenses  of  the  lottery  and  the  probability 
that  many  tickets  would  be  left  unsold;  so  that,  aside 

from  the  moral  qualities  of  the  scheme,  it  does  not 
impress  one  very  favorably  regarding  the  business 
shrewdness  of  our  primeval  financiers. 

Twelve  commissioners  were  appointed  by  the  legis- 
ature  to  conduct  the  enterprise,  of  whom  six  were 
from  this  county.  These  were  Hon.  Samuel  Hunt- 
ington, judge  of  the  supreme  court  (who,  however, 
removed  to  Painesville  the  same  year),  Major  Amos 
Spafford,  Hon.  John  Walworth,  Major  Lorenzo  Car- 
ter, James  Kingbury,  Esq.,  and  Timothy  Doan,  Esq. 
Hon.  John  Walworth,  of  Cleveland,  was  appointed 
general  agent.  Agents  for  the  sale  of  tickets  were 
also  appointed  in  Zanesville,  Steubenville,  Albany, 
New  York,  Hartford  and  Boston,  who  were  authorized 
to  i)ay  prizes  in  those  places — when  they  should  be 

But,  despite  the  list  of  civil  and  military  notables 
concerned  in  the  scheme,  that  time  never  came.  It 
was  found  impossible  to  sell  more  than  a  fourth  of 
the  tickets.  The  drawing  was  postponed  from  time 
to  time  in  the  hope  of  an  increase  ol  funds,  and  even 
as  1811  was  still  expected  to  take  place.  Fi- 
nally, however,  it  was  entirely  given  up  and  the 
money  already  paid  in  was  returned,  without  interest, 
to  the  purchasers  of  tickets.  Thus  ended  the  first 
scheme  of  internal  improvement  connected  with  Cuy- 
ahoga county. 

On  the  second  day  of  April  in  this  year  took  place 
the  "draft"  of  the  Land  Company's  land  west  of  the 
Cuyahoga;  that  is,  the  townships  were  distributed  by 
lot  among  groups  of  owners,  who  thereupon  received 
deeds  from  the  trustees.  The  subdivision  of  the 
townships  into  lots  by  the  owners  was  still  to  be  made 
before  the  work  of  settlement  could  well  commence. 

Although,  as  before  stated.  Judge  Huntington  re- 
moved to  Painesville  (now  Lake  county)  this  year,  yet 
he  was  so  thoroughly  identified  with  the  early  history 
of  Cuyahoga  county  as  to  make  it  eminently  proper 
to  notice  the  fact  that  in  the  autumn  of  1807  he  was 
elected  governor  of  Ohio,  in  place  of  Hon.  Edward 
Tiffin,  appointed  United  States  senator.  Mr.  Tiffin 
was  the  first  executive  of  the  State,  having  been 
elected  for  a  second  term,  and  so  it  happened  that  the 
second  governor  of  Ohio  was  a  gentleman  whose  home 
for  six  years  had  been  among  the  forests,  the  wolves 
and  the  log-cabins  of  Cuyahoga  county. 

It  must  be  added  that  Judge  H.  probably  left 
Cleveland  because  he  despaired  of  its  future.  Ague, 
ague,  ague,  was  the  cry  of  all  who  came  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Cuyahoga,  and  ten  years  after  its  settlement 
Cleveland  had  not  probably  over  thirty  inhabita.nts. 
This  condition  of  the  only  port  where  there  was  a 
good  harbor  discouraged  immigrants  at  the  very 
threshold  of  the  county,  and  naturally  retarded  set- 
tlement in  the  back  townships,  though  we  cannot 
learn  that  these  were  any  worse  in  regard  to  sickness 
than  the  rest  of  northern  Ohio. 

Governor  Huntington  served  one  term  as  chief 
magistrate  of  the  State.  He  afterwards  resided  on 
his  farm  near  Painesville  until  his  death. 

THE  PERIOD  FROM  1807  TO  1812. 


Early  in  the  spring  of  1808  occurred  another  of  the 
sad  events  so  frequent  in  the  early  annals  of  the 
county.  Stephen  Gilbert,  one  of  the  two  first  con- 
stables of  the  county  Joseph  Plumb,  Adolphus  Spaf- 

ford,  (son  of  Major  Amos)  and Gillmore,  started 

on  a  bateau  from  Cleveland  on  a  fishing  expedition  to 
the  Maumee  river.  A  colored  woman  called  Mary  was 
also  on  board  the  boat  as  a  passenger,  intending  to 
stop  at  Black  river,  where  Major  Nathan  Perry  "was 
keeping  a  trading-house,  and  where  some  goods  be- 
longing to  him  were  to  be  put  on  shore. 

A  Mr.  White,  of  Newburg,  and  two  sons  of  Joseph 
Plumb,  who  had  expecbed  to  go  on  the  boat  but  were 
too  late,  took  the  Indian  trail  to  Black  river,  expecting 
to  get  on  board  there.  In  tlie  western  part  of  the 
present  town  of  Dover,  hearing  cries  of  distress,  they 
looked  down  to  the  foot  of  the  bluff,  and  saw  sixty 
feet  beneath  them  the  boat  in  which  their  friends  had 
set  sail,  bottom  side  up,  while  near  it  was  the  elder 
Ml-.  Plumb,  the  sole  survivor  of  the  crew.  He  told 
them  that  the  boat  had  capsized  a  mile  from  shore. 
The  woman  was  drowned  at  once.  All  the  others  ex- 
cept Plumb  were  good  swimmers  and  had  struck  out 
for  shore,  but  the  water  was  so  cold  that  one  after 
another  their  strength  failed  them  and  they  sank  to 
rise  no  more.  Plumb,  being  unable  to  swim,  got 
astride  the  boat  and  was  thus  driven  ashore.  He  was 
seriously  hurt,  however,  and  was  scarcely  able  to  move, 
on  account  of  his  immersion  in  the  extremely  cold 
water  of  the  lake. 

His  friends  hardly  knew  what  to  do,  as  he  could 
not  climb  up  the  almost  perpendicular  bluff  and  they 
could  not  get  down  to  him.  It  was  quickly  decided, 
however,  that  Mr.  White  and  one  of  the  young  men 
should  hasten  on  to  Black  river,  some  twelve  miles 
distant,  to  obtain  aid  and  ropes,  while  the  other  son 
remained  to  comfort  his  father.  The  latter  was  so 
overcome  with  cold,  and  so  discouraged  by  the  circum- 
stances in  which  he  found  himself,  that  the  young  man 
determined  to  reach  him  at  all  hazards.  Climbing  part- 
ly down  the  bluff  he  found  an  ironwood  sapling  whicii 
grew  out  partly  over  the  beach.  Young  Plumb 
crawled  upon  this  to  the  outermost  bushes,  and  the 
tough  ironwood  bent  far  down  beneath  his  weight. 
Suspending  himself  by  his  hands  to  the  lowest-reach- 
ing branches,  the  brave  young  man  finally  let  go, 
dropping  over  twenty  feet  to  the  sandy  beach  below, 
and  fortunately  escaping  unhurt.  He  made  his  father 
as  comfortable  as  possible,  and  together  they  awaited 
the  coming  of  aid. 

Darkness  came  on  and  still  no  relief  appeared.  At 
length,  when  the  night  was  well  advanced,  shouts 
were  heard  and  lights  were  seen  on  the  bluff  above. 
White  and  young  Plumb  had  returned,  accompanied 
by  Major  Perry  and  Quintus  P.  Atkins,  who  probably 
comprised  the  whole  male  population  at  Black  river 
at  that  time.  They  brought  ropes  and  lanterns,  but 
their  task  was  still  one  of  considerable  difficulty. 
The  elder  Mr.  Plumb  weighed  some  two  hundred 
and  twenty  pounds,  and  it  was  no  easy  task  to  raise 

him  by  sheer  strength  up  that  sixty-feet  bluff.  How- 
ever, one  end  of  the  rope  was  made  fast  to  a  tree,  the 
other  was  let  down  to  the  men  below,  and  fastened 
by  young  Plumb  under  his  father's  arms.  The  four 
men  above  then  began  to  "haul  in,"  and  by  exerting 
their  united  strength  finally  landed  the  old  gentleman 
at  the  top  of  the  bluff ;  he  and  they  being  alike 
almost  exhausted  by  the  operation.  The  young  man 
was  then  drawn  up  with  comparative  ease. 

Such  were  the  dangers  from  the  turbulent  lake  and 
the  rock  bound  coast  that  out  of  the  eighteen  deaths 
of  residents  of  Cleveland,  occurring  during  the  twelve 
first  years  of  the  settlement,  no  less  than  eleven  were 
by  drowning.  It  will  be  seen  that,  notwithstanding 
the  evil  reputation  of  the  locality  as  to  health,  there 
was  not  a  very  large  proportion  of  deaths  by  disease. 
In  fact  the  ague  seldom  killed;  it  only  made  people 
wish  they  wei-e  dead. 

In  the  spring  of  1809  a  commission  was  appointed 
by  the  State  to  select  a  location  for  the  seat  of  justice 
of  Cuyahoga  county.  The  only  place  besides  Cleve- 
land which  had  serious  claims  to  this  honor  was 
Newburg,  which  had  as  large  a  population  as  the 
former  village,  or  larger,  and  was  a  much  more  healthy 
and  thriving  locality.  Ilowevei-,  the  position  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga,  with  its  possibilities  of  future 
greatness,  carried  the  day  in  spite  of  the  ague,  and 
Cleveland  was  duly  selected.  The  time  employed  by 
the  commissioners  and  the  salary  paid  them  are  both 
shown  by  the  following  extract  from  the  bill  presented 
by  one  of  the  honorable  commissioners,  from  Colum- 
biana county,  which  also  gives  a  hint  of  the  orthog- 
raphy often  practiced  among  the  officials  of  the  day: 

"A  Leven  Days,  Two  Dollars  per  day,  Twenty-two 
dollars. " 

In  an  accompanying  letter  to  Abraham  Tappen  the 
commi.5sionor  requested  that  he  present  the  bill  to  the 
"  Nixt  Cort,"  by  whicli  he  would  much  oblige  "your 
humble  Sarvent." 

In  the  spring  of  1809  another  citizen  of  Cuyahoga 
county  was  elevated  to  distinguished  honors.  Hon. 
Stanley  Griswold,  who  had  been  secretary  of  the  Ter- 
ritory of  Michigan  under  Governor  Hall,  had  resigned 
that  position  and  located  himself  at  "  Doan's  Corners," 
four  miles  east  of  Cleveland  village.  He  was  a  man 
of  marked  ability  and  when,  in  the  forepart  of  1809, 
Mr.  Tiffin  resigned  his  seat  as  United  States  senator. 
Governor  Huntington  appointed  Mr.  Griswold  to  fill 
his  place. 

In  a  letter  written  about  this  time  the  new  senator 
expressed  the  opinion  that  this  would  be  a  good  loca- 
tion for  a  physician;  there  being  none  in  the  county, 
and  none  of  any  eminence  within  fifty  miles.  Still, 
he  said,  a  doctor  would  have  to  keep  school  a  part  of 
the  time  in  order  to  make  a  living,  until  there  was  a 
larger  population.  Senator  Griswold  only  served  dur- 
in"-  the  remainder  of  one  session,  but  it  is  somewhat 
remarkable  that  Cuyahoga  county  should  have  fur- 
nished a  State  governor  and  a  United  States  senator 
before  it  possessed  a  doctor. 



The  contract  for  carrying  the  mail  through  a  wide 
region  was  at  this  time  held  by  Joseph  Burke,  of 
Euclid,  whose  two  sous  were  tlic  mail  carriers  ;  one  of 
them  having  been  the  late  Gains  Burke  of  Newburg. 
The  route  was  from  Cleveland  to  Hudson,  Ravenna, 
Deerficld,  Warren,  Mesopotamia,  Windsor,  Jefferson, 
Austinburg,  Harpersfield,  Painesvillc,  aud  thence  back 
to  Cleveland.  This  was  the  only  route  any  part  of 
which  was  in  Cuyahoga  county,  except  the  main  line 
to  the  west  along  the  lake  shore,  and  Cleveland  still 
possessed  the  only  post-office  in  the  county. 

Mr.  Gains  Burke,  in  a  letter  on  tile  among  the  ar- 
chives of  the  Historical  Society,  says  that  the  road 
was  underbrushed  most  of  the  way,  but  there  were  no 
bridges,  and  streams  and  swamps  were  numerous.  In 
the  summer  the  two  youngsters  by  turns  carried  the 
mail  on  horseback,  but  when  wet  weather  came  in 
the  spring  and  fall  they  had  to  trudge  on  foot;  the 
roads  being  too  bad  to  be  traveled  on  horseback,  much 
less  with  a  wagon.  On  reaching  streams  the  carrier 
sometimes  crossed  in  a  canoe  or  on  a  raft,  kept  thei-e 
for  the  accommodation  of  travelers.  Sometimes  he 
got  astride  a  convenient  piece  of  flood-wood  and  pad  • 
died  obliquely  to  the  opposite  shore.  And  sometimes, 
in  default  of  any  of  these  resources,  he  waded  the 
stream,  or,  if  it  was  too  deep  for  that,  plunged  boldly 
in  and  swam  across,  keeping  his  little  bag  of  letters 
above  his  head  as  best  ho  might.  The  population 
v/as  still  extremely  sparse;  there  being  spaces  five,  ten 
or  even  fifteen  miles  in  width  without  a  single  house. 

At  length,  in  May,  1810,  Cuyahoga  county  was 
duly  organized  by  the  appointment  of  the  proper  of- 
ficers, and  began  its  indei^endent  existence.  The  first 
officers  were  Hon.  Benjamin  Ruggles,  presiding  judge 
of  the  court  of  common  pleas;  Nathan  Perry,  Sr.,  A. 
Gilbert  and  Timothy  Doan,  associate  judges;  John 
Walworth,  clerk;  and  Smith  S.  Baldwin,  sheriff.  At 
this  time  Huron  county,  which  was  still  unorganized, 
was  attached  to  Cuyahoga  county  for  judicial  aud 
legislative  purposes,  as  was  also  a  tract  between  the 
two  counties,  which  appears  to  have  been  left  outside 
of  any  county  boundaries.  The  first  court  was  held 
at  the  newly  erected  store  of  Elias  and  Harvey  Mur- 
ray, in  Cleveland.  One  indictment  was  presented  for 
petit  larceny,  several  for  selling  whisky  to  Indians, 
and  others  for  selling  foreign  goods  without  license. 
By  the  United  .States  census  of  this  year  the  popu- 
lation of  the  county  was  found  to  be  one  thousand 
four  hundred  and  ninety-five,  a  considerable  portion 
of  whom,  however,  resided  in  "  Chagrin  "  or  Wil- 
loughby,  which  has  since  been  transferred  to  Lake 
county.  The  remainder  of  the  settlers  were  in  what 
is  now  Cleveland,  Eixst  Cleveland,  Euclid,  Mayfield, 
Newburg,  Independence  and  Brooklyn,  with  a  very 
few  m  Middleburg. 

It  was  not  until  1810  that  a  physician  became  a 
permanent  resident  of  Cuyahoga  county;  this  was  I)r. 
David  Long,  a  native  of  Washington  county,  Ndw 
York,  who  then  settled  at  Cleveland,  where  he  prac- 
ticed his  profession  throughout  a  long  and  useful  life. 

Alfred  Kelley,  Esq.,  who  was  admitted  to  the  bar 
and  made  prosecuting  attorney  of  the  district  on  the 
7th  of  November,  1810,  at  the  age  of  twenty-one,  was 
the  first  practicing  lawyer  in  the  county,  Mr.  Hunt- 
ington's time  having  been  entirely  occupied  by  other 

During  this  year  the  people  became  much  excited 
by  the  rumors  of  Indian  war  from  the  "West,  where 
Tecumseh  and  his  brother,  "the  Prophet,"  were  en- 
deavoring to  unite  all  the   widely  scattered   tribes 
from  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  to  the   great  lakes  in  a 
league  against  the  ever-encroaching  Americans.     War, 
too,  was  anticipated  between  the  United  States  and 
Great  Britain,  and  a  decided  feeling  of  uneasiness 
spread  over  the  whole  frontier.     Although  there  were 
scattered   settlements   from  Cuyahoga   county  west- 
ward along  the  lake  shore  to  the  Maumee,  yet  back 
from  the  lake  nearly  the  whole  country  was  still  an 
unbroken  forest  or  an  uninhabited  prairie  from  the 
Cuyahoga  river  to  the  Pacific  ocean,  and  there  was 
nothing  improbable  in  Tecumseh  and  his  savage  fol- 
lowers making  a  raid  among  the  scattered  inhabitants 
of  Cuyahoga  county. 

In  1811  the  fears  of  the  people  were  again  aroused 
by  an  earthquake,  which  gave  a  perceptible  shock,  and 
which  was  thought  by  many  to  portend  some  dire 
disaster.  But  ere  long  came  the  news  of  the  battle  of 
Tippecanoe,  in  which  the  warriors  of  the  great  league 
were  totally  defeated  by  the  American  troops  under 
General  Harrison.  Then,  for  a  time,  the  people  rested 
free  from  the  fears  of  Indian  invasion. 

By  an  act  passed  on  the  25th  day  of  January  of  this 
year,  (1811,)  the  western  boundary  of  the  county, 
which  as  defined  by  the  act  creating  it  was  the  same 
as  the  western  boundary  of  the  present  townships 
of  Strongsville,  Middleburg  and  Rockport,  was  car- 
ried from  ten  to  fifteen  miles  farther  west.  Begin- 
ning at  the  southwest  corner  of  the  present  township 
of  Eaton,  Lorain  county,  (township  five,  range  six- 
teen,) the  new  line  ran  thence  north  to  the  north- 
west corner  of  that  township;  thence  west  to  the 
middle  of  Black  river,  and  thence  down  the  center  of 
that  stream  to  the  lake.  The  tract  thus  united  to 
Cuyahoga  county  consisted  of  the  present  townships 
of  Dover  and  Olmstead,  which  have  ever  since  re- 
mained in  it,  and  the  townships  of  Avon,  Ridgeville, 
Columbia  and  Eaton,  aud  parts  of  Sheffield  and 
Elyria,  now  in  Lorain  county. 

Despite  of  Indian  troubles,  emigration  was  still  flow- 
ing south  and  west,  and  in  this  year  township  five, 
range  twelve,  now  known  as  Brecksville,  was  subdi- 
vided into  lots  ready  for  settlement. 

During  the  forepart  of  1812  the  excitement  on  the 
frontier  became  intense;  for  it  was  known  that  the 
question  of  declaring  war  was  being  continuously  de- 
bated in  Congress,  and  no  one  knew  at  what  moment 
its  fury  might  bo  unchained.  This  locality  was  one 
of  peculiar  danger;  for  not  only  were  the  Indians 
threatening  massacre  a  short  distance  to  the  westward 
but  the  whole  broadside  of  the  county  lay  open  to 


THE  PERIOD  EROM  1807  TO  1812. 


Lake  Erie,  aud  on  Lake  Erie  the  Britisli  had  several 
armed  vessels  while  the  Americans  had  none. 

The  prevailing  uneasiness  was  increased  by  the  mur- 
der of  two  white  men  by  three  Indians  in  Huron 
county,  although  the  crime  was  committed  solely  to 
obtain  the  furs  of  the  victims,  and  had  no  connection 
with  any  general  hostile  movement.  The  people  of 
the  vicinity,  discovering  the  bones  of  the  victims  be- 
neath the  ashes  of  their  cabin,  which  the  Indians  had 
fired,  turned  out  in  pursuit  and  captured  all  three  of 
the  murderers,  with  the  property  of  the  murdered  men 
in  their  possession.  One  of  them,  a  mere  boy,  was 
allowed  to  escape.  Another,  named  Semo,  after  he 
was  arrested  placed  the  muzzle  of  his  gun  under  his 
chin,  pulled  the  trigger  with  his  toe  and  instantly 
killed  himself.  The  third  was  a  young  Indian  who 
had  lived  in  the  vicinity  of  Cleveland,  and  was  com- 
monly called  Omic,  and  sometimes  as  John  Omic,  to 
distinguish  him  from  his  father  who  was  known  as  Old 
Omic.  He  wsis  only  about  twenty-one  years  old,  very 
hardy  and  athletic,  and  already  well  known  for  his 
vicious  disposition;  having  several  times  committed 
offenses,  some  of  which  are  related  in  the  history  of 
Cleveland  city,  in  this  work. 

Huron  county  being  attached  to  Cuyahoga  for  judi- 
cial purposes,  Omic  was  brought  hither  for  trial,  and 
the  subsequent  proceedings  in  his  case  are  perhaps 
more  clearly  remembered  by  the  few  survivors  of  that 
period,  and  are  more  fully  detailed  in  history,  than  any 
other  events  occurring  here  dui-ing  the  first  quarter  of 
this  century.  There  being  neither  court-house  nor  jail, 
the  criminal  was  confined  in  Major  Clarke's  ball-room, 
in  charge  of  the  worthy  major  himself,  who  was  duly 
deputized  for  the  purpose.  He  had  more  influence 
with  the  Indians  than  any  one  else  in  the  county,  and 
it  was  doubtless  thought  there  would  be  less  danger 
of  an  outbreak  on  their  part  if  the  culprit  were  under 
his  charge  than  otherwise.  Strong  irons  were  placed 
on  Omic's  ankles  and  fastened  by  a  chain  to  a  joist. 

Mrs.  Miles,  before  mentioned,  tells  of  going  to  see 
him  there,  and  talking  with  him.  She  had  been  well 
acquainted  with  him  before  he  committed  his  crime, 
as  indeed  had  almost  every  one  in  the  vicinity.  On 
the  trial  Alfred  Kelley,  the  prosecuting  attorney  and 
the  only  lawyer  in  this  county,  appeared  for  the  peo- 
ple, and  Peter  Hitchcock  was  assigned  as  counsel  for 
the  prisoner.  The  evidence  of  his  guilt  was  clear, 
the  jury  brought  in  a  verdict  of  guilty,  and  the  court 
sentenced  Omic  to  be  hung  on  the  36th  day  of  June, 


After  his  conviction  the  culprit  talked  with  great 
unconcern  of  the  coming  execution.  He  declared 
that  he  would  show  the  pale  faces  how  an  Indian 
could  die.  They  need  not  tie  his  hands.  He  would 
jump  off  the  gallows  when  his  time  came  without 
hesitation.  Down  to  the  last  there  was  more  or  less 
fear  of  rescue  by  the  Indians,  many  of  whom  were 
always  around  Cleveland.  Old  Omic,  shortly  before 
the  execution,  came  into  the  house  of  Dr.  Long  on 
Water  street,  Cleveland,  no  one  being  there  except 

Mrs.  Long  and  her  infant  child  (now  Mrs.  Severance) 
who  was  sleeping  in  the  cradle.  The  Indian  picked 
up  a  gun  which  was  standing  in  the  room.  Mrs. 
Long  instantly  imagined  that  he  was  about  to  kill 
her  or  the  child,  in  revenge  for  the  expected  execution 
of  his  son.  Snatching  the  babe  from  the  cradle,  she 
ran  at  full  speed  up  Water  street,  screaming  with  all 
her  might,  while  Omic,  having  laid  down  the  gun, 
followed  more  slowly,  trying  to  explain  himself  in 
broken  English  to  the  panic-stricken  woman.  Mr. 
Samuel  Williamson,  who  lived  on  Water  street,  took 
the  child  from  Mrs.  Long  and  went  with  her  to 
Major  Carter's,  who  was  the  great  authority  on  all  In- 
dian questions.  Omic  came  up  and  explained  to  the 
major,  in  Indian,  that  he  only  picked  up  the  gun  to 
show  Mrs.  Long  how  Semo,  the  accomplice  of  John 
Omic,  had  killed  himself  after  he  was  arrested.  This 
was  translated  by  Carter  to  Mrs.  Long  and  the  white 
men  who  had  gathered  around,  and  then,  as  Mrs. 
Long  said,  they  "all  had  a  hearty  laugh,"  though  it 
is  doubtful  whether  the  young  mother  fully  enjoyed 
the  humor  of  the  mistake. 

At  length  the  day  of  execution  arrived.  People 
came  from  far  and  near  to  witness  the  scene.  Fear- 
ing a  rescue,  many  brought  their  arms  with  them, 
besides  which,  a  battalion  of  militia  was  ordered 
out  under  Major  Samuel  Jones.  The  major  was 
a  fine-looking  man,  in  full  uniform,  with  large 
gold  epaulets  and  well-plumed  cocked  hat,  but  the 
management  of  a  few  companies  of  militia  severely 
tasked  his  military  skill.  He  drew  them  up  in 
front  of  Carter's  hotel,  and  Omic  was  brought  forth 
aud  seated  on  his  coffin,  in  a  wagon  painted  black  for 
the  occasion.  After  religious  services,  conducted  by 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Darrow,  of  Trumbull  county.  Major 
Jones  undertook  to  surround  the  wagon,  and  the 
officials  which  accompanied  it  with  his  battalion,  but 
was  unable  to  accomplish  his  object.  After  waiting 
a  reasonable  time,  while  the  major  galloped  back  and 
forth,  shouting  forth  all  sorts  of  orders  but  the  right 
ones.  Sheriff  Baldwin  moved  forward  with  the  pro- 
cession. Some  one  then  suggested  to  the  major  that 
he  march  his  men  by  the  right  flank  to  the  gallows, 
and  double  his  line  around  it,  which  he  accordingly 

Omic  kept  up  his  bravado  almost  to  the  last,  and 
rode  to  the  gallows,  as  Mrs.  Miles  says,  keeping  time 
to  the  music  by  drumming  on  his  coffin.  When  they 
arrived  at  the  place  of  execution,  which  was  near  the 
northwest  corner  of  the  public  square,  Sheriff  Bald- 
win, Major  Carter  and  Omic  mounted  the  gallows. 
The  culprit's  arms  were  loosely  fastened  together  at 
the  elbows,  and  a  rope  with  a  loop  in  it  was  put  around 
his  neck.  Erom  the  top-piece  above  swung  another 
rope,  with  an  iron  hook  at  the  end,  to  which  the  first 
rope  was  fastened.  Major  Carter  descended  from  the 
gallows  and  the  sheriff  drew  the  black  cap  down  over 
Omic's  face.  Then,  at  length,  all  the  culprit's  bravado 
deserted  him.  He  was,  said  Hon.  Elisha  Whittlesey 
in  a  statement  published  by  his  nephew.  Col.  Whit- 



tlesey,  the  most  frigliteiied  man,  "  rational  or  irra- 
tional," that  he  ever  saw.  He  bent  down  his  head, 
seized  the  rope  with  his  loosely-pinioned  right  hand, 
stepped  to  the  nearest  post  and  threw  his  other  arm 
around  it.  The  sheriff  approaclied,  when  Omic 
seized  him  and  seemed  likely  to  throw  him  from  the 
gallows  to  the  ground. 

Major  Carter  again  went  upon  the  gallows,  and 
asked  Omic  in  his  native  tongue  to  remember  what 
he  had  said  about  sliowing  the  palefaces  how  an  In- 
dian could  die,  bat  witliout  effect.  At  length,  how- 
ever, tlie  culprit  said  that  if  he  could  have  a  l)ig 
drink  of  wliisky  he  would  make  no  more  trouble. 
Carter  urged  compliance  and  the  sheriff  assented.  A 
large  tumbler  nearly  full  of  "old  Monongahela "  was 
soon  produced.  Omic  took  the  glass  and  swallowed 
the  liquor  in  an  instant.  He  then  declared  he  was 
ready  for  death.  Carter  came  down,  and  the  sheriff 
again  drew  the  black  cap  over  the  face  of  the  criminal. 

His  former  terrors  immediately  returned.  Again 
he  reached  up  his  hand  and  seized  the  rope,  at  the 
same  time  throwing  his  othei:  arm  around  the  post 
and  defying  the  efforts  of  the  sheriff  to  detach  him. 
He  talked  rapidly  and  incoherently  in  mingled  Indian 
and  broken  English,  declaring  that  he  would  return 
in  two  days  and  wreak  vengeance  on  the  palefaces. 
Once  more  the  indefatigable  Carter  went  up  to  act  as 
interpreter  and  dijjloQiatist.  The  sheriff  does  not 
seem  to  have  had  much  nerve  or  lie  would  have  called 
assistance,  wrapjied  the  scoundrel  with  cords  so  tight- 
ly that  he  could  not  move,  and  if  necessary  thrown 
him  from  the  gallows.  Another  disgraceful  alterca- 
tion ensued,  and  at  length  Omic  gave  Major  Carter 
his  "  word  of  honor  as  an  Indian  "  that  if  he  could 
have  one  more  glorious  drink  he  would  submit  quiet- 
ly to  his  doom.  Even  to  this  the  sheriff  was  weak 
enough  to  assent.  This  time,  however,  the  tumbler 
was  not  given  to  the  culj)rit  but  held  to  his  mouth, 
and  while  he  was  drinking  Sheriff  Baldwin  tightened 
tlie  rope  on  his  arms,  and  drew  up  the  one  above  so 
that  Omic  could  not  go  to  the  post. 

The  platform  was  again  cleared,  but  notwithstand- 
ing all  the  precautions  Omic  managed  to  slip  the  fin- 
gers of  his  right  hand  between  the  rope  and  his  neck. 
The  sheriff,  however,  did  not  wait  for  any  farther 
parley  but  cut  the  rope  which  upheld  the  platform. 
The  man  fell  the  length  of  his  rope,  swung  to  and 
fro  several  times,  and  at  length  hung  quiet. 

Meanwhile  a  storm  was  seen  coming  up  rapidly  from 
the  northwest.  It  being  doubted  whether  the  crim- 
inal's neck  was  broken,  the  rope  was  drawn  up  and  let 
suddenly  down,  when  it  broke  and  the  body  fell  heavi- 
ly to  the  ground.  The  dark  clouds  swept  rapidly 
over  the  sky,  and  warning  drops  of  rain  began  to  fall. 
The  body  was  hastily  placed  in  the  cofiBn,  and  as  hasti- 
ly deposited  in  the  grave  which  had  been  dug  near 
the  gallows.  Even  while  this  was  being  done  the  rain 
began  to  pour  down  in  ton-ents  and  the  crowd  swiftly 
separated  to  seek  for  sheller;  the  militiamen  not  wait- 
ing to  perform  any  more  evolutions,  and  the  gilt- 

edged  officers  hurrying  at  the  top  of  their  speed  to 
save  their  ornaments  from  untimely  ruin.  The  flint- 
lock muskets  of  the  men  were  so  wet  that  fifty  In- 
dians with  tomahawks  could  probably  have  captured 
the  place.  Tlie  red  men,  however,  never  manifested, 
so  far  as  known,  any  disposition  for  revenge. 

Nearly    all   the   physicians   of    the   Reserve  were 
present,  determined  to  obtain  the  body,  if  possible,  for 
dissection.     After  dark  several  of  them  went  to  the 
square,  the  sheriff  conveniently  closing  his  eyes,  and 
took  the  body  from  the  unfilled  grave.     Omic  was 
quite   fat   and    heavy,  but   Dr.  Allen,  of   Trumbull 
county,  volunteered  to  carry  him  alone.     The  body 
was   accordingly   placed    on    tlie  doctor's   back,  but 
before  he  got  out  of  the  square  he  stumbled  against  a 
stump  and  fell  to  the  ground,  with  his  ghastly  burden 
on    top  of   him.     His   companions   smothei'ed  their 
laughter  for  fear  of  discovery,    (it  might  not  have 
been  very  pleasant  to  be  discovered  by  any  lingering 
Indians,)  and  assisted  to  carry  the  corpse  to  the  place 
of  dissection.     It  was  reported  among  the  citizens,  at 
the  time,  that  some  of  the  physicians  said  they  could 
easily  have  restored  life  after  the  body  was  on  the 
dissection  table,  but  this  is  extremely  doubtful,  con- 
sidering the  hours  that  had  elapsed  since  the  hanging. 
The  body  was  duly  dissected,  and  the  skeleton  long 
remained  in  the  possession  of  Dr.  Long. 

Two  days  later  a  swift  riding  expressman  galloped 
into  Cleveland,  bearing  the  President's  proclamation 
that  on  the  18th  of  June,  1813,  war  had  been  declared 
by  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  against  the 
king-  of  Great  Britain. 


THE  ■WAB  OF  1812. 

A  Quiet  hut  Anxious  Beginning— News  of  Hull's  Surrender— Great 
Excitement- -Reported  Approach  of  Indians— General  Alarm— Prep- 
arations for  Fight— Tlie  Wat(;li  at_  Night— An  Approaching  Vessel— 
"Who  are  you"— Prisoners  ot  Hull's  Army— A  Militia  Company- 
Copy  of  its  Roll— Captain  Gay  lord's  Riflemen— General  Rally  of  the 
Militia— Colonel  Cass— Obtaining  Provisions  and  Forage— Generals 
Perkins  and  Beall— A  Succession  of  Fugitives— Elisha  Dibble— His 
Detachment  of  Scouts— The  Battle  of  the  Peninsula— Building  a— Winter— Preparations  in  the  Spring— Major  Jessup— 
Governor  Meigs— Captain  Sholes's  Regulars— Fort  Huntington— Ap- 
proach of  the  British  Fleet— A  Calm— A  Storm— A  Foraging  Party 
in  EucUd— General  Harrison— Attack  on  Fort  Meigs— Appearance  of 
Peri-y's  Fleet^-The  Commander  on  Shore— Mrs.  Stedman's  Recollec- 
tions—Guns and  Men  of  the  Fleet— At  work  on  the  CourtHouse— 
A  Distant  Sound— "It's  Perry's  Guns"— Off  to  the  Lake  Shore— 
Listenmg— •'  Hurrah  for  Perry"— News  of  Victory— General  Exulta- 
tion—Harrison's Victoiy— Harrison  and  Pen-y  at  Cleveland— Disturb- 
ing News— Quiet  through  1814— Incorporation  of  Cleveland— Peace. 

For  the  first  two  months  after  the  declaration  of 
war  tliere  was  not  much  more  excitement  than  during 
the  previous  two  months,  when  the  people  were  only 
expecting  it.  The  militia  were  frequently  called  out 
for  drill,  arms  and  munitions  were  issued,  and  many 
anxious  eyes  were  often  turned  toward  the  lake;  for 
none  could  be  sure  but  that  at  any  moment  a  British 
armed  vessel  might  approach  off  the  coast,  and  land  a 
force   of  invaders  or  a  parly  of  marauders.     Many 

THE  WAR  OF  1813. 


ears  listened  nervously,  too,  to  every  blast  that  swept 
through  the  western  forest,  uncertain  whether  some 
ferocious  band  of  Indians  might  not  make  their  way 
past  the  American  outposts,  and  enter  on  a  crusade  of 
cruelty  among  the  people  of  the  frontier.     It  was  gen- 
erally believed,    however,  that  the  forces   gathering 
under  General  Van  Rensselaer  on  the  Niagara  ,and 
under  General  Hull  at  Detroit,  would  soon  take  pos- 
session of  the  upper  peninsula  of  Canada,  opposite 
this  county,  and  thus  relieve  the  people  here  of  all 
farther  anxiety  in  regard  to  danger  from  that  quarter. 
Expressmen  almost  daily  galloped  back  and  forth 
along  the  lake  shore;  those  from  the  west  bearing 
news  successively  of  the  increase  of  Hull's  army,  of 
its  advance  into  Canada,  and  then  of  its  .retreat  to  the 
American  shore,  whei-e,  however,  it  was  believed  to  be 
amply  able  to  defeat  any  force  which  could  be  brought 
against  it.      But  shortly  after  the  16th  of  August  a 
messenger  came  dashing  into  Cleveland  from  the  west, 
bearing  the  terrible  news  that  on  that  day  General 
Hull  had  surrendered  his  whole  force  to  the  British 
and  trheir  Indian  allies,  who  might  be  expected  at  any 
moment  to  attack  the  defenceless  inhabitants  on  the 
south  shore  of  Lake  Erie.     Instantly  all  was  excite- 
ment and  anxiety.     Expresses  were  sent  out  in  vari- 
ous directions  to  notify  the  peojale,  and  also  to  Major 
General    Wadsworth    at    Canfield,    (now   Mahoning- 
county,)  to  beg  for  the  aid  of  the  militia. 

Within  twenty-four  hours  another  messenger 
brought  the  news  that  the  British  and  Indians  were 
actually  approaching;  their  vessels  had  been  seen 
near  Huron  ;  nay,  as  near  as  he  could  learn,  they  had 
lauded  in  that  locality,  and  the  massacre  of  the  peo- 
ple had  actually  commenced.  Then  indeed  there  w;s 
dismay  on  every  side.  Many  doubted  the  correetness 
of  the  information,  but  few  desired  to  run  the  risk  of 
proving  its  falsity.  A  large  proportion  of  the  people 
of  Cleveland  set  forth,  in  all  haste,  along  the  forest 
roads  which  led  through  Euclid  and  Newburg  to  safer 
regions.  The  bolder  men  sent  ofE  tlieir  families,  and 
themselves  seized  their  arms,  ready  to  do  battle  with 
the  invading  foe.  Mrs.  Walworth,  Mrs.  Dr.  Long 
and  one  or  two  other  ladies,  however,  peremptorily 
refused  to  leave.  If  they  could  do  nothing  else 
they  could  nurse  the  wounded  in  case  of  battle,  and 
at  all  hazards  they  would  stay  by  their  husbands. 

As  the  alarm  spread  through  the  county,  it  grew 
more  intense  with  every  mile  of  advance.  The  roads 
were  soon  crowded  with  ox-wagons  and  horse-wagons, 
with  travelers  on  horseback  and  travelers  on  foot. 
Here  could  be  seen  a  clumsy  cart  in  wliich  had  been 
thrown  a  feather-bed,  two  or  three  iron  pots,  all  the 
crockery  of  the  family,  a  side  of  bacon  and  a  bag  of 
corn  meal;  on  top  of  which  were  a  frightened  matron 
and  half  a  dozen  tow-headed  children,  while  tlie 
father  of  tiie  family  applied  his  long  "gad"  with 
unflinching  energy  to  the  backs  of  the  lumbering 
cattle,  wliich  were  moving  altogether  too  slowly  to  suit 
so  desperate  an  emergency.  Swiftly  passing  there 
would  be  seen  a  woman  on  horseback,  with  one  child 

before  and  another  behind,  while  scores  of  men,  wo- 
men and  children,  blessed  with  neither  horses  nor 
oxen,  were  trudging  wearily  on  foot,  trembling  every 
moment  lest  the  dread  war-whoops  of  the  savages 
should  be  hoard  in  their  rear.  In  the  midst  of  all 
these,  however,  were  to  be  seen  some  brave  men,  with 
muslcets  and  rifles  on  their  shoulders,  hastening 
rapidily  to  Cleveland  to  aid  in  repelling  the  foe. 

These,  united  with  the  little  squad  of  Clevelanders, 
made  up  in  the  course  of  the  day  a  company' of 
thirty  or  forty  men.  As  night  came  on,  they  posted 
sentinels  along  the  water's  edge,  and  then  lay  down 
with  their  clothes  on  in  the  nearest  deserted  dwell- 
ings, to  await  the  result.  Hour  after  hour  passed,  and 
naught  occurred  to  renew  the  alarm  of  the  day.  But 
soon  after  midnight  the  sentinels  quietly  gave  warn- 
ing to  their  comrades.  The  latter  sprang  up,  ad- 
justed their  powder-horns  and  bullet-pouches,  ex- 
amined the  locks  of  their  weapons,  and  hastened 
silently  to  the  mouth  of  the  river.  Sure  enough; 
through  the  darkness  of  the  night  the  white  sails  and 
black  hull  of  a  vessel  could  be  seen  approaching  from 
the  west,  and  shaping  her  course  toward  the  usual 

There  were  few  vessels  on  the  lake  then  and  these 
had  mostly  been  taken  for  hostile  purposes,  so  the  ap- 
proach of  a  ship  from  the  west  at  that  hour  of  the 
night  looked  sufficiently  susj)ioious,  and  the  sceptics 
began  to  think  there  might  be  something  serious 
ahead.  A  line  of  determined  men  was  formed  a  short 
distance  from  the  landing  place,  and  thirty  old  fire- 
locks were  cocked  as  the  vessel  came  steadily  onward. 

"  Hello,"  cried  a  sentinel,  in  unmilitary  but  con- 
venient formula,  "  who  are  you?" 

"An  American  vessel,"  was  the  reply,  "  with  pa- 
roled prisoners  of  Hull's  army." 

The  little  company  gave  vent  to  their  intense  relief 
by  a  general  shout,  then  "  broke  ranks"  without  wait- 
ing for  orders,  and  were  soon  fraternizing  with  the 
newcomers,  and  joining  them  in  cursing  General  Hull 
with  the  utmost  good  will.  Many  of  the  paroled  men 
were  wounded,  and  Murray's  store  was  turned  into  a 

A  company  of  militia  was  speedily  called  out  from 
what  now  constitutes  the  city  of  Cleveland,  and  the 
towns  of  East  Cleveland,  Euclid,  Newburg  and  per- 
haps some  others.  A  copy  of  the  company-roll,  ob- 
tained from  Washington,  is  on  file  among  the  records 
of  the  Western  Reserve  Historical  Society,  and  we 
transcribe  it  here. 

Captain,  Harvey  Murray;  lieutenant,  Lewis  Dille; 
ensign,  Alfred  Kelley;  sergeants,  Ebenezer  Green, 
Simeon  Moss,  Thomas  Hamilton,  Seth  Doan;  corpor- 
als, James  Root,  John  Lauterman,  Asa  Dille,  Martin 
G.  Shelhouse;  drummer,  David  S.  Tyler;  fifer,  Ro- 
dolphus  Carlton;  privates,  Aretus  Burk,  Allen  Burk, 
Charles  Brandon,  John  Bishop,  Moses  Bradley,  Silas 
Burk,  Sylvester  Beacher,  James  S.  Bills,  John  Carl- 
ton, Mason  Clark,  Anthony  Doyle,  Luther  Dille, 
Samuel  Dille,  Samuel  Dodge,  Moses  Eldred,  Samuel 



Evarts,  Ebeiiezer  Fish,  Zebnlon  R.  S.  Freeman,  Rob- 
ert Harberson,  Daniel  S.  Judd,  Jackson  James,  John 
James,  Stephen  King,  Guy  Lee,  Jacob  Mingns, 
Thomas  Mclh'uth,  William  ]\IcOoiikey,  Samuel  Noyes, 
David  Eeed,  John  Sweeney,  Parker  Shadrick,  Luther 
Sterns,  Bazaleel  Thorp,  John  Taylor,  Thomas  Thom- 
as, Hartman  Van  Duzen,  Joseph  Williams,  Matthew 
AVilliamson,  John  Wrightman,  William  White,  Jo- 
seph Burk,  Robert  Prentice,  Benjamin  Ogden. 

Tiiese  went  into  service  on  the  23d  of  August, 
1812,  and  remained  in  service  until  the  14th  of  De- 
cember of  the  same  year.  They  do  not,  however,  ap- 
pear to  have  been  very  closely  confined  to  their  mili- 
tary duties;  for  at  the  time  the  roll  in  question  was 
made  out  not  less  than  twenty-two  out  of  the  fifty- 
six-  officers  and  men  were  marked  "absent  on  fur- 
lough," besides  eight  absent  sick. 

Another  company,  raised  principally  at  Newburg 
and  vicinity,  and  composed  of  riflemen,  was  com- 
manded by  Captain  Allen  Gaylord  of  that  town,  but 
the  roll  has  not  been  preserved. 

Although  the  first  great  alarm  had  proved  un- 
founded, yet  there  was  no  knowing  when  an  invasion 
might  occur  either  by  lake  or  land,  and  the  efforts  to 
put  the  country  in  readiness  for  such  an  event  were 
strenuously  continued.  General  Wadsworth,  after 
ordering  all  the  militia  of  his  division  into  the  field, 
started  from  Oanfield  on  the  23d  day  of  August,  with 
a  company  of  horsemen  as  escort.  Passing  through 
Hudson,  Bedford  and  Newburg,  and  endeavoring  to 
allay  the  apprehensions  of  the  hundreds  of  frightened 
people  whom  he  met,  he  rode  into  Cleveland  with  his 
horsemen  about  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  the 
24th;  to  the  great  joy  of  the  few  men  assembled 
there.  Other  militia  soon  followed,  and  so  fai'  as 
numbers  were  concerned  there  were  enough  to  con- 
front the  whole  British  army  on  the  frontier. 

Benjamin  Tappen  and  Elisha  Whittlesey,  both 
subsequently  very  distinguished  men  in  the  councils 
of  the  nation,  were  General  Wadsworth's  aids.  The 
same  evening  that  the  detachment  just  mentioned 
arrived  at  Cleveland,  Colonel  Lewis  Cass,  afterwards 
General  Cass,  the  celebrated  statesman,  came  to  the 
same  point  from  Detroit.  Having  been  in  command 
of  a  regiment  under  Hull,  he  was  bitterly  indignant 
at  the  surrender,  and  never  failed  to  denounce  the 
cowardly  general  in  the  most  virulent  terms.  He 
was  on  his  way  to  Washington  on  military  business^ 
and  was  accompanied  from  Cleveland  by  ex-Governor 
Huntington,  of  Painesville,  who  had  hastened  to  his 
former  home  at  the  first  note  of  danger. 

The  last  named  gentleman  bore  a  letter  from 
General  Wadsworth  to  the  war  department,  in  which 
he  stated  that  he  had  called  out  three  thousand  men, 
but  that  they  were  largely  destitute  of  arms,  ammuni- 
tion and  equipments,  and  that  it  would  even  be 
difficut  to  feed  them.  He  urged  the  department  to 
give  him  aid,  but  did  not  wait  for  it  to  come.  He 
a|)poiutcd  three  commissioners  of  supplies,  to  pur- 
chiise  provisions  and  forage  from   the  people,   who, 

trusting  in  the  good  faith  of  the  government,  sold  as 
cheaply  as  for  coin.  The  commissioners  gave  cer- 
tificates stating  the  quantity  and  value  of  the  article 
furnished,  and  promising  to  pay  for  it  when  the 
government  should  remit  the  necessary  funds. 

Many  of  the  frightened  people  had  gone  east, 
abandoning  their  crops  on  the  ground  or  in  barns. 
These  were  taken  by  the  commissioners,  appraised, 
and  the  owners  credifed  with  the  value.  Fatigue 
parties  of  soldiers  harvested  the  crops  and  hauled  them 
to  camp,  and  the  owners  were  afterwards  remunerated 
for  them. 

On  the  26th  of  August  Brigadier  General  Simon 
Perkins  arrived  at  Cleveland  with  a  large  body  of 
militia.     General  Wadsworth  sent   him  forward  to 
Huron  with  a  thousand  men,  to  build  block-houses 
and  protect  the  inhabitants.     General  Reazin  Beall 
was    soon    after  sent  westward  with   another    body 
of  troops  on  a  similar  errand.     General  Wadsworth 
soon  received  dispatches  from  Washington,  endorsing 
his  course,  urging  vigorous  action  and  promising  sup- 
port.    The  major  general  himself  soon  went  westward 
with  nearly  all  the  rest  of  his  men;  being  first  under 
command  of  General  Winchester,  and  afterwards  of 
the  hero  of  Tippecanoe,  General  William  H.  Harrison. 
The  same  circumstance   was  noticeable  here  as  at 
other  points  on  the  frontier,  and  at  other  times  as 
well  as  at   this  one;  nearly  all  the  inhabitants  for  a 
long  distance  back  from  the  scene  of  trouble  thought 
they  must  move,  but  were  apparently  satisfied  by  the 
act  of  moving.     Thus,  while  some  of  the  people  of 
Cuyahoga  county  fled  twenty,  thirty  or  forty  miles 
eastward,  they  found  there  homes  abandoned  by  those 
who  had  gone  still  farther  on.     These  they  could,  and 
often  did,  occupy;  feeling  themselves  safe  in  the  same 
places  from  which  others  had  fled  in  terror.     In  like 
manner,    people   coming    from    Huron  and   beyond 
thought  they  had  fled  far  enough  when  they  reached 
the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga,  and  made  themselves  at 
iiome  in  localities  only  a  few  days  before  abandoned 
by  the  previous  residents. 

Among  those  who  thus  came  from  tlie  west  was 
Elisha  Dibble,  father  of  Captain  Lewis  Dibble,  of 
Cleveland,  who  brough  this  wife  and  eight  children; 
together  with  another  family,  in  a  boat,  to  Cleveland, 
shortly  after  Hull's  surrender.  His  former  location 
had  indeed  been  one  of  great  danger,  being  on  the 
River  Raisin,  near  the  jn-esent  city  of  Monroe,  Mich- 
igan, and  not  far  from  the  scene  of  the  celebrated 
"massacre  of  the  River  Raisin,"  which  took  place  the 
same  autumn.  On  reaching  Cleveland  he  concluded 
he  had  gone  far  enough,  and  located  himself  in  the 
house  of  Rudolphus  Edwards,  near  the  present  corner 
of  Woodland  avenue  and  Woodland  Hills  avenue. 
Being  a  stirring,  energetic  man,  he  determined  to 
raise  a  detachment  of  mounted  rangers,  or  scouts,  for 
service  against  the  enemy,  and  soon  accomplished  his 
object;  the  men  being  from  all  parts  of  the  county,  and 
some  of  them  being  doubtless,  like  himself,  fugitives 
from  western  homes.     Captain  Dibble  marched  with 


THE  WAR  OF  1813. 


his  company  to  Huron  and  other  endangered  localities. 
He  received  the  thanks  of  his  commander  in  writing 
for  his  efficient  service,  but  contracted  a  sickness 
which  compelled  his  return  home,  where  he  died  the 
next  year. 

After  General  Harrison  took  command  in  the 
Northwest,  General  Perkins  was  placed  in  command 
of  five  hundred  men  and  stationed  near  the  mouth  of 
the  liuron,  remaining  there  nearly  two  months. 
While  there  a  conflict  took  place  between  a  detach- 
ment of  General  Perkins'  men  and  a  force  of  British 
and  Indians,  who  had  made  their  way  that  far  east, 
.  either  on  scouting  duty  or  in  search  of  plunder.  This 
is  known  in  local  annals  as  "  the  battle  of  the  Penin- 
sula." A  portion  of  the'  Cuyahoga  county  men  were 
engaged  in  it,  and  the  roll  of  Captain  Mun-ay's  com- 
pany shows  that  one  of  his  men,  James  S.  Hills,  was 
killed  in  the  conflict,  and  that  two  others,  John  Carl- 
ton and  Moses  Eldred,  were  wounded  tliere. 

During  the  season  Mr.  Samuel  Dodge  was  engaged 
in  building  vessels  for  the  government,  both  in  the 
Cuyahoga  and  at  Brie,   Pennsylvania. 

Notwithstanding  all  the  din  of  war,  the  affairs  of 
peace  were  not  entirely  neglected.  In  the  fall  or  late 
in  the  summer  of  1812  the  county  commissioners, 
Messrs.  Wright,  Euggles  and  Miles,  made  a  contract 
with  Mr.  Levi  Johnson,  a  young  carpenter  of  Cleve- 
land, to  build  a  court-house  on  the  northwest  corner 
of  the  public  square.  It  was  to  be  of  wood,  two  stories 
high,  and  to  consist  of  a  jail  and  jailer's  residence  in 
the  lower  story,  and  a  court-room  in  the  upper  one. 
Mr.  Johnson  immediately  began  obtaining  the  timber, 
but  the  building  was  not  raised  till  the  next  year. 

As  winter  approached,  the  war-excitement  subsided. 
Both  armies  went  into  winter-quarters,  most  of  the 
militia  was  dismissed  in  December,  and  only  a  small 
guard  was  maintained  at  Cleveland. 

In  the  spring  of  1813  active  preparations  for  hos- 
tilities were  again  made  on  both  sides  of  the  frontier, 
and  Cleveland  again  became  a  depot  of  supplies,  and 
to  some  extent  a  rendezvous  for  troops.  Major 
Thomas  S.  Jessup,  of  the  regular  army,  afterwards 
highly  distinguished  as  General  Jessup,  was  placed  in 
command,  though  at  first  he  had  only  a  few  compa- 
nies of  militia  under  his  charge.  Later  Hon.  Eetiirn 
J.  Meigs,  governor  of  Oljio,  came  to  inspect  the 
preparations  making  for  war. 

On  the  10th  of  May,  while  the  latter  was  still 
there,  a  company  of  regular  soldiers  marched  into 
town  under  the  command  of  Captain  Stanton  Sholes. 
These  were  the  first  and  about  the  only  regular 
troops  stationed  in  Cuyahoga  county  during  the  war. 
They  were  met  by  Governor  Meigs,  and  warmly  wel- 
comed by  him  as  well  as  by  the  citizens  of  the  place. 
There  were  a  number  of  sick  and  wounded  soldiers 
there,  with  very  poor  accommodations,  some  of  whom 
had  been  there  since  the  time  of  Hull's  surrender. 
Captain  Sholes  immediately  set  some  carpenters  be- 
longing to  his  company  at  work,  and  in  a  short  time 
they  erected  a  neat,  framed  hospital,  about  twenty  feet 

by  thirty,  though  without  the  use  of  a  nail,  a  screw, 
or  any  iron  article  whatever;  the  whole  being  held 
together  by  wooden  pins.  It  was  covered  with  a 
water-tight  roof  and  floored  with  chestnut  bark.  To 
this  the  invalids  were  speedily  removed,  to  the  very 
great  improvement  of  their  comfort. 

Then  all  the  men  of  the  company  were  set  at  work 
building  a  small  stockade,  about  fifty  yards  from  Ihe 
bank  of  the  lake,  near  the  present  Seneca  street.  Cut- 
ting down  a  large  number  of  trees  twelve  to  fifteen 
inches  in  diameter,  they  cut  off  logs  some  twelve  feet 
long  each.  These  were  sunk  in  the  ground  three  or 
four  feet,  leaving  the  remaining  distance  above  the 
surface.  The  sides  of  the  logs  adjoining  each  other 
were  hewed  down  for  a  few  inches,  so  as  to  fit  solidly 
together.  Tliis  made  a  wall  impervious  to  small 
arms,  and  the  dirt  was  heaped  up  against  the  outside 
so  as  somewl\at  to  deaden  the  effect  of  cannon  balls. 
Next  a  large  number  of  trees  and  brush  were  cut 
down,  and  tl)e  logs  and  brush  piled  together  near  the 
brink  of  the  lake;  forming  a  long  abatis,  very  diffi- 
cult to  climb  over,  and  which  would  have  exposed 
any  assailing  party  who  attempted  to  surmount  it  to 
a  very  destructive  fire  from  the  fort  while  doing  so. 
The  post  was  named  Fort  Huntington,  in  honor  of 
the  ex-governor. 

Meanwhile  vessels  were  building  in  the  Cuyahoga, 
and  a  large  amount  of  public  stores  accumulating  on 
the  banks.  Scarcely  had  Captain  Sholes  got  his  little 
fortress  in  good  condition  when,  on  the  I'Jth  of 
Juno,  the  British  fleet,  consisting  of  the  "Queen  Cliar- 
lotte"  and  "Lady  Provost,"  with  some  smaller  ves- 
sels, appeared  off  the  coast  and  approached  the  mouth 
of  the  river  with  the  apparent  intention  of  landing. 
Major  Jessup  had  left,  but  expresses  were  sent  out  to 
rally  the  militia,  and  as  soon  as  possible  every  man  in 
the  vicinitv  was  hastening  with  musket  on  his  shoul- 
der toward  the  endangered  locality. 

When  the  fleet  had  arrived  within  a  mile  and  a  half 
of  the  harbor  the  wind  stink  to  a  perfect  calm,  and 
the  vessels  were  compelled  to  lie  there  until  afternoon. 
Meanwhile  the  little  band  of  regulars  made  every 
preparation  they  could  to  defend  their  post,  and  a 
considerable  body  of  militia  was  arrayed  near  by. 
There  was  a  small  piece  of  artillery  in  the  village,  but 
it  was  entirely  unprovided  with  a  carriage.  Judge 
James  Kingsbury,  at  that  time  a  paymaster  in  the 
army,  as  we  are  informed  by  his  daughter-,  Mrs.  Sted- 
man,  then  eight  years  old,  took  the  hind  wheels  of  a 
heavy  wagon,  mounted  the  little  cannon  on  them, 
after  a  fashion,  and  placed  it  in  position  to  pour  its 
volleys  into  the  enemy's  ranks  if  he  should  attempt 
to  fand.  The  vessels  in  the  Cuyalioga  and  the  public 
stores  were  all,  as  far  as  possible,  moved  to  "Wal- 
worth point,"  some  two  miles  up  the  river. 

At  length  the  calm  ceased,  but  the  succeeding 
weather  was  no  more  propitious  to  the  would-be  in- 
vaders. A  terrific  thunder-storm  sprang  up  in  the 
west  and  swept  furiously  down  the  lake,  and  the 
little  fleet  was  soon  driven  before  it  far  to  the  east- 



ward;  relieving  the  Olevelauders  of  all  fear  of  an  at- 
tack, at  least  for  that  day. 

When  the  storm  abated,  the  fleet  lay  to,  opposite 
Euclid  creek,  in  the  town  of  that  name,  where  a 
boat's  crew  went  ashore.  Tliey  killed  an  ox  there, 
cut  it  up  hide  and  all,  and  took  it  off  to  their  com- 
rades on  shipboard.  Witli  more  courtesy  than  could 
have  been  expected,  however,  they  left  a  golden 
guinea  in  a  cleft  stick  at  the  place  of  slaughter,  with 
a  note  apologizing  bei  ause  in  their  haste  they  had  to 
spoil  the  hide,  and  adding  that  if  it  had  not  been  for 
the  thunder  shower  they  would  have  eaten  their  beef 
in  Cleveland.  Either  the  commander  thought  tliat 
during  the  delay  too  large  a  force  for  them  to  meet 
had  assembled,  or  else  their  presence  was  recpiired 
elsewhere;  at  :ill  events  they  sailed  off  down  the  lake, 
and  their  vessels  never  again  appeared  on  the  shore  of 
Cuyahoga  county  except  as  the  captured,  sjioils  of  the 
gallant  Perry  and  his  comrades. 

About  the  middle  of  July,  General  \V.  H.  Harrison, 
commander-in-chief  of  the  Northwestern  army,  and 
the  only  general  who  had  gained  any  fame  as  a  sol- 
dier on  this  frontier,  came  to  Cleveland  on  a  tour  of 
inspection,  accompanied  by  his  staff  officers.  Governor 
Huntington,  Major  George  Tod  (father  of  the  late 
David  Tod),  Major  T.  S.  Jessup,  and  the  gallant 
Colonel  Wood,  afterwards  killed  at  Fort  Erie.  The 
general  was  cordially  welcomed,  and  many  came  from 
the  townships  in  the  vicinity  to  see  and  to  show  their 
respect  to  the  hero  of  Tipjiecanoe,  who  it  was  hoped 
would  redeem  the  tarnished  fame  of  the  American 
arms  in  the  Northwest.  After  a  three-days'  stay, 
spent  in  careful  examination  of  the  jHiblic  stores  and 
means  of  defense,  the  general  returned  to  his  army, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Manmee. 

Immediately  afterwards  there  was  another  alarm 
spread  along  the  lake  shore,  when  a  force  of  British 
and  Indians  attacked  Fort  Meigs,  on  the  site  of  the 
city  of  Fremont.  Some  again  packed  up  their  house- 
hold goods  for  flight,  but  as  a  rule  the  people  had  by 
this  time  become  pretty  well  seasoned  to  rumors  of 
war,  and  they  generally  waited  for  further  advices. 

Two  entire  divisions  of  militia,  residing  southward 
and  southeastward  from  Fort  Meigs,  were  ordered  out 
by  the  governor,  but  those  on  the  lake  shore  were 
rightly  considered  as  having  enough  to  do  to  defend 
their  own  localities,  and  were  not  required  to  take  the 
field  at  that  time.  The  gallant  Major  Croghan  with 
his  little  band  successfully  defended  the  fort,  and 
compelled  the  withdrawal  of  the  enemy  before  any  of 
Governor  Meigs'  levies  arrived;  and  again,  for  a  while, 
tliere  was  a  period  of  comparative  quiet. 

But  the  British  fleet  was  still  mistress  of  the  lak'e; 
no  movement  against  Canada  was  likely  to  be  success- 
ful until  that  fleet  could  be  overcome,  and  no  one 
knew  at  what  moment  an  invading  force  might  be 
landed  at  any  point  on  our  long  and  feebly  defended 
frontier.  All  eyes  were  anxiously  directed  toward  the 
harbor  of  Erie,  where  a  young  lieutenant  of  twenty- 
six,  called  commodore  by  courtesy,  was  straining  every 

nerve  to  equip  his  little  fleet,  get  out  to  sea,  and  settle 
by  actual  combat  the  question  whether  the  stars  and 
stripes  or  the  red  cross  of  St.  George  should  float  vic- 
torious over  Lake  Erie. 

At  length,  on  the  5th  day  of  August,  Perry  took 
his  fleet  out  of  the  harbor  and  immediately  sailed  in 
search  of  the  foe.  In  a  few  days  he  passed  up  the 
lake,  feeling  sure  that  he  would  soon  bring  the  enemy 
to  battle.  The  fleet  lay  to  off  the  mouth  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga to  get  supplies,  and  the  youthful  commodore  came 
ashore.  Little  Diana  Kingsbury  was  in  the  village  at 
the  time  with  her  father,  and  the  venerable  Mrs.  Sted- 
man  still  retains  a  vivid  recollection  of  the  tall,  slender, 
erect  young  man,  in  the  glittering  uniform  of  the 
United  States  navy,  with  noble  bearing  and  hand- 
some, radiant  face,  on  whom  more  than  on  any  other 
man,  at  that  moment,  rested  the  fortunes  and  honor 
of  America  in  the  Northwest. 

Tiic  object  of  the  brief  delay  having  been  accom- 
plished, the  commander  returned  to  his  flag-ship,  the 
fleet  spread  its  sails  to  the  favoring  breeze  and  stood 
away  to  the  westward  in  gallant  array.  There  were  the 
"Lawrence,"  the  commodore's  flag-ship,  with  twenty 
guns;  the  "  Niagara,"  with  twenty  guns,  under  Lieu- 
tenant Elliott;  the  "  Caledonia,"  with  three  guns, 
under  Lieutenant  Turner;  the  "Ariel,"  with  four 
guns,  under  Lieiitenant  Pickett;  the  "  Scorpion," 
with  two  guns,  under  Lieutenant  Chamijlin;  the 
"Somers,"  with  four  guns,  under  Sailing-master 
Henry;  the  "Porcupine,"  with  one  gun,  under  Mid- 
shipman Senat;  the  "  Tigress,"  with  one  gun,  under 
Midshipman  Gonklin;  the  "  Tripi^e,"  with  one  gun, 
under  Midshipman  Holduj).  In  long  procession  they 
swept  past  the  shores  of  Brooklyn,  Rockport  and 
Dover,  and  sailed  away  in  search  of  the  foe,  followed 
by  the  hopes  and  prayers  of  all  the  people  for  the 
ardent  commander  and  his  gallant  crew. 

Infer  anna  li-gcn  silent,  says  the  old  Roman  prov- 
erb; that  is,  amid  the  clang  of  arms  the  laws  are  pow- 
erless. But  for  all  that  the  Cuyahoga  people  did  not 
stop  building  a  court-house  because  war  was  going  on 
around  them.  On  the  10th  of  September,  1813, 
Levi  Johnson  and  some  of  his  hired  men  were  busy 
putting  the  finishing  work  on  the  rude  temple  of  jus- 
tice which  he  had  contracted  to  build  a  year  before. 
Some  of  them  heard  a  noise  in  the  distant  west,  which 
was  at  first  supposed  to  be  thunder.  Looking  up, 
however,  they  were  surprised  to  see  no  clouds  as  far 
as  the  eye  could  reach  in  every  direction.  The  sounds 
continued.     Suddenly  Johnson  exclaimed: 

"  It's  Perry's  guns;  he's  fighting  with  the  British."  , 

In  a  moment  all  the  workmen  by  common  consent 
threw  down  their  hammers  and  nails,  scrambled  to 
the  ground  and  hurried  to  the  lake  shore  with  their 
employer  at  their  head.  In  a  short  time  all  the  men 
of  the  village,  with  many  of  the  women  and  children, 
were  gathered  on  the  beach,  listening  to  the  sounds 
of  battle.  The  scene  of  conflict  was  seventy  miles  dis- 
tant, but  the  wind  was  favorable  and  the  listeners 
could  not  only  plainly  hear  the  roll  of  the  broadsides. 



but,  when  the  fire  slackeued  from  time  to  time,  could 
distinguish  between  the  heavier  and  the  lighter  guns. 

At  length  there  was  only  a  dropping  fire;  one  fleet 
had  evidently  succumbed  to  the  other.  Finally 
heavy  shots  were  heard,  and  then  all  was  silent. 

"  Perry  has  the  heaviest  guns,"  exclaimed  John- 
son; "  those  are  Perry's  shots — he  has  won  the  day — 
three  cheers  for  Perry!" 

"Hip,  hip,  hnrrah!"  promptly  responded  the 
crowd,  willing  to  believe  the  assertion,  but  yet  sepa- 
rating with  anxions  hearts,  uncertain  what  might  be 
the  rosnlt.  In  fact,  the  English  had  some  as  heavy 
guns  as  the  Americans,  but  not  so  many  of  that  class. 

Not  only  in  Cleveland  but  all  along  the  lake  shore, 
among  the  scattered  inhabitants  of  Dover,  Rockport, 
Brooklyn  and  Euclid,  the  sounds  of  battle  were  heard; 
the  people  soon  divined  that  it  was  not  thunder,  and 
listened  with  mingled  dread  and  hope  to  the  death- 
notes  from  the  west.  Nay,  even  as  far  east  as  Erie, 
Pennsylvania,  a  hundred  and  sixty  miles  from  the 
scene,  the  sounds  of  the  conflict  were  heard,  but  mere- 
ly as  a  low  rumbling,  which  was  supposed  to  be  dis- 
tant thunder. 

Soon  the  welcome  news  of  victory  was  borne  along 
the  shore,  and  the  people  could  freely  give  way  to 
their  exultation.  It  was  not  merely  joy  over  the 
great  nsitional  triumph  which  gladdened  their  hearts, 
though  this  was  deeply  felt,  but  also  the  knowledge 
that,  with  Lake  Erie  in  the  possession  of  the  Ameri- 
cans, their  homes,  their  wives  and  their  children  were 
safe  from  Bi-itish  invasion  and  Indian  foray. 

The  victory  of  Harrison  over  Proctor  on  the 
Thames,  accompanied  by  the  death  of  Tecumseh, 
followed  on  the  5th  of  October,  1813;  making  the 
assurance  of  safety  doubly  sure  on  the  part  of  the 
inhabitants  of  this  frontier.  The  army  of  Harrison,  or 
such  j)art  of  it  as  was  not  discharged,  soon  after  went 
down  to  the  shores  of  Lake  Ontario,  and  the  tide  of  war 
drifted  away  from  all  this  region.  General  Harrison 
and  Commodore  Perry  went  down  the  south  shore  of 
Lake  Erie  to  Buffalo,  stopping  at  Cleveland,  where 
thev  were  entertained  with  a  banquet,  while  Judge 
Kingsbury  bi'ought  about  the  assemblage  of  a  special 
meeting  of  Masons  in  their  honor,  at  his  farm  on  the 


The  lake  was  open  to  a  late  period  that  year,  and 
on  the  21st  of  December  the  people  along  the  shore 
saw  the  gallant  Lawrence  sailing  down  on  its  way  to 
Erie,  where  it  became  a  hospital-ship;  being  followed 
slowly  by  the  captured  British  vessels,  Detroit  and 
Queen  Charlotte. 

On  New  Year's  Day,  18 14,  the  residents  of  Cuyahoga 
county  were  shocked  and  startled  to  learn  that,  two 
days  before,  the  British  and  Indians  had  captured 
and  burned  the  village  of  Buffalo,  having  previously 
captured  Fort  Niagara  and  devastated  the  whole 
Niagara  frontier.  For  a  short  time  some  of  the 
inhabitants  were  alarmed  lest  the  foes  they  had  so 
long  looked  for  from  the  west  should  come  up  the 
shore    of    the    lake  from  the   northeast.      But  the 

invasion  was  only  temporary,  and  during  the  suc- 
ceeding campaign  the  tide  of  war  ebbed  and  flowed 
between  Lake  Erie  and  Lake  Ontario,  entirely  on 
Canadian  soil,  while  northern  Ohio  and  the  Territory 
of  Michigan  were  alike  blessed  with  profound  peace. 
The  only  event  worthy  of  mention,  occurring  in  the 
county  during  the  year,  was  of  a  civil  nature;  the 
incorporation  of  the  village  of  Cleveland  on  the  23d 
of  December,  1814. 

But  though  the  immediate  pressure  of  war  was 
lifted  from  this  region,  yet  its  existence  checked 
progress  and  stopped  immigration,  and  it  was  with 
great  delight  that  in  the  latter  part  of  January,  1815, 
the  people  heard  that  peace  had  been  made  between 
the  United  States  and  Great  Britain  by  means  of  the 
treaty  of  Ghent. 



Rapid  Development— Erevious  Unfavorable  Circumstances— Settlement 
of  Various  Townships— Slow  Growth  of  Cleveland- First  Bank— Plan- 
ning the  Canal— A  Cuyahoga  Man's  Idea— The  First  Newspaper— A 
Surprising  Phenomenon  The  "  Wallc-in-the- Water  "—Improvement 
under  Difficulties — Articles  of  Lake  Commerce— Names  of  Lake  Ves- 
sels—Pennsylvania Wagons— A  Fast  Man  of  Yore— The  Cleveland  i/er- 
aid— General  Trainings— Wolves  and  Bears  —The  Hinkley  Hunt — The 
Gathering— The  Officers— The  Skirmish  Line  —The  Advance  -The  First 
Bear— Slaughter  of  the  Deer— Closing  up— Furious  Fun— The  Last 
Square  Mile— "A  Wolf  1  A  Wolf ! "—Slaying  the  Marauders— The 
Grand  Finale — Number  of  the  Victims — A  Line  of  Stage  Coaches — 
Stage  Coaching  Experience— "  Going  on  Foot  and  Carrying  a  Kail  "— 
Increasing  Commerce — Legislative  Action  on  the  Canal — Alfred  Kelley 
a  Commissioner — Prices  of  Farm  Produce— Fondness  for  Whisky — 
Tne  Militia  again — Capital  Scarce — Various  Small  Industries — Forma- 
tion of  Lorain  County — Its  Organization — The  Southwestern  Turnpike 
—The  Medical  Society — The  Election  of  IS'ii — The  Kinsman  Road — A 
Mild  Winter— Law  authorizing  the  Canal. 

The  period  of  fifteen  years  succeeding  the  war  of 
1812  was  one  of  rapid  development  of  the  agricultural 
portion  of  the  county.  Previous  to  1815  settlement 
had  been  very  slow.  At  first,  people  were  deterred  by 
the  unfavorable  reputation  of  the  region  in  regard  to 
sickness.  Rumors  of  Indian  war  also  checked  immi- 
gration, and  the  war  of  1812  completely  stopped  it. 
But  with  the  close  of  that  war,  the  certainty  that  the 
Indians  were  completely  subdued  and  the  improving 
condition  of  the  county  in  regard  to  health,  the  peo- 
ple poured  in,  in  numbers  increased  by  the  previous 
restraint.  Hitherto  the  settlements  had  nearly  all 
been  along  the  lake  sliore,  but  now  the  hardy  pioneers 
hastened  into  all  the  townships  of  the  county  in  rapid 
succession,  even  to  its  southernmost  border. 

Nearly  or  quite  half  of  the  present  civil  townships 
of  Cuyahoga  county  were  both  settled  and  organized 
between  the  beginning  of  1815  and  the  end  of  1825. 
In  nearly  every  township,  not  previously  occupied, 
settlements  were  begun  within  five  years  after  the 
close  of  the  war.  The  present  township  of  Chagrin 
Falls  was  settled,  though  only  by  a  single  resident,  in 
1815.  Olmstead  and  Rockport  were  both  settled  in 
the  same  year.     Rockport  was  organized  in   1819. 



Strongsville  was  settled  in  1816  and  organized  in  1818. 
The  first  pioneers  located  in  Orange  in  1815  or  '16, 
and  an  organization  was  effected  in  1820.  Solon  was 
settled  in  the  latter  year.  Bedford  was  settled  in 
1813,  and  Warrensville  in  1810.  Brecksville  had  first 
been  occupied  in  1810  and  Independence  about  the 
same  time.  Middleburg  was  also  settled  before  the 
war.  The  pioneers  of  all  these  townships,  as  well  as 
those  previously  settled  in  the  county,  were  principal- 
ly from  New  England  or  New  York,  though  occasion- 
ally a  sturdy  Pennsylvania  German  made  his  way  from 
that  State,  and  entered  into  competition  with  the  keen- 
eyed  Yankees.  Huron  county  was  organized  in  1815; 
leaving  Cuyahoga  unencumbered  with  outside  tempo- 
rary territory,  but  still  extending  to  Black  river. 

Everywhere  the  axe  was  heai'd  resounding  amid  the 
grand  old  forest-trees,  the  smoke  from  numerous  log 
cabins  was  seen  rising  aboye  their  tops,  and  the  deer, 
the  bears  and  the  wolves  were  rapidly  driven  back  be- 
fore the  rifles  of  the  advancing  pioneers.  The  stories 
of  the  various  localities  are  told  in  the  township  histo- 
ries, but  the  general  result  was  that  Cuyahoga  county 
speedily  emerged  from  the  wilderness  condition  which 
had  previously  characterized  the  principal  part  of  its 
area,  and  entered  on  a  career  of  prosperity  which  has 
only  seldom  been  checked  from  that  time  to  this. 

The  village  of  Cleveland,  however,  showed  but  a 
slight  expansion  for  ten  years  after  the  war.  The 
first  bank  in  the  county,  the  Commercial  Bank  of 
Lake  Erie,  was  organized  there  in  1816,  but  it  did  a 
very  modest  business  indeed,  and  ere  long  became  de- 
funct. In  1817,  N.  H.  Merwin  built  the  schooner 
"Minerva,"  the  first  vessel  registered  at  Washington 
from  the  district  of  Cuyahoga,  under  the  United 
States  revenue  laws;  this  being  one  of  the  first  opera- 
tions in  the  great  business  of  vessel  building,  which 
has  since  grown  to  such  large  proportions. 

Meanwhile  far-sighted  men  were  looking  forward 
to  the  establishment  of  a  great  city  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Cuyahoga,  and  planning  the  opening  of  a  great 
highway  of  commerce  between  Lake  Erie  and  the 
Ohio  river,  with  one  of  its  termini  at  the  point  just 
mentioned.  New  York  had  already  begun  to  build  the 
Erie  canal,  and  public  opinion  in  Ohio  was  turning 
toward  a  similar  work.  The  first  resolucion  looking 
to  the  construction  of  a  canal  from  Lake  Erie  to  the 
Ohio  was  introduced  into  the  legislature  in  1817, 
though  the  work  in  question  was  not  begun  until 

We  may  note  in  passing,  as  indicative  of  the 
thorough  identification  of  Cuyahoga  county  with  the 
most  liberal  ideas  of  modern  progress,  that  in  1818 
Hon.  Alfred  Kelley,  then  a  representative  from  that 
county,  introduced  into  the  lower  house  of  the  legis- 
lature a  bill  to  abolish  imprisonment  for  debt,  which 
is  said  to  have  been  the  first  movement  of  that  kind 
made  in  any  legislative  body  in  either  this  country  or 
Europe.  The  bill  did  not  at  that  time  become  a  law, 
but  it  exerted  a  great  influence  in  calling  public  at- 
tention to   that   subject,    and   ere   many   years    had 

passed  imprisonment  for  debt  was  wiped  from  the 
statute-books  of  all  the  States  of  the  Union. 

On  the  31st  of  July,  1818,  the  first  newspaper  was 
issued  in  the  county;  being  called  the  Cleveland  Ga- 
zette and  Commercial  Register.  It  was  intended  to 
be  a  weekly  sheet,  but  sometimes  ten,  twelve  or  four- 
teen days  elapsed  between  its  issues. 

But  a  newspaper,  although  rightly  considered  an 
important  institution,  was  something  which  every- 
body had  seen  before;  on  the  first  day  of  September 
of  the  same  year  an  entirenovelty  —  the  like  of  which 
not  one  in  five  hundred  of  the  inhabitants  had  ever 
before  seen  — presented  itself  before  the  people  of 
Cuyahoga  county.  On  the  day  named  the  residents 
along  the  lake  shore  of  Euclid  saw  upon  the  lake  a 
curious  kind  of  a  vessel,  making  what  was  then  con- 
sidered very  rapid  progress  westward,  without  the  aid 
of  sails,  while  from  a  pipe  near  its  middle  rolled  forth 
a  dark  clond  of  smoke,  which  trailed  its  gloomy 
length  far  into  the  rear  of  the  swift-gliding,  mysterious 
traveler  over  the  deep.  They  watched  its  westward 
course  until  it  turned  its  prow  toward  the  harbor  of 
Cleveland,  and  then  returned  to  their  labors.  Many 
of  them  doubtless  knew  what  it  was,  but  some  shook 
their  heads  in  sad  surmise  as  to  whether  some  evil 
powers  were  not  at  work  in  producing  such  a  strange 
phenomenon  as  that,  on  the  bosom  of  their  beloved 
Lake  Erie. 

Meanwhile  the. citizens  of  Cleveland  perceived  the 
approaching  monster,  and  hastened  to  the  lake  shore 
to  examine  it. 

"What  is  it?"  "What  is  it?"  Where  did  it 
come  from  ?  What  makes  it  go  ?  queried  One  and 
another  of  the  excited  throng. 

"  It's  the  steamboat,  that's  what  it  is  ;"  cried  others 
in  reply. 

"  Yes,  yes,  it's  the  steamboat;  it's  the  steamboat," 
was  the  general  shout,  and  with  ringing  cheers  the 
people  welcomed  the  first  vessel  propelled  by  steam 
which  had  ever  traversed  the  waters  of  Lake  Erie. 
The  keel  had  been  laid  at  Black  Rock,  near  Buffalo, 
in  November,  1817,  and  the  vessel  had  been  built 
during  tiie  spring  and  summer  of  1818.  It  had  re- 
ceived the  name  of  "Walk-in-the- Water,"  from  a 
Wyandot  chieftain  who  was  formerly  known  by  that 
appellation  ;  which  was  also  extremely  appi'opriate  as 
applied  to  a  vessel  which  did  indeed  walk  in  the  water 
like  a  thing  of  life. 

This  harbinger  of  the  numerous  steam-leviathans 
of  the  upper  lakes,  and  of  the  immense  commerce 
carried  on  by  them,  was  of  three  hundred  tons  burden, 
and  could  carry  a  hundred  cabin  passengers  and  a  still 
larger  number  in  the  steerage.  Its  best  speed  was 
from  eight  to  ten  miles  per  hour,  and  even  this  was 
considered  something  wonderful.  All  Cleveland 
swarmed  on  board  to  examine  the  new  craft,  and  many 
of  the  leading  citizens  took  passage  in  it  to  Detroit, 
for  which  place  it  soon  set  forth. 

The  work  of  improvement,  as  we  have  said,  was  all 
the  while  going   on  at  a  rapid  rate  although  under 



great  dilRculties.  Hardship  was  the  expected  lot  of 
the  pioneers,  hut  even  in  the  older  sections  of  the 
county,  where  good  farms  had  been  cleared  up,  the 
agriculturist  found  his  vocation  an  unprofitable  one  on 
account  of  the  difficulty  of  finding  a  market  for  his 
products.  In  fact,  for  grain  there  was  almost  no 
market;  the  only  purchasers  in  this  vicinity  being  the 
few  hundred  traders  and  mechanics  who  were  concen- 
trated at  Cleveland  and  Newburg.  Hardly  a  bushel 
of  wheat  or  a  barrel  of  iiour  was  shipped  down  the 
lake  until  after  the  opening  of  the  Erie  canal  in  1825; 
the  expense  of  transportation  being  so  great  as  to 
"eat  up"  the  whole  price  of  the  article. 

Some  cattle  were  driven  overland  to  Philadelphia  or 
New  York,  and  hides  in  considerable  quantities,  be- 
sides the  furs  of  wild  animals,  were  sent  down  the 
lake.  From  an  old  marine  record  we  find  that  the 
articles  going  down  the  lake  at  this  period  (1815  to 
1820)  taking  one  vessel  after  another,  comprised  furs, 
fish,  cider,  furs,  paint,  dry  goods,  furniture,  scythes, 
furs,  grindstones,  skins,  furs,  cider,  paint,  furs,  fish, 
household-goods,  grindstones,  skins,  scythes,  coffee, 
fish,  building-stone,  crockery,  hardware,  pork,  scythes 
and  clothing.  It  is  difficult  to  imagine  where  the 
coffee  and  some  other  articles  came  from,  but  probably 
they  had  been  sent  up  the  lake  from  the  East  and  were 
returned  for  lack  of  a  market.  It  will  be  observed 
that  neither  potash,  pearlash  nor  "  black  salts,"  figure 
in  the  list  of  exports,  though  these  are  mentioned  by 
most  of  the  early  settlers  I  have  met  as  being  the 
principal  cash  articles  they  could  produce.  It  is  prob- 
able that  it  was  not  till  after  1816,  (the  date  of  the 
foregoing  list)  that  black  salts,  etc.,  became  articles  of 
export  from  northern  Ohio. 

The  upward  bound  freight  at  the  same  time  con- 
sisted of  whisky,  dry  goods,  household  goods,  naval 
stores,  dry  goods,  groceries,  hardware,  salt,  fish, 
spirits,  household  goods,  mill-irons,  salt,  tea,  whisky, 
butter,  whisky,  coffee,  soap,  medicines,  groceries, 
household  goods  and  farm  utensils.  It  will  be  seen 
that  a  good  many  classes  of  articles  went  both  ways, 
but  no  furs  nor  skins  went  up  the  lake. 

The  lake  vessels  of  the  period  in  question  were 
almost  all  schooners,  the  following  being  a  nearly 
complete  list:  The  schooners  "Dolphin,"  "Diligence," 
"Erie,"  "Pomfret,"  "Weasel,"  "  Widow's  Son," 
"Merry  Calvin,"  "Firefly,"  "Paulina,"  "Mink," 
"Merchant,"  "Pilot,"  "Rachel,"  "Michigan,"  "Nep- 
tune," "Hercules,"  "Croglian,"  "Tiger,"  "Aurora," 
"Experiment,"  "Black  Snake,"  "Ranger,"  "Fiddler" 
and  "Champion;"  also  the  sloops  "Venus,"  "Ameri- 
can Eagle,"  "Perseverance,"  "Nightingale"  and 
"Black  River  Packet."  The  solitary  steamer  has 
already  been  mentioned. 

Whatever  freight  was  brouglit  to  Cleveland  at  this 
period  from  the  adjoining  counties  was  carried  (ex- 
cept when  there  was  sleigliing)  on  big  vehicles,  called 
"  Pennsylvania  "  or  "Conestoga"  wagons,  drawn  by 
four  or  six  horses.  A  solid  vehicle  and  a  strong  team 
were  absolutely  necessary,  especially  in  spring  and 

autumn,  to  make  any  headway  at  all  along  the  fearful 
roads,  covered  knee-deep  or  more  with  mud,  which 
traversed  northern  Ohio. 

Even  in  summer  these  rude  highways  were  by  no 
means  easy  to  travel.  It  is  narrated  that  in  181 9  a 
resident  of  Hudson,  Summit  county,  who  had  a  fine 
team  of  which  he  was  especially  proud,  drove  up  to 
the  door  of  Noble  H.  Merwin's  hotel  in  Cleveland, 
just  as  the  guests  of  the  latter  were  sitting  down  to 

"Ah!"  said  the  landlord,  "are  you  just  from  Hud- 
son ?" 

"Yes,"  replied  the  traveler. 

"How  long  have  you  been  on  the  road?"  queried 

"Oh,  I  came  through  to-day,"  responded  the  other 
with  manifest  pride. 

"What!"  exclaimed  mine  host,  "came  through 
from  Hudson  in  one  day — you  don't  say  so?" 

"Fact,  upon  honor,"  responded  the  owner  of  the 

"Come  out  here;  come  out  here,"  cried  the  excited  . 
landlord  to  the  occupants  of  the  supper  table;  "here 
is  a  man  who  has  come  through  from  Hudson  to- 
day;'' and  forthwith  all  rushed  out  to  gaze  on  this 
extraordinary  phenomena.  As  the  distance  from 
Cleveland  to  Hudson  was  only  twenty-four  miles,  it 
may  be  presumed  that  the  roads  must  have  been 
something  terrible  to  make  such  a  day's  joufney  seem 

The  second  newspaper  in. the  county,  and  the  oldest 
one  now  surviving,  was  the  Cleveland  Herald,  which 
was  first  published  in  1819.  In  the  early  files  we 
have  found  many  incidents  bearing  upon  the  history 
of  the  county  at  that  period. 

The  militia  was  then  an  institution  of  much  more 
consequence  than  at  present,  and  tlie  number  of 
divisions,  brigades  and  regiments,  with  their  cor- 
responding major-generals,  brigadier-generals  and 
colonels  was  something  almost  tremendous.  Among 
numerous  other  cases  we  notice  that  in  June,  1830, 
Colonel  Daniel  Miles  was  elected  brigadier-general  in 
place  of  General  Lewis  R.  Dille,  of  Euclid,  resigned. 
The  "general  training"  of  those  days  was  next  to 
the  4th  of  July  the  great  holiday  of  the  summer 
season.  When  a  regiment  of  four  hundred  or  five 
hundred  men,  dressed  in  sheep's  gray  and  blue  jeans, 
and  many  of  them  in  their  shirt  sleeves,  armed  with 
rifles,  muskets  and  fowling-pieces  of  every  pattern, 
stood  in  irregular  line  m  some  convenient  meadow, 
while  the  colonel,  glorious  in  brass  buttons,  with 
epaulets  as  large  as  tea-plates,  and  a  cocked  hat  of 
tremendous  circumference,  dashed  up  and  down  the 
lines  on  the  best  farm  horse  to  be  obtained  for  love 
or  money — ah,  then  indeed  the  assembled  boyhood  of 
all  the  country  round  felt  that  the  acme  of  glory  had 
been  reached,  and  that  with  such  defenders  Columbia 
was  safe  from  all  her  foes. 

But  the  most  dangerous  foes  of  the  people  of  Cuya- 
hoga at  this  time  were  not  the  embattled  legions  of 



Europe,  but  the  wolves  which  devoured  their  sheep 
and  the  bears  which  ate  up  their  hogs.  To  reduce 
the  number  of  these  enemies,  to  obtain  their  skins 
and  to  supply  themselves  with  venison,  as  well  as  for 
the  sport  afforded,  hundreds  of  young  and  middle- 
aged  men  made  a  specialty  of  hunting  during  the 
winter  months. 

Bat  there  were  in  some  localities  large  tracts  which. 
Usually  on  account  of  their  swampy  nature,  were  the 
especial  resort  of  wild  animals.  Occasionally,  after 
the  farmers'  sheep  had  suffered  severely  from  wolves 
which  harbored  in  such  a  tract,  the  people  would  turn 
out  from  far  and  near  to  sun-ound  and  clear  out  the 
haunt  of  the  marauders.  The  most  celebrated  of  all 
these  grand  battues  in  this  part  of  the  State  was  the 
"Hinckley  hunt,"  which  took  place  in  December, 
1818.  The  township  of  Hinckley,  which  was  the 
scene  of  the  great  raid,  was  just  outside  of  Cuyahoga 
county;  lying  immediately  south  of  Royalton,  and 
being  now  the  northeasternmost  township  of  Medina 
county — yet  as  huntsmen  participated  in  it  from  all 
parts  of  Cuyahoga,  even  from  as  far  as  Euclid,  we 
have  chosen  it  as  a  specimen  of  the  onslaughts  occa- 
sionally made  on  the  denizens  of  the  forest  by  the 
pioneers  of  northei'n  Ohio. 

Notice  having  been  given  throughout  Cuyahoga  and 
Medina  counties,  including  the  present  county  of 
Summit,  nearly  five  hundred  hunters,  all  eager  for 
the  fray,  assembled  one  cold  morning  in  December  on 
the  borders  of  the  wolf-haunted  township.  A  com- 
mander in  chief  was  chosen  by  universal  suffrage,  as 
well  as  four  captains,  one  for  each  side  of  the  area  to 
be  enclosed.  'Squire  Perj-is,  of  Royalton,  was  the 
captain  on  the  northern  side.  Then  the  commander 
sent  his  companies  to  the  right  and  left,  and  in  due 
time  the  whole  township  was  enclosed  by  what  in  mil- 
itary phrase  would  be  called  a  skirmish  line,  with  the 
men  fifteen  or  twenty  rods  apart.  There  was  at  that 
time  only  one  family  living  in  Hinckley  ;  so  that  the 
assailants  had  a  clear  field. 

Next,  the  word  was  started  from  the  northeast  cor- 
ner of  the  township,   "All  ready." 

"All  ready,"  repeated  the  men,  one  after  another, 
and  the  word  quickly  went  around  the  townshiji  and 
came  back  to  the  northeast  corner. 

"  Forward  march  !  "  shouted  the  chief.  "  Forward 
march  ! "  rej^eated  the  men  in  succession,  and  the 
four  lines  moved  forward  toward  the  center  of  the 
township.  At  intervals  along  the  Hue  good  woods- 
men were  placed,  with  special  instructions  to  take  a 
straight  direction  to  the  center  of  Hinckley,  to  whose 
movement  the  others  were  directed  to  conform,  grad- 
ually closing  up  as  they  progressed.  The  venerable 
Abial  Haynes,  of  Strongsville,  though  then  but  a 
youth,  was  one  of  the  linesmen,  or  "guides,"  and  has 
given  us  a  description  of  the  principal  events  of  this 
exciting  day. 

Ere  the  lines  had  marched  a  mile  toward  the  center 
a  few  deer  were  seen,  a  jiart  of  which  were  killed 
while  others  sped  away  in  the  opposite  direction  from 

the  crackling  rifles.  After  the  first  mile  bears  began 
to  be  observed.  Mr.  Haynes  and  John  Hilliard  met 
one  and  both  fired  at  once,  at  a  distance  of  a  few  rods. 
Both  balls  struck  him  and  he  fell,  but  immediately 
scrambled  up  and  "loped"  back  into  the  forest.  He 
was  soon  killed,  however,  and  was  found  to  weigh 
six  hundi'ed  pounds ;  being  almost  as  heavy  as  a  small 

The  lines  marched  on  and  deer  became  extremely 
numerous,  while  bear  were  quite  frequent.  There 
was  a  continuous  fusilade  along  the  line  as  bucks, 
and  does,  and  fawns  fell  in  rapid  succession  before  the 
rifles  of  the  hunters.  Those  that  did  not  fall  gener- 
ally ran  back  from  the  line  of  death-dealing  riflemen, 
but  occasionally  some  brave  old  buck  would  fling  his 
antlered  head  aloft,  burst  through  the  line  of  his  foes, 
perchance  escape  their  bullets,  and  dash  away  to  seek 
a  more  healthy  residence. 

Turkies,  too,  flew  up  in  enormous  numbers;  so  that 
it  was  said  in  somewhat  exaggerated  phrase  that  every 
bullet  fired  that  day  killed  a  turkey.  Turkies  and 
deer  were  so  numerous  that  their  deaths  caused  no 
excitement,  but  when  a  bear  curled  up  to  die  a  tri- 
umphant shout  was  raised  by  his  conquerors,  which 
was  echoed  far  along  the  line. 

All  this  while  not  a  wolf  was  to  be  seen  ;  the  wary 
rascals  snuffed  danger  from  afar  and  retreated  as  fast 
as  possible  from  the  sound  of  the  deadly  rifle's.  As 
wolves  were  the  very  animals  it  was  most  desirable  to 
kill,  some  disappointment  was  felt  at  their  non-ap- 
pearance, but  the  old  hunters  were  certain  they  had 
retreated  toward  the  center  and  encouraged  the  others 
to  press  on. 

When  within  about  two  miles  of  the  middle  of  the 
township  the  fun  became  fast  and  furious  The  men 
were  now  but  four  or  five  rods  apart  and  it  was  very 
difficult  for  anything  to  escape  between  them.  Never- 
theless, at  one  time  fifty  or  sixty  deer,  in  one  fright- 
ened herd,  made  a  dash  at  the  line  ;  the  antlered  lead- 
ers bounding  five  or  six  feet  from  the  ground,  and  all 
snorting  with  frantic  terror.  Most  of  them  escaped, 
in  spite  of  the  rattling  fusilade  with  which  they  were 
assailed  on  either  side.  ScarDe  a  moment  passed  iu 
which  a  deer  was  not  seen  bounding  with  all  the  speed 
of  terror  through  the  forest,  or  a  bear  limbering 
along  at  his  best  pace,  but  far  too  slowly  to  escape 
the  vengeance  of  his  unsparing  foes.  Crack  !  crack  ! 
went  the  rifles  with  scarcely  a  moment's  intermission; 
corpses  strewed  the  ground  on  every  side  and  the  ex- 
cited hunters,  with  all  the  enthusiasm  of  victorious 
soldiers,  pressed  forward  with  flying  feet. 
Still  no  wolves. 

When  the  last  square  mile  in  the  center  of  the 
township  was  reached  the  deer  had  entirely  disap- 
peared ;  all  were  slain  or  had  broken  through  the 
lines  and  escaped.  The  bears,  too,  had  Jbecome  scarce; 
only  three  or  four  being  killed  on  the  last  square 
mile.  The  men  were  now  within  a  few  paces  of  each 
other,  and  eager  as  so  many  bloodhounds.  At  length 
a  gaunt  gray  form  was  seen  gliding  among  the  trees. 



"A  wolf!  a  wolf!"  cried  those  who  saw  it.  Half 
a  dozen  rifles  were  fired  at  ouce,  and  the  enemy  of  the 
sheep-fold  was  numbered  with  the  slain.  Another 
and  another  were  soon  seen  and  dispatched.  As  the 
deadly  lines,  now  closing  into  a  circle,  pressed  forward 
to  the  center,  the  grisly  prowlers  were  seen  running 
hither  and  thither,  as  terrified  as  the  lamhs  they  had 
formerly  pursued.  Caution  was  now  necessary  lest 
the  bullets  of  the  hunters  should  wound  their  friends 
on  the  other  side  of  the  circle,  but  caution  was  a  dif- 
ficult virtue  among  such  an  excited  and  jubilant 
crowd.  However,  it  must  have  been  exercised  to 
some  extent ;  for  none  of  the  hunters  were  killed  or 

At  last  the  triumphant  riflemen  closed  swiftly  in 
together,  the  last  wolf  went  down  beneath  their 
bullets,  the  circle  became  a  band,  and  a  succession  of 
ringing  cheers  gave  vent  to  their  excited  feelings. 

On  counting  up  their  victims,  eight  wolves  were 
found  (all  killed  on  the  last  square  mile);  a  number 
which,  though  not  large  in  comparison  with  that  of 
the  other  animals,  was  sufficieut  to  carry  destruction 
into  hundreds  of  flocks  of  sheep. 

Twenty  bears  were  also  found  "  weltering  in  their 
gore "  on  the  fleld  of  battle,  eighteen  of  which  were 
drawn  together  and  flung  into  a  shaggy  heap.  Of 
deer,  no  less  than  two  hundred  and  sixty  were  drawn 
together  in  the  same  manner.  The  hunters  certainly 
could  not  complain  that  this  was  "  not  a  good  day 
for  deer."  As  we  have  befoi'e  mentioned,  many  of 
these  fleet-footed  foresters  escaped,  but  Mr.  Haines 
stated  that  he  believed  that  all  of  the  bears  and  wolves 
in  the  township  were  killed.  At  all  events  the  hunt 
completely  broke  up  the  haunt  of  wolves  which  had 
previously  existed  there,  and  for  a  time,  at  least,  there 
was  peace  for  the  neighboring  sheep. 

There  were  other  grand  battues  of  the  same  descrip- 
tion in  and  near  the  county,  but  the  Hinckley  hunt 
was  the  most  celebrated  and  most  successful  of  them 
all,  and  its  description  will  suffice  for  either  of  the 

In  1820  a  step  farther  in  advance  was  made  when 
a  line  of  coaches  was  put  on  the  route  from  Cleveland 
to  Columbus,  passing  through  the  townships  of  Brook- 
lyn, Parma,  the  corner  of  Royalton,  Strongsville, 
and  so  on  through  Medina  county.  Those  were  dire- 
ful times  for  travelers.  In  summer  the  big  coaches 
bowled  along  with  comparative  ease,  save  when  one 
of  the  wheels  jolted  over  the  root  of  an  overshadowing 
oak,  or  collided  with  the  stump  of  a  lately  felled 
beech.  Even  these  disturbances  did  not  prevent  the 
closely  packed  passengers  from  beguiling  their  way 
with  many  a  pleasant  tale,  until  "  stage-coach  stories  " 
have  become  renowned  for  their  wit  and  jollity.  In 
winter,  too,  by  curling  up  in  the  bottom  of  the  sleigh, 
surrounded  with  plenty  of  buffalo  and  bear  skins, 
the  travelers  could  generally  manage  to  perform 
their  journey  with  considerable  rapidity,  and  without 
more  discomfort  than  an  occasional  "  frosted  "  ear  or 

But  alas  for  the  unfortunate  man  doomed  to  a 
stage-coach  journey  in  the  spring  or  fall.  He  was 
sure  to  be  called  on  to  go  on  foot  a  large  portion  of 
the  time,  and  was  often  expected  to  shoulder  a  rail 
and  carry  it  from  mudhole  to  mudhole,  to  pry  out  the 
vehicle  in  which  he  was  in  theory  supposed  to  be  rid- 
ing. "  To  go  on  foot  and  carry  a  rail,"  and  to  pay  a 
stage  company  for  the  privilege,  was  a  mode  of  trav- 
eling very  widely  celebrated  but  extremely  unpleasant. 
Not  only  were  roads  poor  but  bridges  were  scarce. 
There  was  not  one  across  the  Cuyahoga  river  in  the 
county.  A  notice  was  published  in  April,  1820,  by 
which  "all  having  an  interest  in  or  wishes  concerning 
the  building  of  a  bridge  across  the  river  at  or  near 
Cleveland  are  requested  to  meet  at  the  court-house, 
to  consult  in  relation  thereto." 

As  a  marked  example  of  what  must  seem  to  our 
readers  the  extreme  slowness  with  which  the  news  was 
carried  in  those  days,  we  may  mention  that  while  King 
George  the  Third,  of  England,  died  on  the  39th  day 
of  January,  1830,  the  announcement  of  his  death  was 
not  made  in  the  Cleveland  Herald  until  the  28th  of 
March,  (two  months  lacking  a  day  after  the  event 
took  place). 

The  commerce  of  the  lake  slowly  but  steadily  in- 
creased. The  Herald  of  April  25,  1830,  reported  the 
following  clearances  at  the  "port  of  Cuyahoga"  in  a 
single  week:  Cleared;  schooner  "Pairplay,"  Johnson 
master,  loaded  with  pork,  flour,  whisky  and  passen- 
gers; schooner  "  Commodore  Perry,"  Tayler  master, 
for  Detroit,  loaded  with  flour,  beef,  cattle,  etc.; 
schooner  "American  Eagle,"  Gaylord  master,  loaded 
with  produce;  schooner  "Friendship,"  Kelly  master, 
also  loaded  with  produce.  The  arrival  of  some  of  the 
same  vessels  from  Detroit  was  noted,  but  the  nature 
of  their  cargoes  was  not  mentioned. 

It  will  be  observed  that  flour  is  spoken  of  as  going 
both  up  and  down  the  lake.  In  the  latter  case  it  was 
doubtless  used  by  the  garrisons  of  the  posts  on  the 
upper  lakes,  or  by  the  settlers  of  Michigan  who  had 
not  yet  raised  crops.  This  was  about  the  beginning 
of  the  great  trade  in  grain  and  breadstuffs  along  the 
upper  lakes,  which  has  already  grown  to  such  enor- 
mous proportions. 

In  this  year  (1830)  the  first  legislative  action  was 
taken  in  regard  to  the  construction  of  a  canal  from 
Lake  Erie  to  the  Ohio  river.  An  act  was  passed  by 
the  legislature  providing  for  the  appointment  of  three 
canal  commissioners,  who  were  authorized  to  employ 
a  competent  engineer  and  assistants,  for  the  purpose 
of  making  preliminary  surveys  of  some  of  the  routes 
considered  most  available  for  the  proposed  work. 

In  1833  Hon.  Alfred  Kelly,  of  Cleveland,  was  ap- 
pointed one  of  the  canal  commissioners,  and  for  many 
years  thereafter  was  busily  and  zealously  engaged  in 
forwarding  the  construction  of  the  canal,  and  in  other 
public  services.  Hon.  James  G-eddcs,-of  New  York, 
one  of  the  principal  engineers  of  the  Erie  canal,  was 
employed  to  make  a  survey  of  the  routes  of  the  Ohio 



Prices  of  all  kinds  of  farm  produce  were  exceeding- 
ly low;  the  following  being  a  list  of  the  prices  paid  in 
Cleveland  in  January,  1823:  Flour,  two  dollars  and 
a  half  per  barrel;  wheat,  thirty-seven  cents  to  fifty 
cents  per  bushel;  rye,  thirty-one  cents;  corn,  twenty- 
five  cents;  oats,  nineteen  cents;  beans,  fifty  cents; 
flax  seed,  fifty  cents;  peas,  forty-four  to  fifty  cents; 
rye,  thirty-one  cents;  butter,  eight  to  ten  cents  per 
pound;  cheese,  four  to  six  cents;  lard,  four  to  five 
cents;  pork,  two  to  three  and  a  half  cents;  beef,  three 
to  four  cents;  tallow,  eight  to  ten  cents;  whisky, 
twenty  to  twenty-six  cents  per  gallon;  wood,  thirty 
to  fifty  cents  per  cord;  hay,  six  to  seven  dollars  per 

It  was  pretty  hard  to  raise  wheat  and  sell  it  for 
thirty-seven  cents  a  bushel,  but  on  the  other  hand 
with  whisky  only  twenty  cents  a  gallon  the  people 
were  doubtless  reasonably  happy.  For  there  is  no 
use  in  evading  the  unquestionable  fact  — the  sturdy 
pioneers  who  destroyed  the  wild  beasts,  leveled  the 
forests  and  subdued  the  virgin  soil  of  Cuyahoga 
county,  were  as  a  general  rule  decidedly  fond  of 
whisky.  Every  township  had  one  or  more  distilleries, 
where  the  article  was  manufactured  in  the  cheapest 
possible  manner,  and  each  had  plenty  of  customers 
in  its  own  vicinity.  Whisky  was  an  important  item 
at  every  "raising"  or  "logging-bee,"  or  other  assem- 
blage of  the  people,  and  was  in  frequent  use  in  the 
houses  of  the  most  reputable  classes. 

It  should  be  remembered,  however,  that  men  who 
spent  twelve  hours  a  day  chopping,  logging,  plowing, 
splitting  rails,  etc.,  could  more  easily  "work  off"  the 
effect  of  frequent  drams  of  liquor  than  could  their 
degenerate  descendants,  who  think  eight  hours  consti- 
tutes a  hard  day's  work,  and  many  of  whom  do  no 
hard  work  at  all. 

General  training  was  one  of  the  occasion^  at  which 
a  liberal  use  of  whisky  was  considered  to  be  tlie  proper 
thing,  notwithstanding  the  requirements  of  discipline. 
The  officers  couldn't  keep  whisky  out  of  camp, 
although  there  was  an  abundant  supply  of  those  dig- 
nitaries. This  was  a  part  of  the  ninth  division,  Ohio 
militia.  Among  the  numerous  notices  and  orders 
which  appeared  within  a  few  months,  in  1823,  we 
observe  one  directing  the  members  of  the  first  com- 
pany of  cavalry,  second  brigade,  ninth  division,  Ohio 
militia,  to  hold  an  election  for  company  officers  at  the 
court-house;  signed  by  the  brigadier-general,  per 
John  W.  Wiley,  aide.  Also  one  requiring  the  first 
artillery  company  of  the  first  regiment,  fourth  brigade, 
etc.,  to  meet  to  elect  officei's;  signed  by  P.  M.  Wed- 
dell,  captain.  Another  ordering  the  company  officers 
of  the  first  regiment,  etc.,  to  meet  to  elect  a  major; 
signed  by  P.   Baldwin,  colonel. 

A  short  time  afterwards  the  following  staff  and 
non-commissioned-staff  officers  of  the"  first  regiment 
were  announced  by  II.  Wellman,  colonel:  Donald 
Mcintosh,  surgeon;  S.  A.  Henderson,  surgeon's 
mate;  Euney  R.  Baldwin,  adjutant;  John  H.  Camp, 
(|uartermaster;    Horace  Perry,    i)aymastor;     William 

S.  Chapman,  sergeant-major;    John  0.  Millard,  fife- 
major;  Barzilla  B.  Burk,  drum-major. 

Capital  of  all  kinds  was  scarce,  and  this  fact  of 
course  retarded  the  general  progress  of  the  county. 
Yet  the  absence  of  large  amounts  of  capital  encour- 
aged men  with  a  little  money  to  embark  in  various 
small  industries,  in  different  parts  of  the  county, 
which  have  now  passed  away.  If  a  man  wanted  to 
start  a  little  business  of  any  kind,  and  had  barely 
enough  to  begin  with,  he  could  go  ahead  in  compara- 
tive safety;  there  was  no  danger  of  any  "bloated  cap- 
italist" crushing  out  his  enterprise  by  driving  him 
into  a  hopeless  competition. 

Thus  Leonard  Marsilliott,  of  Euclid,  for  a  long 
time  maintained  a  stoneware  factory  in  that  township, 
which  had  a  wide  reputation  for  the  excellence  of  its 
productions.  A  little  later  there  was  a  ship  and  boat- 
building establishment  in  the  same  township,  more 
fully  described  in  tlio  special  history  of  Euclid.  An- 
other industry  of  the  period  (1832,  etc.) — a  somewhat 
curious  one — was. a  castor-oil  factory,  situated  in  the 
township  of  Brooklyn,  a  mile  from  Cleveland.  That 
fragrant  business,  we  imagine,  has  entirely  passed 
away  from  the  county. 

We  now  come  to  a  material  change  in  the  western 
boundaries  of  Cuyahoga  county.  By  a  law  passed  on 
the  36th  day  of  December,  1833,  the  county  of  Lorain 
was  established.  It  embraced  a  large  part  of  Huron 
county,  and  took  from  Cuyahoga  the  townships  of 
Troy  (now  Avon),  Ridgeville,  Eaton,  Columbia,  and 
the  west  part  of  Lenox  (now  Olmstead).  It  will  be 
observed  that  Troy  (Avon)  and  Eidgeville  then  ex- 
tended to  Black  river,  which  was  the  western  bound- 
ary of  Cuyahoga  county. 

The  new  county  was  not  organized  at  that  time, 
and  the  townships  named  in  the  last  paragraph  re- 
mained temporarily  attached  to  Cuyahoga  county.  A 
list  of  the  civil  townships  of  the  latter  county,  which 
appeared  in  October,  1833,  was  as  follows:  Cleveland, 
Chagrin  (now  Willoughby),  Brooklyn,  Brecksville, 
Bedford,  Columbia,  Dover,  Euclid,  Eaton,  Independ- 
ence, Mayfield,  Nowburg,  Orange,  Ridgeville,  Royal- 
ton,  Rockport,  Strongsville,.  Troy  (Avon),  and  War- 
i-ensville.  Nineteen  in  all;  the  same  number  as  there 
are  at  present  (aside  from  Cleveland) — the  number  of 
those  which  have  been  detached  having  been  made 
good  by  new  formations. 

On  the  first  day  of  April,  1834,  Lorain  county  was 
duly  organized,  and  the  territory  above  described  was 
permanently  detached  from  Cuyahoga  county.  The 
west  half  of  Lenox  (Olmstead)  was  then  made  a  part 
of  Ridgeville,  Lorain  county,  while  the  east  half  was 
attached  to  Middleburg,  Cuyahoga  county. 

We  said  the  territory  in  question  was  "perma- 
nently "  detached  from  Cuyahoga  county.  That  is 
to  say,  the  detachment  was  intended  to  be  permanent, 
but  in  regard  to  the  west  half  of  Lenox  it  was  not  so. 
The  residents  of  Lenox  were  much  dissatisfied  with 
the  decree  which  had  cut  tlieir  thriving  young  town- 
ship in  twain,  and  had  placed  the  severed  halves  in 






two  drfEerenfc  counties,  and  three  years  later  they  pro- 
cured the  passage  of  an  act,  dated  January  29,  1827, 
by  which  the  west  half  of  the  township  ia  question 
was  set  back  into  Cuyahoga,  where  the  two  portions, 
once  more  united,  became  the  township  of  Olmstead, 
as  narrated  iu  its  special  history.  The  facts  men- 
tioned in  this  paragraph  are  a  little  in  advance  of  the 
poriod  allotted  to  the  present  chaptei-,  but  we  want  to 
close  the  account  in  regard  to  the  western  boundary 
of  the  county.  No  changes  have  been  made  in  it 
from  the  roannexation  of  the  west  half  of  Lenox  to 
tlio  present  time. 

From  a  casual  record  we  learn  that  the  white  males, 
over  twenty-one  years  of  age,  resident  in  Cuyahoga 
county  in  1823,  numbered  sixteen  hundred  and  fifty- 
five;  an  average  of  eighty-seven  to  each  of  the  nine- 
teen townships. 

Another  record  of  the  same  year  mentions  that  the 
State  had  directed  the  laying  out  of  a  "free  road" 
from  Cleveland  through  Newburg,  Bedford  and 
Solon,  and  so  on  southeast,  striking  the  Ohio  river  in 
Columbiana  county.  Samuel  Cow]es,  Esq.,  of  Cleve- 
land, was  one  of  the  commissioners  to  lay  it  out. 

The  first  movement  was  also  made  this  year  to 
turnpike  the  stage  road  running  from  Cleveland 
sou^thwest  thropgh  Brooklyn,  Parma  and  Strongsville; 
and  thence  through  Medina  to  Wooster,  the  county 
seat  of  Wayne  county.  A  company  was  formed, 
called  the  Wayne,  Medina  and  Cuyahoga  Turnpike 
Company,  and  in  April,  1823,  the  books  were  opened 
to  receive  subscriptions  to  the  stock.  The  move- 
ment was  a  success,  and  the  turnpike  in  question 
became  one  of  the  great  highways  of  the  State. 

By  this  time,  thirteen  years  after  the  advent  of  Dr. 
David  Long,  the  first  physician  in  the  county,  the 
doctors  of  this  and  Medina  counties  (which,  by  a  law 
of  the  State,  constituted  the  nineteenth  medical  dis- 
trict of  Ohio)  had  become  sufficiently  numerous  to 
organize  a  medical  society,  and  did  so  in  May,  1823. 
Dr.  Long  was  the  first  president. 

In  the  autumn  of  1824  took  place  the  great  quad- 
rangular contest  for  the  presidency  between  Henry 
Clay,  John  Quincy  Adams,  Andrew  Jackson  and  John 
C.  Calhoun.  The.  last  named  gentleman  received  no 
votes  in  this  county.  Of  the  others,  strange  as  it 
may  seem,  Jackson  received  very  few  votes;  the 
strength  of  the  county  being  divided  between  Clay.and 
Adams,  with  the  former  as  a  decided  favorite.  The 
following  table  shows  the  vote  by  townships.  The 
township  of  Chagrin  (now  Willoughby)  was  included 
in  the  list,  casting  ninety-eight  votes,  but  we  have 
omitted  it  in  order  to  show  the  number  cast  in  the 
territory  now  constituitng  Cuyahoga  county,  except 
the  west  half  of  Olmstead,  then  attached  to  Lorain 
county,  and  containing  but  very  few  voters. 


Bedford...... 20  ..  20 

Brooklyn  39  5  U 

BrecksviUe  m  18  36 

Cleveland 64  43  5                112 

Dover  22  11  ..                 33 

Euclid 38  75  16                129 

Independence 19  2  21 

Mayfleld  14  1  15 

Middleburg 12  ..  12 

Newburg 57  49  106 

Orange  22  22 

Rockport 26  1  ..                  27 

Eoyalton    44  44 

Strongsville 2.3  1  24 

Warrensville 4  12  4                 20 

Aggregate 442  218  25  CKi 

It  will,  perhaps,  surprise  some  of  our  readers  to 
learn  that  as  late  as  1824  the  township  of  Euclid  cast 
seventeen  votes  (about  fifteen  per  cent.)  more  than 
Cleveland,  but  such  was  the  fact.  While  the  agri- 
cultural townships  made  steady  progress  after  the 
war  of  1812,  the  growth  of  Cleveland  was  extremely 
slow  down  to  the  year  1825.  It  should  be  remembered, 
however,  that  Euclid  at  that  time  iucluded  the 
greater  part  of  the  present  township  of  East  Cleve- 

In  this  year  (1824)  an  act  was  passed  directing  the 
laying  out  of  another  State  road;  running  from 
Cleveland  through  Warrensville  and  Orange,  and 
thence  nearly  due  east  to  Kinsman,  on  the  eastern 
line  of  the  State.  It  was  called  the  Kinsman  road, 
and  the  westernmost  part  of  it  is  now  kuown  as 
Kinsman  street,  in  the  city  of  Cleveland. 

The  winter  of  1824-5  was  celebrated  for  its  mild- 
ness, and  the  Cleveland  Herald  of  December  Sth  re- 
cords that  violets,  pinks  and  marigolds  were  tlien  in 
bloom,  that  pea  vines  had  pods  half-grown  upon  them, 
and  most  remarkable  of  all  that  ripe  strawberries, 
grown  in  the  open  air,  had  lately  been  brought  into 
the  office. 

During  the  previous  five  years  engineers  had  been 
at  work,  more  or  less,  making  preliminary  surveys 
for  the  great  Ohio  canal.  Public  opinion,  too,  had 
been  steadily  growing  more  favorable  to  the  proposed 
enterprise,  and  at  length,  on  the  4th  of  February, 
1825,  a  law  was  passed  authorizing  the  canal  com- 
missioners tobaild  acanal  along  the  Scioto  and  Musk- 
ingum valleys,  and  thence  north  to  Lake  Erie.  The 
commissioners  were  left  free  to  choose,  as  to  the 
northern  part,  between  the  route  by  the  Cuyahoga 
valley  to  Cleveland,  and  that  through  Wooster,  and 
down  the  valley  of  Black  river  to  its  mouth.  The 
seven  commissioners  (of  whom  Alfred  Kelley,  of 
Cleveland,  was  one  of  the  most  influential),  reported 
in  favor  of  the  superior  cheapness  and  convenience  of 
the  Cuyahoga  route,  and  it  was  formally  adopted. 

This  opens  a  new  era  in  the  history  of  the  county, 
and  we  will,  therefore,  at  this  point  begin  a  new 





Work  begun  on  the  Canal— Growth  of  Cleveland— Completion  of  Erie 
Canal— First  Appropriation  for  Harbor— The  "  Superior  " — Increasing 
Business— '"Black  Salts  "—Cleveland  and  Newburg— Contest  over 
Court-House—  Cleveland  Successful — Erecting'  New  Court  House — 
"  The  Blue  Jug  "—Cuyahoga  County  Colonizition  Society— The  Canal 
opened  to  Akron— Celebration  under  Difificulties— Trade  with  the 
Northwest— A  County  Wolf-Bounty— Horse  Thieves  and  Counter- 
feiters—Discount  on  Bank  Bills— Hard  Times  for  Creditors— Bails  at 
Ten  Cents  Each— Sale  of  Western  Reserve  School  Lands— Land  begins 
to  rise- Laying  out  of  Ohio  City— Modest  Eailroads— Others  not  so 
Modest— The  Ohio  Railroad— The  Cleveland,  Cincinnati  and  Columbus 
Road— The  Cleveland,  Warren  and  Pittsburg  Road— The  "Flush 
Times  "—Immense  Increase  of  Paper  Money- Inflation  of  Values- 
Special  Speculation  on  the  Cuyahoga— The  Climax  in  1830— The  Great 
Crash  in  1837— Failure  of  Banks  and  Individuals— Stoppage  of  Public 
Works- 'Hard  Times"— The  Patriot  War-Deer  feeding  with  the 

Work  was  speedily  commenced  at  various  points 
along  the  route  of  the  canal;  ground  being  broken  at 
Cleveland  on  the  4th  of  July,  1835.  At  that  time 
begins  the  rapid  growth  of  Cleveland.  Though  laid 
out  nearly  thirty  years  before,  it  was  in  1825  a  mere 
village  of  five  or  six  hundred  inhabitants;  but  from 
the  beginning  of  the  Ohio  canal  to  the  present  time 
its  growth  has  been  one  of  the  marvels  even  of  the 
marvelous  West. 

In  the  autumn  of  the  same  year  the  Erie  canal  was 
completed,  and  boats  were  set  running  between 
Albany  and  Buffalo.  This  opened  a  market  for  those 
agricultural  productions  of  northern  Ohio  which  could 
reach  the  lake,  and  a  decided  improvemeut  in  prices 
was  the  result.  In  this  year,  also,  the  first  appropri- 
ation was  made  by  the  general  goveroment  for  a 
harbor  at  Cleveland.  The  circumstances  connected 
with  its  construction  are  given  in  detail  in  the  history 
of  the  city. 

The  "Walk-in-the- Water"  had  been  wrecked,  but 
a  new  steamer,  the  "  Superior,"  had  taken  its  place. 
In  1836  the  "Henry  Clay"  came  out,  and  from  that 
time  there  was  a  very  rapid  growth  of  the  steam 
marine  on  Lake  Erie. 

All  these  things  greatly  increased  the  travel  over 
the  roads  of  Cuyahoga  county.  Not  only  were 
the  farmers  of  the  county  eager  to  reach  a  port 
where  they  could  exchange  their  productions  for 
imported  articles,  but  the  slow  Pennsylvania  Germans 
of  northeastern  Ohio,  in  large  numbers,  drove  their  big 
wagons,  with  enormously- wide  tires,  over  the  muddy 
roads  through  Orange,  Solon,  WaiTcnsville,  Bedford, 
Newburg,  etc.,  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga;  inquir- 
ing there  for  "de  John  Blair  vat  kips  de  vite  fishes," 
a  favorite  dealer  of  the  olden  time.  There  they 
unloaded  their  flour  and  wheat,  and  loaded  up  with 
fish,  salt,  etc.  Sometimes  three  barrels  of  flour  were 
given  for  one  barrel  of  salt. 

By  this  time  the  manufacture  of  "black  salts," 
potash  and  pearlash  had  become  an  important  indus- 
try. The  clearing  of  the  land  of  timber  furnished 
an  immense  quantity  of  ashes  on  nearly  every  farm; 
for  even  those  who  had  quite  old  locations  were  con- 
stantly   clearing   off    new    lots.     The    ashes    being 

leached,  the  ley  was  boiled  down  into  a  dark  solid, 
known  as  "black  salts."  This  was  usually  sold  to 
the  owner  of  a  local  ashery,  frequently  the  village 
merchant,  who  made  it  into  potash  or  pearlash  and 
sent  it  east  for  sale.  It  could  be  transported  at  slight 
expense,  and  would  always  bring  cash  at  some  price: 
consequently  many  a  farmer  who  could  only  trade  his 
wheat  or  oats  for  "store-pay"  of  some  kind,  was 
obliged  to  depend  on  his  "  black  salts"  for  the  money 
to  pay  his  taxes,  and  for  a  few  other  necessary  ex- 
penses which  must  be  met  with  cash. 

By  1836  the  people  had  become  satisfied  that  anew 
court-house  was  indispensable  for  the  rising  business 
of  the  county.  As  on  the  erection  of  the  first  one  in 
1813,  so  again,  there  was  a  sharp  dispute  whether  the 
new  one  should  be  located  at  Cleveland  or  Newburg. 
For  a  long  time  the  latter  had  been  superior  to  the 
former  in  population,  business  and  prosperity.  Cleve- 
land was  now  increasing  much  the  more  rapidly,  and 
bade  fair  to  be  an  important  place,  yet  Newburg  was 
more  centrally  located,  and  a  large  proportion  of  the 
inhabitants  favored  the  removal  of  the  county-seat  to 
that  point. 

The  power  to  make  the  location  was  vested  in.  the 
county  commissioners.  One  of  these  died,  and  of  the 
two  others,  one  favored  Cleveland  and' one  Newburg 
as  the  county  seat.  An  election  to  fill  the  vacancy 
came  off  in  1836.  It  turned  entirely  on  the  county- 
seat  question,  one  candidate  being  a  friend  of  Cleve- 
land and  one  of  Newburg,  and  a  very  hot  contest  was 
the  result.  The  Cleveland  man  was  elected  by  a 
small  majority. 

The  next  year,  1837,  a  new,  brick  court-house  was 
begun,  situated  in  the  southwest  part  of  the  public 
square  at  Cleveland,  across  the  street  from  the  front 
of  the  present  Forest  City  House.  It  Avas  completed 
in  1828,  and  the  first  court  was  held  in  it  on  the  38th 
of  October  in  that  year.  This  was  the  scene  of  the 
administration  of  justice  for  Cuyahoga  county  for 
thirty  years.  It  was  a  two-story  brick  building,  with 
a  wooden  cupola.,  standing  with  its  face  toward  the 
lake,  and  was  considered  a  very  elegant  structure. 
The  lower  atory  was  divided  into  rooms  for  the  ac- 
commodation of  the  various  county  officers,  while  the 
upper  story  served  as  a  court  room. 

Four  years  later  a  substantial  stone  jail  was  erected 
on  the  ground  south  of  the  southwest  corner  of  the 
square;  being  in  rear  of  the  court-house  and  across 
the  street  from  it.  This  was  a  gloomy-looking  struc- 
ture, and  was  commonly  called  "  The  Blue  Jucr." 

Among  the  events  of  fifty  years  ago,  one  which 
now  seems  separated  by  an  immense  gulf  from  the 
ideas  of  the  present  day  was  the  organization,  in 
1837,  of  the  Cuyahoga  County  Colonization  Society; 
a  branch  of  the  national  institution  of  that  name,  de- 
signed to  promote  the  removal  of  the  colored  people 
to  Africa.  It  was  generally  considered  to  be  favor- 
able to  their  freedom,  as  it  was  supposed  that  many 
Southerners  would  be  willing  to  emancipate  their 
slaves  if  assured  that  they  would  not  remain  in  the 



country;  yet  the  strong  abolitionists  were  decidedly 
opposed  to  it. 

At  the  meeting  for  the  purpose  of  organization, 
in  this  county,  an  address  was  delivered  by  the  Rev. 
"William  Stone,  and  a  prayer  by  the  Rev.  S.  J.  Brad- 
street.  Samuel  Oowles,  Esq.,  was  chosen  president; 
Rev.  Randolph  Stone,  Hon.  Nemiah  Allen,  Datus 
Kelley,  Josiah  Barber  and  Gen.  Lewis  R.  Dille,  vice 
presidents;  A.  W.  Walworth,  treasurer;  James  S. 
Clarke,  secretary,  and  Mordecai  Bartley,  delegate  to 
the  national  society. 

On  the  Fourth  of  July  in  this  year,  (1827,)  just  two 
years  after  ground  was  broken  on  the  Ohio  canal  at 
Cleveland,  it  was  technically  "opened  for  naviga- 
tion" from  Cleveland  to  Akron  with  a  grand  celebra- 
tion. It  was  opened  under  difficulties,  however;  for 
the  two  northernmost  locks,  which  connected  the 
canal  with  the  Cuyahoga  river  at  Cleveland,  were  not 
yet  completed. 

But  Noble  H.  Merwin,  of  the  last  named  place, 
was  determined  that  there  should  be  a  big  celebration, 
not  only  over  the  canal  but  on  the  canal,  on  the 
Fourth  of  July  of  that  year.  So  he  had  the  canal- 
packet  "  Pioneer  "  brought  from  Buifalo,  took  it  up 
the  I'iver  above  the  locks,  and  hauled  it  with  teams 
over  the  embankment  into  the  canal.  Thence  a  large 
party  of  the  principal  people  of  Cleveland  went  up 
the  canal  on  the  "'  Pioneer,"  till  they  met  the  boat 
"Allen  Trimble,"  from  Akron,  having  on  board  the 
person  for  whom  it  was  named,  who  was  then  gov- 
ernor of  Ohio,  together  with  the  canal  commission- 
ers and  many  others  from  the  central  parts  of  the 
S  tate. 

Flags  fluttered  gayly  in  the  breeze,  cannon  thun- 
dered their  boisterous  welcome,  speeches  full  of  roseate 
prophesy  were  made,  and  all  were  intensely  enthusi- 
astic over  the  great  event  of  the  day.  Such  enthusi- 
asm over  such  a  cause  may  seem  overstrained  in  these 
fast  times,  when  railroads  have  absorbed  nearly  all 
the  commerce  of  this  region,  and  the  canals  are 
looked  on  as  extremely  old  fogyish  institutions. 
Nevertheless  the  Fourth  day  of  July,  1837,  was  a  great 
day  for  northern  Ohio.  An  immense  tract,  previ- 
ously almost  entirely  isolated,  was  provided  with  the 
means  of.  transporting  its  produce  to  the  markets  of 
the  East,  and  every  kind  of  business  showed  an  im- 
mediate and  very  marked  improvement  in  conse- 
quence. It  is  doubtful  if  railroads  would  have  been 
built  as  soon  as  they  were,  had  not  the  wealth  of  the 
country  first  been  largely  increased  by  the  construc- 
tion of  canals. 

The  Ohio  canal  was  completed  through  the  State 
in  five  years  afterward,  and  its  increased  business 
nearly  all  poured  through  Cuyahoga  county  to  seek 
Lake  Erie. 

Besides  the  trade  with  the  East,  which  was  so  rap- 
idly being  developed  at  this  period,  there  was  also  a 
strong  demand  for  breadstuft's  and  other  articles  to 
send  to  the  distant  regions  of  the  Northwest,  which 
the  farmers  farther  up  the  lakes  were  unable  to  sup- 

ply. In  1827  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  advertised 
for  a  thousand  bushels  of  white,  flint  corn,  two  hun- 
dred bushels  of  other  corn,  and  two  hundred  barrels 
of  flour,  besides  considerable  quantities  of  salt,  pork, 
tallow,  tobacco,  highv/ines,  etc.  Large  quantities  of 
produce  were  also  sent  to  emigrants  in  Michigan 
and  other  Territories,  who  had  not  yet  raised  crops 
large  enough  for  their  own  support. 

Notwithstanding  all  this  commercial  activity,  and 
notwithstanding  the  zeal  of  tlie  pioneers  with  their 
rifles,  wolves  still  glided  through  the  forest  in  many 
townships,  and  made  rapid  slaugliter  upon  any  un- 
guarded sheep  they  could  discover.  In  1827  the 
county  commissioners  offered  a  bounty  of  fifteen  dol- 
lars for  the  scalp  of  every  wolf  slain  in  the  county. 
Many  of  tlie  townships  also  gave  from  five  to  ten  dol- 
lars per  scalp,  so  that  wolf-hunting  was  sometimes 
quite  a  profitable  business. 

Crimes,  too,  were  not  unknown  in  those  "good  old 
times,"  to  which  so  many  look  back  with  fond  regret 
as  to  an  Elysian  age.  Perhaps  there  were  not  as 
many  high-toned  criminals — official  defaulters  and 
gentlemanly  murderers — as  there  are  now,  but  good, 
plain  thieves  were  as  plentiful  as  any  reasonable  per- 
son could  desire.  The  more  daring  class  devoted 
themselves  largely  to  horse-stealing,  and  throughout 
the  West  the  professors  of  that  art  were  united  in  a 
great  fraternity,  members  of  which,  of  ajiparently  re- 
spectable character,  were  to  bo  found  in  nearly  every 
township.  Many  a  horse,  which  suddenly  left  its 
owner's  pasture  in  the  dark  and  was  followed  with  hue 
and  cry  l>y  himself  and  his  neighbors,  went  no  farther 
than  the  next  township,  where  it  was  quietly  kejDt  till 
the  storm  had  blown  over,  in  the  stable  of  some  re- 
spectable justice  of  the  peace  or  venerable  deacon  of 
the  church. 

The  less  courageous  or  more  skillful  rascals  usually 
devoted  themselves  to  the  manufacture  of  counterfeit 
money.  The  "  dollar  of  our  fathers  "  was  very  apt 
to  be  a  bogus  article.  There  were  reported  to  be 
places  where  bad  money  was  coined  in  Brecksville,  in 
Royalton,  in  Middleburg,  and  doubtless  in  other 
secluded  localities.  The  machinery  of  the  Middle- 
burg institution  was  found,  long  after  it  had  been 
abandoned,  on  a  small  island  in  the  midst  of  a  large 
swamp  in  that  township.  Counterfeit  half-dollars 
were  the  favorite  productions  of  these  unlawful  mints, 
though  other  silver  coins  were  frequently  imitated. 
It  was  said  that  large  orders  for  bad  silver  came  from 
Pennsylvania,  where  no  bank-bills  of  less  than  five 
dollars  were  allowed  to  circulate.  Prosecutions  were 
extremely  difficult,  as  the  criminals  were  frequently 
men  of  some  local  and  political  influence,  and  "straw 
bail "  was  readily  accepted  by  the  officials. 

We  do  not  learn  so  much  about  counterfeiting  bank- 
bills  in  those  days;  partly,  doubtless,  because  that 
business  required  more  expense  and  skill  than  was 
available  in  this  region,  and  partly  because  Ohio  bank 
bills  were  so  poor  that  it  was  not  very  profitable  to 
counterfeit  them.     Tlie  ordinary  discount  on  them  in 



1830  wtis  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  per  cent.,  and  in 
some  cases  it  was  much  larger.     A  respectable  rascal 
would    naturally    be   ashamed   to    counterfeit   such 
money  as  that. 

Debts  against  individuals  were  frequently  even  less 
valuable  than  these  heavily  discounted  bank-bills. 
We  have  noticed  in  a  previous  chapter  that  a  repre- 
sentative from  Cuyahoga  county  made  the  first 
movement  ever  made — so  far  as  known — looking  to 
the  abolition  of  imprisonment  for  debt.  By  1830 
Ohio  had  gone  to  the  extreme  of  liberality  toward 
debtors,  and  by  means  of  stay-laws  and  provisions 
for  appraisals  had  made  it  almost  impossible  to  collect 
an  account  under  any  circumstances. 

A  Cleveland  merchant  had  a  claim  of  seventy- 
five  dollars  against  a  resident  of  Middleburg.  Being 
unable  to  collect  it,  he  sued  it,  obtained  a  judgment 
and  directed  a  Middleburg  constable  to  sell  the  per- 
sonal property  of  the  defendant.  At  the  time  fixed 
for  the  sale  the  Clevelander  went  out  on  horseback 
to  attend  it.  By  law  the  constable  was  authorized  to 
appraise  the  property  at  what  he  might  consider  a 
reasonable  price,  and  below  which  it  could  not  be 
sold.  When  the  creditor  arrived,  he  found  that  the 
complaisant  oflicial  had  appraised  an  old  watch,  worth 
about  five  dollars,  at  twenty  dollars;  a  dog,  probably 
worth  five  cents,  at  ten  dollars;  a  lot  of  rails  at  ten 
cents  each,  and  other  things  in  proportion.  Of 
course  a  sale  was  impossible,  as  no  one  would  bid 
half  of  the  appraised  value,  and  the  unlucky  creditor 
returned  home  in  disgust;  the  only  result  of  the  trip 
being  that  his  horse  had  torn  off,  on  the  corduroy 
which  formed  a  large  portion  of  the  road,  three 
of  the  four  new  shoes  which  guarded  his  feet  on 

Among  the  various  cessions  of  land  occurring  in 
connection  with  the  final  settlement  of  the  title  to 
the  Northwestern  Territory,  congress  assigned  fifty- 
six  thousand  acres  in  what  was  known  as  the  Virginia 
Military  District,  for  the  benefit  of  the  schools  of  the 
Western  Reserve.  In  1831,  Harvey  Rice,  Esq.,  of 
Cleveland,  was  appointed  an  agent  by  the  State  to 
convert  tiiem  into  money.  He  opened  an  ofiice  at 
Millersburg,  Holmes  county,  in  the  district  in  ques- 
tion, and  in  three  years  sold  all  the  lands  and  paid 
into  the  treasury  of  the  State  about  a  hundred  and 
fifty  tliousand  dollars,  to  be  devoted  to  the  exclusive 
purpose  of  educating  the  children  of  the  Western  Re- 

By  1831,  land  began  to  rise  throughout  the  country, 
in  consequence  of  the  stimulus  supplied  by  iuternal 
improvements,  especially  canals,  which  were  being 
constructed  in  numerous  localities.  The  rise  was 
especially  noticeable  wherever  it  was  supposed  that  a 
citymiglit  be  constructed,  and  the  point  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Cuyahoga  was  not  neglected.  An  association 
of  Buffalonians,  known  as  the  Buffalo  Company, 
bought  a  tract  on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  and  soon 
afterwards  "Ohio  City"  was  laid  out  at  that  point. 
Farmers,  too,  began  to  think  that  they  were  to  be- 

come wealthy  by  the  rise  of  their  land,  and  at  every 
little  village,  especially  along  the  canals  and  rivers, 
people  began  to  discuss  the  probability  of  the  con- 
struction of  a  large  town  there. 

In  1832,  the  Ohio  canal  was  finished  from  Lake 
Erie  to  the  Ohio  river,  and  its  commerce  rapidly  in- 
creased to  large  proportions.  In  two  years  after  its 
completion  the  freight  carried  upon  it  amounted  to 
half  a  million  bushels  of  wheat,  a  hundred  thousand 
barrels  of  flour,  a  million  pounds  of  butter  and  near 
seventy  thousand  pounds  of  cheese,  with  other  things 
m  proportion.  Even  this  would  not  be  considered 
very  remarkable  now,  but  at  that  time  it  made  the 
people  stare  with  wonder  and  filled  their  minds  with 
hopes  of  unlimited  riches. 

In  1834  a  proposition  was  made  to  incorporate  a 
city  which  should  include  both  Cleveland  and  Ohio 
City,  but  the  leading  men  on  the  two  sides  of  the 
river  were  unable  to  agree  on  the  terms  of  union  or 
the  boundaries,  and  the  whole  project  fell  through. 

In  1835  the  first  railroad,  the  Cleveland  and  New- 
burg,  was  incorporated  in  the  county.  It  was  built 
soou  afterwards,  and  was  operated  for  several  years, 
though  only  by  horse  power  ;  being  used  for  hauling 
stone  and  lumber,  and  occasionally  for  the  carriage  of 
passengers.  The  Cleveland  and  Bedford  railroad  was 
also  incorporated  the  same  year,  but  was  never  built. 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  first  beginnings  of  railroad- 
ing in  this  region  were  very  modest,  and  such  were 
generally  its  characteristics  throughout  the  country. 
People  planned  canals  hundreds  of  miles  in  length, 
and  constructed  them  according  to  the  plans,  but 
railroads  were  awe-inspiring  undertakings,  and  men 
usually  built  them  from  one  village  to  the  next  one ; 
if  that  operation  worked  well  they  extended  the  work 
to  another  village,  and  so  on.  But  in  this  wide-awake 
region  they  soon  grew  more  enterprising;  as  will 
speedily  be  seen. 

Another  cautious  attempt  at  railroading  was  made 
about  the  same  time  by  constructing  a  tramway,  with 
wooden  rails  and  operated  by  horse-power,  running 
from  the  public  square  at  Cleveland  up  Euclid  street, 
(avenues  were  then  unknown,)  and  out  on  the  Euclid 
road,  four  miles,  to  the  "  Doan's  Corners"  of  the  early 
settlers,  which  "high-toned"  people  then  began  to 
call  "  East  Cleveland." 

But  the  tide  of  enterprise  and  even  of  reckless 
speculation  was  rapidly  rising,  and  a  much  more  am- 
bitious project,  rather  an  exception  to  the  usual  rail- 
road enterprises  of  the  day,  was  soon  set  on  foot. 
This  was  the  "  Ohio  Railroad,"  designed  to  run  from 
the  Pennsylvania  line  to  Toledo,  close  along  the  lake 
shore  ;  a  large  part  of  it  being  intended  to  be  on  piles. 
Considerable  work  was  done  on  it,  but  no  iron  was 
laid,  and  it  was  abandoned  at  the  time  of  the  great 
crash  which  will  be  mentioned  a  little  farther  on.  Its 
corporate  rights  were  transferred  to  the  Junction  Rail- 
road Company,  and  through  it  to  the  Cleveland  and 
Toledo,  and  finally  to  the  Lake  Shore  and  Southern 
Michigan  Company. 

"      -"»JW    ty     •\„„.,„l      S^M' 



At  the  same  prolific  period  a  project  was  started  for 
a  railroad  from  Cleveland  to  Cincinnati.  The  late 
Hon.  John  Barr  visited  Cincinnati,  getting  up  peti- 
tions in  favor  of  the  road,  and  also  spent  considerable 
time  at  Columbus.  The  legislature  of  1836  readily 
granted  a  charter  for  the  proposed  road,  and  also  one 
for  the  Cleveland,  Warren  and  Pittsburg  road,  and 
Mr.  Barr  brought  the  first  copies  of  both  charters  to 
Cleveland.  The  last  mentioned  road  was  to  run  from 
Cleveland  through  Warren  to  the  State  line,  connect- 
ing there  with  a  road  to  Pittsburg,  or  to  any  other 
point  on  the  Ohio  river. 

Its  charter  was  extremely  liberal,  and  is  a  good 
specimen  of  the  kind  of  legislation  prevalent  in  those 
halcyon  days.  It  allowed  the  president  and  directors 
to  create  and  sell  stock  as  in  their  judgment  the  occa- 
sion might  require,  without  limit  as  to  amount,  except 
that  it  must  not  exceed  the  needs  of  the  company. 
They  had  also  full  power  to  select  a  route,  condemn 
land,  occupy  the  road,  and  transport  persons  or  prop- 
erty by  steam,  animal  or  other  power.  The  projectors 
were  as  modest  in  the  estimate  of  cost,  however,  as 
could  well  be  desired.  They  calculated  the  expense  at 
seven  thousand  dollars  per  mile,  though  in  fact  it  was 
more  likely  to  have  been  twenty  thousand. 

These  were  the  celebrated  "flush  times;  "  the  period 
when  speculation  raged  more  fiercely — when  every 
one  got  richer  on  paper — ^than  was  ever  the  case  in  the 
United  States  either  before  or  since.  John  Law's 
Mississippi  scheme  and  South  Sea  bubble,  as  exploit- 
ed among  the  excitable  French,  could  alone  outdo  the 
great  land-speculation  and  business-speculation  of 
1835,  '36  and  '37. 

The  closing  of  the  United  States  Bank  had  been 
followed  by  the  chartering  of  an  immense  number  of 
State  banks,  some  of  which  had  a  small  amount  of 
capital,  more  of  which  had  a  still  smaller  amount, 
and  most  of  which  had  substantially  no  capital  at  all. 
In  the  West  and  South  this  was  peculiarly  the  case, 
though  the  Bast  was  by  no  means  free  from  it.  The 
poorer  a  region  was  the  more  banks  it  had.  Their 
paper  was  accepted  everywhere  with  the  most  sublime 
confidence;  private  credit  was  almost  unlimited,  busi- 
ness was  going  ahead  at  a  tremendous  rate,  and  every- 
body was  getting  rich— in  imagination— with  unpar- 
alleled speed.  Eras  of  inflation,  somewhat  similar  in 
general  character  to  that  one,  have  been  known  since 
then,  but  none  that  approached  it  in  the  degree  of 

Of  course  any  place  marked  out  by  nature  for  the 
site  of  a  great  city  was,  with  its  vicinity,  the  scene  of 
au  especial  energy  of  speculation.  The  location  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga  was  not  only  thus  desig- 
nated by  nature,  but,  by  the  construction  of  the  canal, 
had  been  made  in  the  eyes  of  the  public  the  future 
great  city  of  northern  Ohio. 

This  was  enough.  .  It  made  no  difference  to  the 
speculators  that  northern  Ohio  could  not  then  sustain 
a  large  city;  that  there  was  neither  agriculture,  man- 
ufactures uor  even  commerce  to  produce  sucli  a  re- 

sult. Their  own  roseate  hopes  colored  everything 
on  which  they  looked,  and  they  saw  the  few  thou- 
sand people  already  there  expanding  to  a  hundred 
thousand  with  unspeakable  rapidity;  while  stately 
churches,  palatial  residences  and  six-story  business 
blocks  should  overshadow  the  turbid  waters  and 
adorn  the  rolling  uplands  of  the  Cuyahoga.  Those 
of  them  who  lived  long  did  see  all  this,  but  not  then. 
The  climax  of  the  speculation  was  in  1836.  Not 
only  in  Cleveland,  but  to  a  less  degree  in  every  little 
village  throughout  the  county,  people  expected  to 
make  their  fortune  by  buying  land,  holding  it  a  year 
or  two,  and  selling  it  at  ten  or  twenty  times  the  pur- 
chase price;  even  the  farmers  were  not  free  from  the 
infection.  Produce  of  every  kind  emulated  the  bal- 
loon-like tendency  of  real  estate.  The  whole  coun- 
try, (and  espeeitilly  the  tract  on  the  main  line  of  com- 
munication between  the  Bast  and  the  West,  which 
then  as  now  ran  along  the  southern  shore  of  Lake 
Brie),  was  in  a  ferment  of  unlimited  money-making 
on  paper,  and  debt-making  in  fact. 

In  1837  the  crash  came.  The  inflation  by  means  of 
plentiful  but  baseless  paper  money  had  been  carried  as 
far  as  it  could,  and  the  bubble  burst.  Nearly  all  the 
banks  in  the  country  speedily  went  down  under  the 
storm.  Private  credit  was  found  equally  valueless. 
The  whole  country  staggered  under  the  blow,  but  of 
course  it  was  felt  with  the  greatest  severity  in  the 
West,  where  there  was  but  little  accumulated  capital 
to  withstand  such  a  shock,  and  where  the  enthusiastic 
nature  of  the  people  had  caused  them  to  plunge  most 
i  deeply  into  the  tide  of  speculation. 

Nearly  every  business  man  in  Cuyahoga  county 
failed.  All  the  great  railroad  enterprises  of  which 
we  have  spoken — the  Ohio  railroad,  the  Cleveland, 
Warren  and  Pittsburg  road,  and  the  Cleveland, 
Columbus  and  Cincinnati  road — stopped  as  if  smitten 
with  paralysis,  and  not  a  stroke  of  work  was  done 
upon  them  for  years  afterward.  Numerous  buildings 
in  town  and  country,  in  various  stages  of  progress, 
stayed  their  upward  course  when  the  financial  col- 
lapse palsied  their  owners'  hands,  and  long  remained, 
abandoned  and  unfinished,  "  the  mournful  monu- 
ments of  their  intended  greatness." 

The  period  was  long  afterward  designated  as  par 
excellence  "The  Hard  Times,"  and  no  one  ever  dis- 
puted the  propriety  of  the  appellation.  Other  times 
have  been  "  hard,"  but  no  others  have  approached  in 
adamantine  solidity  the  dreadful  period  from  1837  to 

During  the  winter  of  1837-8  there  was  great  excite- 
ment along  the  whole  northern  frontier  in  relation  to 
what  was  known  as  the  Patriot  war — the  effort  of  a 
small  portion  of  the  Canadians  to  sever  the  Canadas 
from  the  mother  country.  The  few  "  patriots  ' 
depended  principally  on  the  assistance  they  received 
from  sympathizers  on  this  side.  On  both  the  Niagara 
and  the  Detroit  frontiers  there  was  a  good  deal  of 
mustering  and  marching,  and  a  very  little  fighting, 
and  even  in  this  vicinity,  notwithstanding  the  inter- 




vention  of  the  lake,  there  were  a  good  many  efforts 
to  afford  aid  to  those  whom  a  majority  of  our  people 
looked  upon  as  battling  in  the  cause  of  freedom. 
Henry  H.  Dodge,  of  Cleveland,  was  elected  by  the 
legislature  major  general  of  the  ninth  division  of  the 
Ohio  militia,  and  especially  charged  with  the  main- 
tenance of  order  along  the  frontier.  His  delicate,  if 
not  arduous,  duties  were  discharged  in  a  manner  en- 
tirely satisfactory  to  both  the  governor  of  Ohio  and 
the  authorities  of  Canada.  There  being  a  sad  lack 
of  rebels  in  Canada,  the  rebellion  was  easily  extin- 
guished in  1838,  and  amid  more  exciting  events  soon 
almost  passed  from  the  memory  of  the  busy  people  on 
this  side. 

Although,  as  before  stated,  the  period  from  1825, 
and  in  fact  from  1815,  down  to  1837,  was  one  of 
rapid  development  throughout  the  country,  yet  evi- 
dences were  frequently  seen  that  the  wilderness  was 
not  yet  quite  numbered  among  the  things  of  the  past. 
Capt.  Lewis  Dibble,  of  Cleveland,  mentions  seeing  a 
deer  near  where  Willson  avenue  now  is,  in  1837,  or 
later.  Discovering  the  presence  of  man,  he  bounded 
away,  sailed  gracefully  over  the  fences  and  dashed 
away  into  the  woods.  Still  later,  Capt.  Dibble  men- 
tions seeing  deer  feeding  among  the  cows  in  Euclid. 
In  the  more  retired  townships,  such  as  Middleburg, 
Olmstead,  Solon,  etc.,  not  only  deer  but  bears  and 
wolves  were  still  occasionally  slain  by  adroit  hunters. 


THE  PEBIOD  FKOM  1840  TO  1861. 

Beginning  to  recover— Anger  at  the  Party  in  Power— Formation  of 
Lake  County  — Its  Area  — The  Water  Part  of  Cuyahoga  County- 
Population  in  1840  — The  Log-Cabin  Campaign  — A  Fugitive  Slave 
Case— Changes  of  Boundary  on  the  Line  of  Orange— Alfred  Kelley— 
Railroad  Talk  revived— A  Vote  of  Aid— The  C.  C.  &  C.  Eoad  reor- 
ganized—The Junction  Railroad— The  Toledo,  Norwalk  and  Cleveland 
Eoad— Dark  Prospects- The  Cleveland,  Painesville  and  Ashtabula 
Eoad— Great  Days  for  Steamboats— List  of  the  Principal  Steamers 
in  1850— Later  Steamers— Propellers  — Stage  Coaches  — End  of  the 
Hunting  and  Log-House  Period  —  Population  in  1850  — Opening  the 
First  Railroad  — Other  Enterprises  go  forward  —  Direct  Trade  with 
Europe— A  Fleet  from  Cnyahoga  County— American  Skill— The  Panic 
of  1857— The  Census  of  1800— Origin  of  the  Celebration  of  Peny's  Vic- 
tory—The Contract— The  Sculptor— Invitations— Governors  Sprague 
and  Dennison— Immense  Crowds— The  Military  Companies— The  Ora- 
tors of  the  Day— Distinguished  Persons  Present— The  Monument  and 
Statue— Masonic  Ceremonies— The  Mock  Battle— The  Military  Eeview 
—The  last  great  Peaceful  Gathering— The  Political  Campaign— The 
Events  of  the  Winter. 

By  the  spring  of  the  year  1840  the  people  began  to 
recover,  though  only  slowly,  from  the  disastrous  finan- 
cial reverse  of  1837.  They  were  still  sore  and  angry 
over  the  sudden  collapse  of  the  wind-inflated  moun- 
tain of  supposed  wealth  on  which  they  had  perched 
themselves,  and  were  prepared  to  visit  with  condign 
punishment  the  Democratic  party,  under  whose  rule 
it  had  occurred;  partly  because  that  party  was  held 
responsible  for  the  destruction  of  the  old  United 
States  Bank  and  the  chartering  of  so  many  worth- 
less State  banks,  and  partly  because  the  party  in 

power  is  always  condemned,  on  general  principles, 
for  whatever  disasters  may  occur  while  it  holds  the 
reigns  of  government. 

On  the  20th  day  of  March,   1840,  the  county  of 
Lake  was  formed,  principally  from  Geauga  county, 
but  including  the  township  of  Chagrin,  (now  Wil- 
loughby,)  in  this  county.     This  was  an  extraordinary 
example  of  the  eagerness  of  at  least  a  portion  of  the 
people  for  new  counties  and  new  offices.     The  consti- 
tution of  the  State  required  that  every  county  should 
have  an  area  of  at  least  four  hundred  square  miles. 
To  give  the  proposed  county  of  Lake  such  an  extent, 
it  was  necessary  not  only  to  take  Willoughby  from 
Cuyahoga,  but  to  estimate  as  a  part  of  the  constitu- 
tional area  that  part  of  the  surface  of  Lake  Erie  lying 
between  the  water-front  of  Geauga  county  and  the 
boundary  between   the   United  States  and  Canada. 
This  was  decided  to  be  technically  a  part  of  Geauga 
county,  and  by  that  method  the  area  of  the  county 
was  inflated  to  the  desired  amount. 

So  it  will  be  remembered  that  Cuyahoga  embraces, 
not  only  the  tract  of  about  four  hundred  and  fifty 
square  miles  of  land  usually  included  within  its  lim- 
its, but  another  tract  of  not  less  than  a  thousand 
square  miles  of  water,  with  all  that  lies  above  it  and 
below  it,  as  far  as  man  can  ascend  or  descend. 

By  the  census  of  1840  the  population  of  Cuyahoga 
was  twenty-five  thousand,  five  hundred  and  forty-two, 
divided  among  the  various  townships  as  follows: 
Cleveland,  7037;  Mayfield,  853;  Orange,  1114;  Solon, 
774;  Euclid,  1774;  Warrensville,  1085;  Bedford,  2021; 
Newburg,  1342;  Independence,  754;  Brecksville,  1124; 
Brooklyn,  1409;  Parma,  965;  Royalton,  1051;  Rock- 
port,  1151;  Middleburg,  339;  Strongsville,  1151;  Do- 
ver, 960;  Olmstead,  659. 

The  summer  and  autumn  of  1840  were  long  re- 
membered as  the  time  of  the  celebrated  "log-cabin" 
campaign  in  favor  of  General  Harrison.  The  West- 
ern Reserve  was  one  of  the  strongholds  of  Whiggery, 
and  a  very  large  majority  of  the  voters  of  Cuyahoga 
county  were  enthusiastic  supporters  of  Harrison. 
They  joined  with  immense  zest  in  the  numerous  jubi- 
lant demonstrations  characteristic  of  that  campaign, 
and  when  the  great  celebration  was  held  on  the  bat- 
tle field  of  Tippecanoe  nearly  half  the  men  in  the 
county  turned  out  to  attend  it.  So  strong  was  the 
popular  feeling,  and  so  eager  was  the  desire  to  see  the 
celebration,  that  even  the  Democrats  made  the  pil- 
grimage in  organized  bodies,  sharing  in  the  marches 
and  maneuvers  of  their  Whig  brethren,  but  drawing 
aside  and  resuming  their  party  fealty  as  they  reap- 
proached  their  homes.  Cuyahoga  gave  a  large  major- 
ity of  her  votes  for  General  Harrison,  who,  as  is  well 
known,  was  triumphantly  elected. 

The  situation  of  Cleveland,  as  the  principal  port  on 
the  south  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  made  Cuyahoga  county 
a  natural  resort  for  slaves  seeking  to  escape  from  both 
Kentucky  and  Virginia.  Down  to  1841  slave  owners 
were  in  the  habit  of  sending  their  agents  to  Cleveland, 
who  caused  those  they  accused  of  being  runaways  to 

THE  PEEIOD  FROM  1840  TO  1861. 


be  arrested  and  taken  before  a  magistrate,  when  a  war- 
rant was  issued,  almost  as  a  matter  of  form,  and  they 
were  taken  to  the  State  of  the  claimant. 

In  the  spring  of  1841  three  negroes,  supposed  to 
have  escaped  from  New  Orleans  were  found  in  Buf- 
falo, whence  they  were  kidnapped,  brought  to  Cleve- 
land, arrested  under  the  old  law  of  the  United  States, 
and  thrown  into  jail.  Edward  Wade  and  John  A. 
Eoot,  two  of  the  few  Abolitionists  in  the  city,  applied 
for  admission  to  see  them  and  were  refused.  Thomas 
Bolton,  (afterwards  Judge  Bolton,)  a  prominent  law- 
yer, indignant  at  this  violation  of  justice,  made  the 
same  request,  and,  not  being  an  Abolitionist,  was  at 
once  admitted.  He  consulted  with  the  negroes,  and 
announcad  his  intention  of  defending  them.  So 
strong  was  the  feeling  against  anything  that  could  be 
called  Abolitionism  that  much  indignation  was  ex- 
pressed against  Mr.  Bolton  in  consequence,  and  there 
was  even  talk  of  tearing  down  his  ofiBce. 

With  undaunted  firmness,  however,  he  persisted  in 
his  course,  showed  up  the  iniquity  of  the  proceedings 
in  relation  to  the  kidnapping,  and  procured  the  dis- 
charge of  the  negroes.  The  event  had  a  great  effect 
in  breaking  up  the  habit  of  sending  off  negroes  with- 
out an  investigation,  and  for  twenty  years  no  more 
slaves  were  taken  back  to  the  South  from  Cuyahoga 

On  the  29th  day  of  January,  1841,  lots  seventeen, 
eighteen  and  nineteen,  in  the  southwest  corner  of  the 
township  of  Russell,  in  G-eauga  county,  were  annexed 
to  Orange,  in  this  county;  the  object  being  to  include 
the  whole  of  the  rising  village  of  Chagrin  Falls,  which 
had  previously  been  cut  in  two,  almost  in  the  center, 
by  the  county  line.  At  the  same  time  a  strip  ninety 
rods  wide,  lying  along  the  north  half  of  the  east  line 
of  Orange,  was  annexed  to  Russell  as  a  compensation 
for  the  former  transfer.  On  the  11th  of  January, 
1843,  the  strip  just  mentioned  was  reannexed  to 
Orange,  this  being  the  last  change  in  the  much-dis- 
torted boundaries  of  Cuyahoga  county. 

So  heavy  were  the  burdens  caused  by  unwise 
speculation  and  financial  disaster,  and  so  eager  were 
demagogues,  then  as  now,  to  seek  popularity  by 
plundering  the  public  creditor,  that  there  was  a  strong 
feeling  in  the  legislature  of  1843  in  favor  of  repudi- 
ating the  debt  of  the  State.  Meanwhile  an  instal- 
ment of  interest  was  coming  due,  and  there  was  no 
money  in  the  treasury  to  pay  it  with.  Hon.  Alfred 
Kelley,  of  Cleveland,  who  was  then  State  fund-commis- 
sioner, went  to  New  York  and  raised  half  a  million 
dollars  on  his  own  security,  to  meet  the  payment. 

For  several  years  after  the  great  crash  of  1837  the 
people  of  Cuyahoga  county  were  willing  to  plod 
along  very  quietly;  only  striving  that  if  possible  they 
might  recover  from  that  tremendous  shock.  But 
about  1844  they  began  to  talk  about  railroads  again. 
In  that  year  Hon.  John  Barr  wrote  a  sketch  of  Cleve- 
land.and  a  description  of  its  trade,  for  the  National 
Review,  published  in  New  York. 

In  1845  Cleveland  voted  to  loan  its  credit  for  two 

hundred  thousand  dollars,  to  aid  in  building  a 
railroad  to  Cincinnati,  and  for  one  hundred  thousand 
dollars  to  build  one  to  Brie.  The  same  year  the 
charter  of  the  Cleveland,  Warren  and  Pittsburg  road 
was  revived;  the  directors  being  authorized  to  build 
it  on  the  nearest  and  most  practicable  route  from 
Cleveland  to  the  Ohio  river. 

The  old,  lapsed  charter  of  the  Cleveland,  Colum- 
bus and- Cincinnati  project  was  also  revived,  and  a 
new  company  was  organized,  with  Hon.  J.  W.  Allen, 
of  Cleveland,  as  president,  and  Richard  Hilliard, 
John  M.  Woolsey  and  H.  B.  Payne  as  the  other 
Cleveland  directors.  The  act  reviving  the  charter 
contained  a  clause  permitting  the  city  of  Cleveland 
to  subscribe  two  million  dollars  to  the  stock  of  the 
company.  This  was  promptly  done,  but  private  sub- 
scriptions were  slow  and  few,  and  the  prospects  of 
the  enterprise  were  not  at  all  brilliant. 

In  March,  1846,  the  Junction  railroad  company 
was  incorporated,  with  an  imaginary  capital  of  three 
million  dollars,  and  authorized  to  build  a  road  from 
the  Cleveland  to  the  west  line  of  the  State,  on  such 
route  as  might  be  chosen. 

About  the  same  time  the  Toledo,  Norwalk  and 
Cleveland  railroad  company  was  incorporated,  with 
authority  to  build  a  road  from  Toledo  by  Norwalk  to 
connect  with  the  Cleveland,  Columbus  and  Cincin- 
nati road  in  either  Huron  or  Lorain  county. 

In  1847,  so  dark  was  the  prospect  that  it  was 
almost  determined  to  abandon  the  Cleveland,  Colum- 
bus and  Cincinnati  road  for  a  time.  Its  friends, 
however,  made  a  desperate  rally;  H.  B.  Payne  and  R. 
Hilliard  volunteering  to  work  three  months  for  its 
interest.  The  late  Leonard  Case  subscribed  five  hun- 
dred thousand  dollars;  sixty-five  thousand  dollars  was 
obtained  from  other  sources,  and  the  friends  of  the 
road  determined  to  stand  by  their  colors.  The  next 
year  a  contract  to  build  the  road  from  Cleveland  to 
Columbus  was  let  to  Harbeck,  Stone  and  Witt;  that 
being  the  largest  contract  which  had  then  been  made 
by  any  party  or  firm  in  the  United  States. 

The  next  year,  1848,  an  act  was  passed  incorpor- 
ating the  Cleveland,  Painesville  and  Ashtabula  com- 
pany to  build  a  road  from  Cleveland  to  the  Pennsyl- 
vania line,  and  in  1849  it  was  surveyed. 

Thus  the  county  approaches  the  end  of  the  first 
half  of  this  century,  with  its  inhabitants  almost  as 
excited  as  they  were  in  the  "flush  times,"  though 
with:  a  much  more  solid  basis  for  their  hopes.  Ptur 
important  railroads,  intended  to  concentrate  at  Cleve- 
land and  to  traverse  all  parts  of  the  county,  were  in 
various  stages  of  progress,  but  none  were  completed. 
This  seems  a  proper  time,  therefore,  to  take  a  glance 
at  the  county  as  it  was  before  the  days  of  railroads. 

^hese  were  the  great  days  of  steamboats  on  the 
water  and  of  stage  coaches  on  land.  From  the  time 
the  ice  was  out  of  the  lake  in  the  spring  till  the  time 
it  came  back  in  the  autumn  there  was  hardly  an  hour 
in  which  two  or  three  stately  white  steamers,  with 
their  trailing  crests   of  smoke,  were  not  to  be  seen 



crossing  the  watery  portion  of  Cuyahoga  county. 
From  the  Bast  to  the  West  they  went  loaded  with  pas- 
sengers. From  the  "West  to  the  East  they  carried  some 
passengers  and  some  freight — though  the  time  of  car- 
rying large  quantities  of  grain  and  other  freight  by 
steamboat  had  not  yet  come.  Western  produce  was 
generally  carried  east  in  sloops,  schooners  and  brigs, 
the  white  sails  of  which  were  to  be  seen  swelling 
gracefully  before  the  wind,  as  the  deeply  laden  hulls 
ploughed  thi'ough  the  waters  of  the  county. 

Many  of  these  steamei's  were  of  great  size,  and 
were  fitted  up  w^ith  palatial  magnificence.  The  fol- 
lowing is  a  list  of  the  principal  ones  which  were  on 
Lake  Erie  in  1850,  with  the  tonnage,  origin  and  fate 
of  each,  taken  substantially  from  a  pamphlet  called 
Marine  History  of  the  Lake  Ports,  published  at  De- 
troit in  1877: 

"  De  Witt  Clinton,"  of  four  hundred  and  ninety- 
three  tons;  built  at  Huron  in  1836;  sunk  at  Dunkirk 
in  1851. 

"  Illinois  "  (First),  of  seven  hundred  and  fifty-five 
tons ;  built  at  Detroit  in  1837;  lost  on  Lake  Huron 
in  1868. 

"Rochester,"  of  four  hundred  and  seventy-two 
tons;  built  near  Fairport  in  1837;  wrecked  at  Erie  in 
1852 — •seven  lives  lost. 

"Cleveland"  (First),  of  five  hundred  and  eighty 
tons  ;  built  at  Huron  in  1837;  burned  at  Tonawanda 
in  1854. 

"Bunker  Hill,"  of  four  hundred  and  fifty-seven 
tons,  built  at  Black  River  in  1837;  burned  at  Tona- 
wanda in  1857. 

"  Anthony  Wayne,"  of  three  hundred  and  ninety 
tons ;  built  at  Perrysburg  in  1837 ;  exploded  in 

"  Detroit,"  (Second),  of  three  hundred  and  fifty 
tons;  built  at  Newport  in  1840;  sunk  in  Saginaw  bay 
in  1854. 

"Missouri,"  of  six  hundred  and  twelve  tons; 
built  at  Erie  in  1840;  converted  into  a  propeller  barge 
in  1868. 

"  Empire,"  of  eleven  hundred  and  thirty-six  tons; 
built  at  Cleveland  in  1844,  lost  on  Long  Point  in 

"  New  Orleans,"  of  six  hundred  and  ten  tons;  built 
at  Detroit  in  1844;   lost  at  Thunder  bay  in  1853. 

"  St.  Louis,"  of  six  hundred  and  eighteen  tons; 
built  at  Perrysburg  in  1844;  wrecked  on  Lake  Erie 
in  1852. 

U.  S.  steamer  "  Michigan,"  of  five  hundred  and 
eighty-three  tons;  built  at  Erie  in  1844;  wrecked. 

"Niagara"  (Second),  of  ten  hundred  eighty-four 
tons;  built  at  Buffalo  in  1845;  burned  on  Lake  Michi- 
gan in  1856 — sixty  lives  lost. 

"G.  P.  Grifiith,"  five  hundred  and  seven  tons; 
built  at  Buffalo  in  1845;  burned  on  Lake  Erie  in  1850, 
with  a  loss  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  lives. 

"  Albany,"  of  six  hundred  and  sixty-nine  tons; 
built  at  Detroit  in  1846;  wrecked  at  Presq'  Isle,  Lake 
Huron,  in  1853. 

"Hendrick  Hudson,"  of  seven  hundred  and  fifty- 
nine  tons;  built  at  Black  river  in  1846;  burned  at 
Cleveland  in  1860. 

"  Louisiana,"  of  nine  hundred  tons;  built  at  Buffalo 
in  1846;  wrecked  at  Port  Burwell  in  1854. 

"Saratoga,"  of  eight  hundred  tons,  built  at  Cleve- 
land in  1846;  wrecked  at  Port  Burwell  in  1854. 

"  Canada,"  of  eight  hundred  tons;  built  at  Chip- 
pewa in  1846;  lost  on  Lake  Michigan  in  1855. 

"Baltic,"  of  eight  hundred  and  twenty-five  tons; 
built  at  Buffalo  in  1847;  made  a  barge  in  1863. 

"  Sultana,"  of  eight  hundred  tons;  built  at  Trenton 
in  1847;  wrecked  in  1858. 

"A.  D.  Patchin,"  of  eight  hundred  and  seventy 
tons;  built  at  Trenton  in  1847;  wrecked  at  Skillagalee 
in  1850. 

"  Baltimore,"  of  five  hundred  tons;  built  at  Mon- 
roe in  1847;  wrecked  at  Sheboygan  in  1855. 

"  Diamond,"  of  three  hundred  and  thirty-six  tons; 
built  at  Buffalo  in  1847;  broken  up  at  Detroit  in 

"  Pacific,"  of  five  hundred  tons;  built  at  Newport 
in  1847;  lost  on  Lake  Michigan  in  1867. 

"Ohio  "  (Second),  of  six  hundred  tons;  built  at 
Cleveland  in  1847;  dismantled  at  Erie  in  1859. 

"  Southerner,"  of  five  hundred  tons;  built  at  Tren- 
ton in  1847;  wrecked  on  Lake  Erie  in  1863. 

"Arrow,"  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  tons;  built  at 
Trenton  in  1848;  condemned  in  Green  Bay  in  1863. 

"Alabama,"  of  six  hundred  tons:  built  at  Detroit 
in  1848;  sunk  near  Buffalo  in  1854. 

"  Franklin  Moore,"  of  three  hundred  tons;  built  at 
Newport  in  1848;  broken  up  in  1862. 

"J.  D.  Morton,"  of  four  hundred  tons;  built  at 
Toledo  in  1848;  burned  on  St.  Clair  river  in  1863. 

"Empire  State,"  of  seventeen  hundred  tons;  buiP,  at 
St.  Clair  in  1848;  made  a  dry  dock  at  Buffalo  in  1858. 

"Queen  City,"  of  a  thousand  tons;  built  at  Buffalo 
in  1858;  lost  on  Lake  Huron  in  1866. 

"  Globe,"  of  twelve  hundred  tons;  built  at  Detroit  in 
1848;  converted  into  a  propeller. 

"Charter,"  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  tons;  built  at 
Detroit  in  1848;  lost  on  Lake  Erie  in  1854. 

"John  Hollister,"  of  three  hundred  tons;  built  at 
Perrysburg  in  1848;  burned  on  Lake  Erie;  rebuilt, 
and  lost  on  Lake  Huron. 

"  Atlantic,"  of  eleven  hundred  tons;  built  at  New- 
port in  1849;  sunk  at  Long  Point — a  hundred  and 
fifty  lives  lost. 

"  Mayflower,"  of  thirteen  hundred  tons;  built  at  De- 
troit in  1849;  wrecked  at  Point  au  Pelee  in  1854. 

"  Keystone  State,"  built  at  Buffalo  inl849;  sunk  in 
Saginaw  bay  in  1861 — thirty-three  lives  lost. 

We  have  included  in  the  above  list  none  of  less  than 
three  hundred  tons.  Thus  it  will  be  seen  that,  aside 
from  numerous  smaller  ones,  there  was  in  1850  a  fleet 
of  thirty-nine  steamers  afloat  on  Lake  Erie,  ra-nging 
from  those  of  three  hundred  tons  up  to  the  great 
•leviathan  "Empire  State,"  of  seventeen  hundred 

THE  PERIOD  FROM  1840  TO  1861. 


Gay  times  were  those.  The  steamboat,  in  good 
weatlier,  was  as  provocative  of  sociability  as  the  stage- 
coach, and  furnished  a  great  deal  more  enjoyment. 
The  lake  steamer  was  devoid  of  the  monotony  of  the 
ocean  vessel,  and  a  voyage  of  from  two  days  to  a 
week,  through  changing  lakes,  and  rivers,  and  straits, 
with  all  the  splendid  accessories  of  the  model  lake 
steamer,  by  passengers  excited  with  the  hope  of 
western  fortunes,  or  Joyous  over  their  return  to 
eastern  homes,  was  an  event  long  to  be  remembered 
on  the  calendar  of  pleasure. 

But  there  Was  another  and  much  darker  side  to  the 
picture.  Out  of  the  thirty-nine  steamers  above  men- 
tioned, no  less  than  thirty  closed  their  career  by  be- 
ing burned  or  wrecked.  To  be  sure  many  of  them 
sailed  ten  or  fifteen  years,  and  made  hundreds  of 
vovages  before  being  lost,  but  the  disaster,  when  it 
came,  was  sometimes  appalling.  The  two  hundred 
and  fifty  lives  lost  on  the  "  G.  P.  Griffith,"  and  the 
four  hundred  lost  on  the  "  Lady  Elgin,"  furnished 
the  most  terrible  but  not  the  only  examples  of  the 
dangers  of  lake  navigation. 

We  have  called  especial  attention  to  the  fleet  afloat 
in  1850,  because  that  was  the  most  brilliant  period  of 
lake  navigation,  which  began  to  decline  soon  after  the 
completion  of  railroad  communication  between  the 
East  and  the  West;  but  there  was  a  large  number  of 
steamers  (not  usually  very  large  ones)  which  had  gone 
out  of  service  before  that  time,  besides  many,  both 
large  and  splendid,  which  were  put  in  commission  at 
a  later  period. 

Among  the  most  important  of  the  latter  were  the 
"Arctic,"  of  eight  hundred  and  fifty-seven  tons;  the 
"  Buckeye  State,"  of  twelve  hundred  and  seventy-fonr 
tons;  the  "Northerner,"  of  fivehundrcd  and  fourteen 
tofis;  the  "  Minnesota,"  of  seven  hundred  and  forty- 
nine  tons;  the  "  Lady  Elgin,"  of  a  thousand  and  thir- 
ty-seven tons;  the  "  Iowa,"  of  nine  hundred  and 
eighty-one  tons;  the  "  Cleveland,"  (second)  of  five 
hundred  and  seventy-four  tons;  the  "Golden  Gate," 
of  seven  hundred  and  seventy-one  tons;  the  "  Trav- 
eler," of  six  hundred  and  three  tons;  the  "Michigan," 
(second)  of  six  hundred  and  forty-three  tons;  the 
"Crescent  City,"  of  seventeen  hundred  and  forty 
tons;  the  "Queen  of  the  West," of  eighteen  hundred 
and  forty-one  tons;  the  "  St.  Lawrence,"  of  eighteen 
hundred  and  forty-four  tons;  the  "  B.  H.  Collins,"  of 
nine  hundred  and  fifty  tons;  the  "Northern  Indiana," 
of  fourteen  hundred  and  seventy  tons;  the  "  South- 
ern Michigan,"  of  fourteen  hundred  and  seventy  tons; 
the  "  Forester,"  of  five  hundred  and  four  tons;  the 
"Plymouth  Rock."  of  nineteen  hundred  and  ninety- 
one  tons;  the  "  Weptern  World  "  of  a  thousand  tons; 
the  "North  Star"  of  eleven  hundred  and  six  tons; 
the  "  Illinois  "  (second)  of  eight  hundred  and  twen- 
ty-six tons;  the  "Planet"  of  eleven  hundred  and 
sixty-four  tons;  the  "Western  Metropolis"  of  eight- 
een hundred  and  sixty  tons;  the  "City  of  Buffalo"  of 
two  thousand  tons;  the  "  City  of  Cleveland  "  of  seven 
hundred  and  «ighty-eight  tons;  the  "Sea  Bird"  of 

six  hundred  and  thirty-eight  tons;  the  "Detroit"  of 
eleven  hundred  and  thirteen  tons;  the  "Milwaukee" 
of  eleven  hundred  and  thirteen  tons. 

This  list  includes  the  steamers  of  over  five  hundred 
tons  put  in  commission  before  1861.  The  large  size 
of  many  of  them  does  not  contradict,  but  rather  cor- 
roborates, our  previous  statement  that  steamboating 
began  to  decline  soon  after  the  completion  of  railroad 
communication  between  the  East  and  West;  for,  of 
the  very  large  ones,  all  which  were  not  destroyed  were 
dismantled,  or  changed  into  vessels  of  other  descrip- 
tions, after  only  a  few  years'  service. 

Propellers  had  come  into  use  on  the  lakes  as  early 
as  1843,  but  for  several  years  they  made  but  little  dis- 
play in  comparison  with  the  magnificent  side-wheel 
steamers.  As  the  latter,  however,  were  superseded  by 
the  railroads  as  carriers  of  passengers,  the  propellers 
came  to  the  front  as  carriers  of  grain;  tailing  tiie  lead 
of  the  steamers  in  that  occupation,  and  rivaling  both 
the  sail  vessels  and  the  railroad. 

Returning  to  the  land  part  of  Cuyahoga  county  in 
1850,  we  find  the  people  all  alive  with  business  and 
confident  of  future  greatness.  When  the  steamboats 
were  not  running,  the  stages  on  the  lake  shore  road 
were  loaded  and  doubly  loaded  with  passengers;  throe, 
four,  and  even  five  coaches  often  passing  over  the 
route  each  way  in  a  single  day.  The  vehicles  of  the 
line  running  over  the  great  turnpike  through  Brook- 
lyn, Parma  and  Strongsville  to  Columbus  were  simi- 
larly crowded  in  both  summer  and  winter",  while  those 
on  other  routes  through  the  country  were  only  loss 
heavily  loaded. 

The" close  of  the  last  half  of  this  century  may  be 
regarded  as  marking  the  distinction  between  the  old 
and  the  new  in  this  county.  The  wolves  and  the 
bears  had  already  become  extinct,  and  about  this  per- 
iod the  last  of  the  deer  disappeared  before  the  ad- 
vance of  civilization.  Certainly  they  did  not  wait  to 
hear  more  than  one  or  two  shrieks  of  the  locomotive. 
To  an  old  pioneer,  with  a  taste  for  hunting,  Cuyahoga 
county  with  no  deer  in  it  must  have  sesmed  like  a  new 
and  undesirable  world. 

At  this  period,  too,  nearly  the  last  of  the  log  houses 
which  had  sheltered  the  pioneers  gave  way  to  the 
more  comfortable  frame  residences  of  the  farmers  and 
the  briek  mansions  of  the  thriving  citizens.  Twenty 
years  before,  in  at  least  half  of  the  townships,  log 
houses  had  been  the  rule  and  framed  ones  the  excep- 
tion. The  former  had  gradually  bijen  given  up,  and 
in  1850  could  only  be  found  in  some  very  secluded  lo- 
cality. In  such  places,  even  yet,  one  may  now  and 
then  be  seen,  a  striking  memento  of  the  pioneer  days 
of  sixty  years  ago. 

By  the  census  of  1850,  the  population  of  the  county 
was  forty-eight  thousand  and  ninety-nine,  distributed 
as  follows:  Cleveland,  17,034;  Bedford,  1,853;  Brecks- 
ville,  1,116;  Brooklyn,  6,375;  Chagrin  Falls,  1,250; 
Dover,  1,103;  East  Cleveland,  2,313;  Euclid,  1,447; 
Indepsndence,  1,485;  Mayfield,  1,117;  Middleburg, 
1,490;   Newburg,   1,543;   Olmstead,   1,316;   Orange, 



1,063;  Parma,  1,329;  Rockport,  1,441;  Eoyalton, 
1,253;  Solon,  1,034;  Strongsville,  1,199;  Warrens- 
ville,  1,410. 

On  the  very  threshold  of  the  second  half  of  the 
century,  Cuyahoga  county  received  the  benefits,  more 
or  less,  of  railway  communication;  being  one  of  the 
very  first  counties  in  the  West  to  be  invaded  of  the 
iron  conqueror.  On  the  1st  day  of  February,  1851,  a 
train  came  through  from  Columbus  over  the  Cleve- 
land, Columbus  and  Cincinnati  road,  bearing  the 
State  authorities  and  the  members  of  the  legislature, 
when  of  course  a  grand  Jollification  was  held.  On  the 
22nd  of  the  same  month  the  road  was  formally 
opened  for  business.  The  Cleveland  and  Pittsburg 
road  was  completed  forty  miles  the  same  month,  tak- 
ing it  outside  the  bounds  of  the  county. 

The  other  enterprises  before  mentioned  went  for- 
ward as  rapidly  as  could  be  expected.  The  Cleveland 
and  Pittsburg  road,  and  the  Cleveland,  Painesville 
and  Ashtabula  road  (from  Cleveland  to  Erie)  were 
opened  for  through  business  in  1853.  The  Toledo, 
Norwalk  and  Cleveland  railroad  was  completed  in 
January,  1853;  forming  the  last  link  in  the  chain  of 
railways  between  Boston  and  Chicago.  The  Cleve- 
land. Painesville  and  Ashtabula  road  was  at  first  run 
in  connection  with  tlie  Cleveland,  Columbus  and 
Cincinnati  road,  but  in  1855  its  management  was 
separated  from  that  of  the  latter,  and  the  former 
naturally  fell  into  close  relations  with  the  other  roads 
forming  the  great  line  along  the  lake  shore  communi- 
cation fronr  the  East  to  the  West. 

In  the  latter  part  of  this  decade  a  new  communica- 
tion was  opened  between  Cuyahoga  county  and  the 
outer  world.  It  originated  in  a  schooner  called  the 
"  Dean,"  built  by  Quayle  and  Martin,  of  Cleveland, 
for  C.  J.  Kershaw,  of  Chicago.  It  was  loaded  at  the 
latter  post  and  sent  direct  to  Liverpool  (by  way  of  the 
Welland  canal  and  the  St.  Lawrence  river)  where  this 
stranger  from  the  Far  West  naturally  created  much 
surprise.  It  was  sold  there.  The  next  year  the 
barque  "  C.  J.  Kershaw"  was  constructed  by  the 
same  builders,  and  sent  to  Liverpool  by  D.  C.  Pierce, 
loaded  with  staves  and  lumber;  coming  back  with 
crockery  and  iron. 

Direct  trade  between  Chicago  and  Liverpool  soon 
failed,  but  in  1858  a  fleet  of  no  less  than  ten  vessels 
was  sent  fiom  Cleveland  to  Europe.  It  consisted  of 
the  "D.  C.  Pierce,"  sent  to  Liverpool  by  Pierce  & 
Barney;  the  "Kershaw,"  "Chieftain"  and  "Black 
Hawk,"  sent  to  London  by  the  same  parties;  the  "11. 
H.  Harmon,"  sent  to  Liverpool  by  T.  P.  Handy; 
the  "D.  W.  Sexton,"  sent  to  London,  and  the  "J. 
P.  Warner"  to  Glasgow,  both  by  Mr.  Handy;  the 
"H.  B.  Howe,"  to  Liverpool,  by  H.  B.  Howe;  the 
"Correspondent,"  to  Liverpool,  by  N.  M.  Standart; 
and  the  "Harvest,"  to  Hamburg,  by  C.  Reis.  All 
were  loaded  with  staves  and  lumber;  their  total 
capacity  being  three  thousand  six  hundred  tons.  The 
cargoes  of  all  were  sold  to  good  advantage,  and   six 

returned  successfully  with  cargoes  of  crockery,  iron 
and  salt. 

Some  of  these  vessels  attracted  especial  attention 
when  thrown  among  a  lot  of  English  ships  which 
were  wind-bound  at  Land's  End.  The  latter  were 
entirely  unable  to  beat  around  the  point,  but  the 
American  vessels,  by  their  superior  sailing  qualities, 
were  able  to  run  close  to  the  wind,  unload,  reload, 
and  sail  on  another  voyage  before  one  of  the  others 
could  make  its  way  around  the  "  End." 

Direct  ti-ade  with  Europe  promised  to  be  an  im- 
portant part  of  the  commerce  of  the  country,  but  it 
was  driven  by  the  rebellion  into  English  hands. 

In  1858  it  was  found  that  the  brick  court-house, 
built  thirty  years  before,  was  entirely  inadequate  to 
the  rising  business  of  the  county,  and  it  was  not 
thought  desirable  any  longer  to  incumber  the  public 
square  of  Cleveland  with  county  buildings^  Accord- 
ingly, in  that  year,  a  substantial  stone  edifice,  of  two 
storii'S,  was  erected  on  ground  on  the  north  side  of 
Rockwell  street,  facing  the  northwest  corner  of  the 

The  panic  of  1857  had  had  a  depressing  influence 
upon  Cuyahoga  county,  as  upon  the  rest  of  the  coun- 
try, but  it  was  so  light  in  comparison  with  the  finan- 
cial earthquake  of  1837  that  old  stagers  did  not  con- 
sider it  as  a  very  serious  matter.  By  1860  all  busi- 
ness interests  were  in  the  way  of  rapid  recovery. 

By  the  census  of  that  year  the  population  of  the 
county  was  seventy-seven  thousand  two  hundred  and 
six,  of  whom  forty-three  thousand  four  hundred  and 
seventeen  were  in  the  city  of  Cleveland,  while  the  re- 
mainder occupied  the  various  townships  in  the  fol- 
.  lowing  numbers:  Bedford,  1,098;  Brecksville,  1,034; 
Brooklyn,  5,358;  Chagrin  Falls,  1,479;  Dover,  1,384; 
East  Cleveland,  3,011;  Euclid,  1,769;  Independence, 
1,663;  Mayfield,  1,079;  Middleburg,  3,592;  Newburg, 
2,810;  Olmstead,  1,410;  Orange,  1,095;  Parma,  1,480; 
Rockport,  J, 793;  Royalton,  1,297;  Solon,  1,009; 
Strongsville,  958;  Warrensville,  1,554. 

Among  the  events  of  the  year  the  most  interesting 
was  the  celebration  of  the  anniversary  of  Perry's  vic- 
tory, and  the  erection  of  a  monument  to  that  hero. 
The  idea  originated  with  Hon.  Harvey  Rice,  who  in- 
troduced a  series  of  resolutions  to  that  effect  in  June,^ 
1857,  into  the  City  Council  of  Cleveland,  which  unan- 
imouslyadopted  them.  A  committee  of  five  members 
of  the  Council  was  authorized  to  contract  for  the 
erection  of  the  monument,  and  to  solicit  subscrip- 
tions to  meet  the  expense;  it-  consisted  of  Harvey 
Rice,  chairman;  0.  M.  Oviatt,  J.  M.  Coffinberry,  J. 
Kirkpatrick,  and  C.  D.  Williams. 

In  the  autumn  the  committee  contracted  with  T. 
Jones  and  Sons,  proprietors  of  marble  works  at  Cleve- 
land, who  agreed  to  provide  all  materials  and  erect  a 
monument  surmounted  with  a  statue  of  Perry,  in  the 
best  style  of  the  sculptor's  art,  subject  to  the  approval 
of  the  committee,  in  time  for  the  celebration  on  the 
tenth  of  September,  1860.  The  price  was  to  be  six 
thousand  dollars,  if  so  much  could-  be  obtained  bj 


THE  PERIOD  FROM  1840  TO  1861. 


subscription  from  the  citizens  of  Cleveland,  as  to 
which  the  contractors  took  all  the  risk. 

After  corresponding  with  various  artists,  Messrs. 
Jones  and  Sons  procured  the  services  of  Mr.  William 
Walcutt  as  the  sculptor  of  the  statue.  A  block  of 
rough  Carrara  marble  was  imported  from  Italy,  and 
the  entire  work  of  shaping  the  statue  was  performed 
in  the  studio  of  Messrs.  Jones  and  Sons  at  Cleveland. 
On  account  of  the  increased  cost  of  the  monument, 
as  finally  approved,  the  contract  price  was  increased 
to  eiglit  thousand  dollars — always  provided  it  could 
be  obtained  by  subscription. 

The  work  went  forward,  and  in  the  forepart  of 
1860  the  council  sent  out  a  larger  number  of  invita- 
tions to  the  approaching  fete.  These  included  the 
son,  daughter  and  other  relatives  of  Commodore 
Perry;  all  the  survivors  of  the  battle,  the  governor, 
State  ofi&cers,  etc.,  of  Ohio,  the  governor.  State  officers 
and  legislature  of  Rhode  Island  (the  State  of  Perry's 
residence),  and  numerous  distinguished  individuals 
throughout  the  country.  It  was  determined  to  locate 
the  monument  in  the  center  of  the  public  square,  at 

The  celebration  was  fixed  for  Monday,  the  10th  of 
September,  1860.  On  Saturday,  the  8th,  Governor 
Sprague,  of  Rhode  Island,  with  his  staff,  the  State 
ofiBcers  and  many  members  of  the  legislature  of  that 
State,  and  the  Providence  Light  Infantry,  arrived  at 
Cleveland;  being  received  with  a  speech  of  welcome 
by  Governor  Dennison,  of  Ohio,  who  was  already  in 
the  city.  Immense  crowds  of  people  also  came  by  all 
the  railroads,  so  as  to  be  ready  for  the  celebration  on 
Monday.  Thousands  upon  thousands  also  came  by 
teams  on  Saturday  and  Sunday,  from  all  the  country 

During  Monday  forenoon  every  railroad  brought  an 
almost  continuous  succession  of  trains;  all  the  cars 
being  loaded  with  people,  inside  aud  out.  After 
careful  computation  it  was  estimated  by  cautious  and 
experienced  men  that  at  least  one  hundred  thousand 
visitors  were  in  the  city  during  the  afternoon  of 

The  procession  was  of  great  length;  General  J.  W. 
Fitch  being  marshal  of  the  day.  It  was  headed  by 
eighteen  companies  of  uniformed  militia,  of  which 
the  folowing  were  of  this  county:  Cleveland  Light 
Artillery  regiment,  under  Colonel  James  Barnett  and 
Lieutenant  Colonel  S.  B.  Sturges,  consisting  of  com- 
panies A,  B,  D  and  E,  commanded  respectively  by 
Captains  Simmons,  Mack,  Rice  and  Heckman;  the 
Brooklyn  Light  Artillery  under  Captain  Pelton;  the 
Cleveland  Light  Dragoons,  under  Captain  Haltnorth; 
the  Cleveland  Grays,  under  Captain  Paddock;  the 
Cleveland  Light  Guards,  under  Captain  Sanford. 

The  military  was  followed  by  Govs.  Dennison  and 
Sprague  and  their  staffs ;  the  guests  from  Rhode 
Island;  the  mayor  and  common  council  of  Cleveland; 
Messrs.  Jones  and  Sons,  contractors ;  officers  and 
soldiers  of  the  war  of  1813;  survivors  of  the  battle  of 
Lake  Erie;   descendants  and  relatives  of  Commodore 

Perry;  William  Walcutt,  the  sculptor;  George  Ban- 
croft and  Dr.  Usher  Parsons  (surgeon  in  the  battle,) 
orators  of  the  day;  and  the  judges  and  clergy  of  the 
vicinity.  Following  these  came,  a  very  large  number 
of  the  Masons  of  northern  Ohio  and  neighboring 
States,  marshaled  by  their  respective  officers;  the  In- 
dependent Order  of  Odd  Fellows;  and  a  long  aiTay  of 
citizens  and  strangers. 

Among  the  distinguished  persons  present,  besides 
those  already  named,  were  Oliver  Hazard  Perry,  the 
son  of  the  Commodore;  Rev.  Dr.  G.  B.  Perry,  a  rel- 
ative of  the  commodore,  and  chaplain  of  the  dav; 
Commodore  Stephen  Ohamplin,  a  cousin  of  Perry, 
and  commander  of  the  "Scorpion"  in  the  battle;  and 
Capt.  Thomas  Brownell,  pilot  of  the  "Ariel." 

The  monument  and  statue  had  been  set  u23  in  the 
public  square,  which  since  that  time,  and  in  honor  of 
the  occasion,  has  been  called  Monumental  Park.*  The 
services  were  held  there;  the  statue  being  unveiled  by 
the  sculptor.  The  pedestal  is  of  Rhode  Island  granite, 
twelve  feet  high,  while  the  statue,  of  Italian  marble, 
is  eight  feet  two  inches  in  hight.  Of  course  it  faces 
the  lake  which  was  the  scene  of  the  great  victory. 
On  the  lake  front  of  the  monument  is  a  representa- 
tion, in  alto  relievo,  of  the  celebrated  scene  when  the 
hero  passed  amid  a  shower  of  bullets  from  the  deck 
of  the  stricken  "Lawrence"  to  that  of  the  "Niag- 
ara."  The  statue  itself  is  very  spirited  in  design  and 
execution,  and,  while  we  do  not  feel  competent  to 
speak  of  those  technical  points  which  a  sculptor  would 
observe,  yet  we  can  truly  say  that  not  only  was  it 
highly  satisfactory  to  those  who  knew  the  commodore, 
as  a  piece  of  life-like  portraiture,  but  it  is  in  exact 
harmony  with  all  American  traditions  regarding  the 
brave,  handsome,  dashing,  high-spirited  victor  of 
the  battle  of  Lake  Erie.  Since  the  ce'ebration  two 
smaller  figures  by  the  same  artist,  a  "  Sailor  Boy  " 
and  a  "  Midsliipman,"  have  been  placed  on  the  monu- 
ment, on  either  side  of  the  chieftain. 

George  Bancroft,  the  distinguished  historian,  de- 
livered the  principal  address,  and  Dr.  Usher  Parsons 
narrated  the  events  of  tlie  battle,  as  they  came  under 
his  observation.  The  proceedings  at  the  square  were 
closed  by  the  impressive  ceremonies  of  the  Masonic 

One  of  the  most  interesting  events  of  the  day,  to 
the  people  at  large,  was  the  mock  battle  on  the  lake, 
which  followed  the  ceremonies  at  the  square,  in  which 
the  two  fleets  which  had  met  in  deadly  combat  forty- 
seven  years  before,  were  faithfully  reproduced  by 
vessels  of  similar  size,  and  in  which,  after  a  furious 
cannonade  and  the  representation  of  the  principal 
incidents  of  the  real  combat,  the  British  ships,  one 
after  the  other,  struck  their  colors  to  the  victorious 

The  following  day  the  military  companies  present 
held  a  grand  parade,  and  were  reviewed  by  Governors 

*  A.S  most  of  our  readers  are  probably  aware,  the  monument  has  been 
moved  during  the  present  season  to  a  point  nearer  the  southeast  coi'ner 
of  the  park. 



Dennison  and  Spragne.  This  closed  by  far  the  great- 
est and  most  interesting  celebration  that  Cuyahoga 
county  had  ever  seen. 

We  have  described  it  at  considerable  length,  for  it 
was  not  only  a  brilliant  event  of  itself  but  it  was  the 
most  striking  occurrence  in  this  county,  during  the 
last  year  of  peace.  The  patriotic  memories  of  the 
past  were  insufficient  to  restrain  the  madness  of  the 
of  the  slave-propagandists,  and  when  next  the  streets 
of  Cleveland  resounded  with  the  tread  of  hurrying 
crowds,  there  was  no  mock  battle  in  prospect. 

The  political  campaign,  which  was  in  progress 
when  the  great  celebration  took  place,  resulted,  as  is 
well  known,  in  the  triumph  of  the  Republican  party, 
and  the  election  of  Abraham  Lincoln  to  the  presi- 
dency. It  is  needless  here  to  recount  at  length  how 
this  manifestation  of  the  people's  will  was  made  an 
excuse  for  rebellion  by  the  slave-holders  of  the  South; 
how  State  after  State  abandoned  its  allegiance,  and 
how  the  coming  of  spring  found  a  Southern  Con- 
federacy already  organized  and  armed,  in  defiance  of 
the  authority  of  the  republic  for  which  Perry  fought. 

Here,  as  elsewhere  throughout  the  North,  men 
looked  on  in  amazement  at  this  disloyal  madness,  and 
it  was  not  until  the  blow  actually  fell  upon  the  walls 
of  Sumter  that  they  could  bring  themselves  to  believe 
in  the  reality  of  such  senseless  infamy. 



The  Uprising  of  the  People— Camp  Taylor— Our  Plan  of  Showing  Ser- 
vices of  Soldiers— Lists  of  Soldiers— The  Ladies'  Meeting— Permanent 
Organization —Co-operation  with  other  Societies— Dr.  Newberry— The 
Soldiers'  Aid  Society  of  Northern  Ohio— Numerous  Subordinates- 
Fort  Donelson— Pittsburg  Landing— The  Territory  Tributary  to  the 
Society— No  Slate  Lines -Pressed  for  Means— A.  Gift  of  Ten  Thousand 
Dollars—"  Soldiers'  Acres"  and  "Onion  Leagues  "—The  Northern  Ohio 
Sanitary  Fair— lis  Success— Immense  Returns— Other  Labors— A 
Threatened  Draft  Riot-Dispersal  of  the  Mob-The  "Squirrel  Hunters" 
—Cuyahoga  Governors— Tod  and  Brough— Brough's  Exertions  in 
18G4— The  Cleveland  and  Mahoning  Railroad— The  Soldiers  become 
Men  of  Peace— Prof.  Newberry— The  Census  of  1870— The  Crisis  of 
1873— The  Fourth  Court-House— The  Jail— Conclusion. 

Ojf  the  14th  of  April,  1861,  the  storm  burst.  The 
Cleveland  papers  of  the  next  morning  contained  a  full 
account  of  the  assault  upon  Sumter.  As  the  High- 
landers of  three  centuries  ago  sprang  to  arms  when 
tlie  fiery  cross  was  sent  among  them  by  their  cliief- 
tains,  thus,  and  almost  as  swiftly,  responded  the  men 
of  the  North  when  the  daily  newspapers  told  the  story 
of  their  country's  danger.  The  sons  of  Cuyahoga 
county  were  ready  with  the  foremost.  From  the  stores 
and  offices  Of  the  city,  from  the  shops  of  the  villages, 
from  the  farms  of  the  country,  they  came  forward  to 
do  liattle  for  the  integrity  of  the  nation.  The 
Cleveland  Grays  and  Company  D  of  the  Cleveland 
Light  Artillery  were  two  of  the  very  first  companies 
to  take  the  field  for  three  months,  to  give  an  oppor- 
tunity for  the  organization  of  a  permanent  force. 

On  the  33d  of  April  Camp  Taylor  was  established  at 
Cleveland  by  the  governor,  and  made  the  rendezvous 

of  the  volunteers  from  northern  Ohio.  By  the  37  th 
of  the  same  month  several  thousand  men  were  in 
camp,  coming  from  nearly  all  the  counties  of  the 
section  named.  Cuyahoga  county  furnished  three 
companies,  and  parts  of  several  others,  who  became 
members  of  the  Seventh  infantry. 

In  order  to  give  even  an  idea  of  the  services  of  the 
soldiers  of  Cuyahoga  county  during  the  war,  we  find 
it  necessary  to  furnish  a  separate  sketch  of  each 
regiment  and  battery  in  which  it  were  represented. 
As  Cuyahoga  had  soldiers  in  no  less  than  sixty-two 
regiments  of  infantry  and  cavalry,  and  seventeen 
batteries  of  artillery,  many  of  these  sketches  must  of 
necessity  be  exceedingly  brief.  Their  size  is  made 
proportionate,  so  far  as  j^ossible,  to  the  number  of 
men  from  this  county  in  each  organization,  and  to 
the  amount  of  service  rendered. 

Bach  sketch  of  a  regiment  or  battery  is  followed 
by  a  list  of  the  soldiers  serving  in  it  who  were  residents 
of  this  county  at  the  time  of  the  war,  with  a  state- 
ment of  their  respective  enlistments,  promotions, 
discharges,  etc.  These  have  been  compiled  with 
great  care  from  the  records  in  the  adjutant-general's 
office  at  Columbus,  and  are  perfect  transcripts  from 
them.  It  is  possible  that  there  may  be  defects  in  the 
rolls  in  the  adjutant-general's  office,  either  from  the 
soldier's  giving  the  wrong  residence,  or  from  acci- 
dental causes,  but  this  we  cannot  avoid. 

So  far  as  the  historical  sketches  are  concerned,  we 
have  depended  largely  on  Reid's  "  Ohio  in  the  War,'' 
the  correctness  of  which  we  find  to  be  endorsed  by 
all  the  Ohio  soldiers  who  have  examined  it  and  whom 
we  have  talked  with  on  the  subject.  In  regard,  how- 
ever, to  those  regiments  which  are  largely  represented 
from  this  county,  wo  have  taken  pains  to  consult 
with  surviving  members  and  obtain  from  them  an 
account,  not  only  of  the  principal  services  of  each 
command,  but  of  some  of  the  numerous  incidents 
which  lend  variety  to  the  story  of  life  in  the  field. 
When  regimental  or  battery  histories  have  been  pub- 
lished, these  have  been  the  jjrincipal  sources  of  in- 

These  historical  sketches,  each  with  its  accompanying 
list  of  soldiers  from  Cuyahoga  county,  follow  immedi- 
ately after  this  chapter;  being  arranged  according  to 
the  regimental  or  battery  number  in,  successively,  the 
infantry,  cavalry  and  artillery  arms  of  the  service. 

The  people  warmly  sustained  the  efforts  of  their 
gallant  soldiers,  and  the  ladies  were  especially  zealous 
in  doing  so.  On  the  30th  of  April,  five  days  after 
the  President's  first  call  for  troops,  the  ladies  of 
Cleveland  assembled  for  the  purpose  of  offering  what- 
ever aid  they  could  give,  though  as  to  what  it  would 
be  they,  like  every  one  else,  were  profoundly  ignorant. 
For  a  few  days  the  more  active  scraped  lint  and  made 
bandages,  and  made  "raids  "  on  the  people  to  obtain 
blankets  for  new  volunteers,  as  yet  unprovided  with 
those  necessary  articles. 

In  a  short  time  the  Ladies'  Aid  Society  of  Cleve- 
land was  permanently  organized.     As  this  soon  be- 



came  the  head  of  the  various  movements  in  northern 
Ohio  in  aid  of  the  soldiers,  and  in  six  or  seven  months 
assumed  the  name  of  the  Soldiers'  Aid  Society  of 
Northern  Ohio,  it  should  properly  be  considered  as 
an  institution  of  a  genei-al  character,  and  some  of  its 
acts  should  be  narrated  in  the  general  history  of  the 
county.  The  first  permanent  officers  were  Mrs.  B. 
Rouse,  president;  Mrs.  John  Shelley  and  Mrs.  Wm. 
Melheich,  vice  presidents;  Mary  Clark  Brayton,  sec- 
retary; and  Ellen  F.  Terj-y,  treasurer.  In  the  spring 
of  1863,  Mrs.  Lewis  Burton  became  vice  president; 
Mrs.  Shelley  having  removed  from  the  county.  The 
secretary  and  treasurer  served  faithfully  throughout 
the  war,  and  have  since  published  a  handsome  and 
interesting  book  on  the  workings  of  the  society,  en- 
titled "  Our  Acre  and  its  Harvest,"  from  which  we 
have  derived  the  items  given  here. 

The  leaders  of  the  Cleveland  society  speedily  in- 
vited the  co-operation  of  the  smaller  places,  sending 
out  an  immense  number  of  circulars  to  clergymen, 
prominent  citizens,  ladies,  etc.  Numerous  societies 
were  soon  organized  in  nearly  all  the  townships  of  this 
county  and  the  adjoining  counties;  some  being  start- 
ed independently  and  some  on  account  of  the  sug- 
gestions of  the  Cleveland  organization,  but  almost  all 
being  soon  drawn  into  affiliation  with  it;  being  con- 
vinced that  they  could  best  attain  their  object  by  act- 
ing in  subordination  to  it. 

In  September,  1861,  Dr.  J.  S.  Newberry,  of  Cleve- 
land, was  made  secretary  of  the  Western  department 
of  the  United  States  Sanitary  Commission,  and 
thenceforth  had  general  supervision  of  the  afEairs  of 
that  association  in  the  valley  of  the  Mississippi.  In 
the  following  month  the  Cleveland  Aid  Society  was 
made  a  corresponding  branch  of  the  United  States 
Sanitary  Commission.  On  the  30th  of  November, 
1861,  its  name  was  changed  to  the  Soldiers'  Aid 
Society  of  Northern  Ohio,  as  already  mentioned. 
Thenceforth  its  acts  and  fame  were  national  rather 
than  local.  Its  benevolence  was  not  even  bounded  by 
State  lines,  but  extended  to  all  who  wore  the  Union 

At  the  time  of  the  change  of  name  just  noted,  the 
society  was  receiving  contributions  from  two  hundred 
and  forty-three  towns  of  northern  Ohio,  of  which  a 
hundred  and  twenty  had  branch  organizations.  Find- 
ing that  steady  contributions  were  necessary,  rather 
than  spasmodic  efforts,  the  Aid  Society  prevailed  on 
a  large  number  of  citizens  to  make  pledges  of  small, 
regular  amounts  weekly,  on  which  the  officers  could 
rely  to  snpply  increasing  needs. 

After  the  capture  of  Fort  Donelson,  a  thousand  sets 
of  hospital  clothing  and  a  hundred  and  sixty  boxes  of 
supplies  were  sent  forward.  But  it  was  after  the  bat- 
tle of  Pittsburg  Landing  that  the  greatest  excitement 
prevailed.  Nearly  every  regiment  from  the  Western 
Reserve  was  present,  hundreds  of  men  from  Cuya- 
hoga county  were  among  the  killed  and  wounded, 
and  the  whole  community  felt  the  shock.  Thou- 
sands of  contributions  of  every  description  flowed  in 

upon  the  ladies  of  the  society,  by  whom  they  were 
forwarded  to  the- suffering  soldiers. 

By  the  first  of  July,  1862,  there  were  three  hundred 
and  twenty-five  societies  organized  as  branches  of  the 
Soldiers'  Aid  Society  of  Northern  Ohio.  These 
associations  collected  funds  and  supplies  in  their  own 
way,  receiving  suggestions  from  the  Northern  Ohio 
Society  as  to  what  was  best  to  be  done.  The  sup- 
plies were  then  forwarded  to  the  latter  association 
which  sent  them  to  whatever  points  they  were  most, 
needed.  The  officers  of  the  Northern  Ohio  Society 
refused  to  receive  money  from  any  of  the  subordinate 
organizations;  thinking  it  better  that  it  should  be  in- 
vested in  material,  prepared  for  use  by  the  members 
of  the  various  associations  at  home,  and  then  for- 
warded by  means  of  the  facilities  which  the  Northern 
Ohio  Society  could  furnish.  There  were  tributary  to 
it  at  this  period,  and  during  the  latter  part  of  the 
wasr,  nearly  all  the  societies  in  the  counties  of  Trum- 
bull, Ashtabula,  Mahoning,  Columbiana,  Carroll, 
Stark,  Tusacarawas,  Portage,  Geauga,  Lake,  Summit, 
Wayne,  Holmes,  Ashland,  Lorain,  Huron,  Erie,  Me- 
dina and  Cuyahoga;  besides  a  small  part  of  North- 
western Pennsylvania. 

A  list  of  contributions  was  published  weekly  in  the 
Cleveland  Herald.  The  ladies  also  availed  themselves 
of  the  offer  made  by  Mr.  Edwin  Cowles  of  the  use  of 
two  columns  weekly  of  the  Cleveland  Leader,  for  such 
use  as  they  might  find  necessary.  It  will  be  remem- 
bered that  the  society  was  not  only  a  sort  of  general 
agency  for  all  northern  Ohio,  but  was  also  the  di- 
rect agent  for  all  Cleveland  contributions.  It  were 
impossible  to  tell  the  story  of  a  hundredth  part  of 
the  services  performed  by  it;  of  delicacies  of  all  kinds 
sent  to  the  wounded  and  the  sick;  of  clothing  and 
bed  furniture  supplied  to  hospitals;  of  friends  fur- 
nished with  information;  these  and  hundreds  of  sim- 
ilar services  were  performed  day  after  day,  month 
after  month,  year  after  year,  from  the  beginning  to 
the  end  of  the  war,  for  soldiers  of  every  State  from 
Maine  to  Kansas;  alike  for  the  stalwart  heroes  of 
Minnesota  and  the  persecuted  Unionists  of  Tennessee. 

In  the  winter  of  1863-3  the  society  had  over  four 
hundred  branches.  Yet  money  and  contributions 
then  came  in  slowly,  for  taxes  were  heavy,  prices  of 
all  kinds  were  high,  and  the  exertions  of  the  last  two 
years  had  told  seriously  on  the  resources  of  the  people. 
It  was  aided  by  lectures  by  the  celebrated  Elihu  Bur- 
ritt,  and  by  the  scarcely  less  celebrated  Artemus 
Ward  (whilom  a  resident  of  Cleveland  under  the 
name  of  Charles  F.  Brown),  and  ere  long  it  received 
a  gift  of  ten  thousand  dollars,  part  of  a  large  dona- 
tion from  California.  This  seemed  then  like  a  very 
large  amount,  being  accepted  only  in  instalments, 
and  previous  efforts  to  secure  a  permanent  supply 
being  steadily  continued. 

At  this  time  there  was  a  cry  for  more  vegetables, 
on  the  ground  that  scurvy  was  appearing  in  the  army. 
The  Northern  Ohio  Society  promptly  forwarded 
large  quantities  of  potatoes  and  onions,  and  at  the 




same  time  endeavored  to  enlist  the  people  within  its 
influence  in  providing  for  a  permanent  supply  of 
tliose  and  similar  articles.  Many  farmers  set  aside  a 
"soldier's  acre"  for  this  purpose  in  the  spring,  and 
even  the  children  parodied  the  "  Union  leagues  "  of 
the  day  with  "  Onion  leagues,"  which  cultivated  beds 
of  that  useful  vegetable  for  the  benefit  of  the  nation's 

In  February,  1864,  the  Northern  Ohio  Sanitary 
Fair  was  organized  under  the  management  of  the 
association;  an  immense  frame  structure  being  built 
in  the  center  of  Monumental  Park,  at  Cleveland, 
over  Perry's  statue,  at  a  cost  of  ten  thousand  dollars. 
As  this  was  half  as  much  as  the  gross  receipts  of  any 
sanitary  fair  yet  organized,  it  was  deemed  a  very  haz- 
ardous expenditure.  The  fair  was  inaugurated  on  the 
twenty-second  of  February,  and  after  a  most  brilliant 
display  and  numerous  successful  entertainments  it 
was  found  that  the  gross  receipts  were  a  trifle  over  a 
hundred  thousand  dollars,  while  the  expenses  were 
but  about  twenty-one  thousand  dollars.  The  sub- 
stantial surplus  thus  acquired  enabled  the  ladies  of 
the  association  to  extend  their  operations,  and  to 
supply  a  much  larger  number  of  sick  and  wounded 
soldiers  than  before  with  comforts  and  delicacies, 
which  in  some  degree  mitigated  their  sufEei'ings. 

The  labors  of  the  association  were  continued  to  the 
end  of  the  war,  and  even  after  its  close  thousands  of 
invalid  soldiers  received  its  aid,  while  the  families  of 
the  dead  were  assisted  in  the  procurement  of  pen- 
sions, and  in  numerous  other  ways. 

We  have  spoken  at  some  length  (considering  the 
many  subjects  requiring  mention  in  such  a  book  as 
this)  of  the  association  and  its  work;  for  during  those 
fateful  years  it  was  really  one  of  the  great  institutions 
of  Cuyahoga  county,  and  was  also  a  faithful  exponent 
of  the  feelings  of  the  people. 

Nearly  all  the  quotas  called  for  from  the  county 
were  filled  by  volunteering.  A  draft  was  ordered, 
however,  in  September,  1863,  to  fill  some  vacancies, 
and  at  one  time  serious  trouble  seemed  imminent. 
A  mob  of  five  hundred  or  six  hundred  persons,  armed 
with  clubs,  pistols,  etc.,  surrounded  the  office  of  Hon. 
Harvey  Rice,  commissioner  of  the  draft,  on  account 
of  imaginary  unfairness  in  its  management.  Meeting 
them  firmly,  he  sent  to  Camp  Cleveland,  on  Wood- 
laud  Hights,  for  military  aid.  Shields'  Nineteenth 
battery,  just  organized,  was  there,  awaiting  orders 
to  go  to  the  front.  They  were  armed  with  venerable 
Austrian  muskets,  and  with  an  old  six-pounder  used 
to  fire  salutes  with. 

They  came  hastily  down;  their  muskets  being  loaded 
with  ball  cartridge,  and  their  solitary  cannon  half 
filled  with  a  miscellaneous  assortment  of  nails,  scrap 
iron,  bullets  and  other  death-dealing  missiles.  When 
the  mob  made  some  extra  violent  demonstrations,  the 
command,  acting  as  infantry,  charged  bayonet  and 
drove  them  from  the  square,  but,  fortunately  for  both 
parties,  was  not  called  on  to  fire  the  miscellaneous 
load  out  of  the  cannon.     Mr.    Rice  then  permitted 

the  people  to  send  in  a  committee  to  examine  the 
operations  of  the  office,  who  found  that  everything 
was  conducted  with  the  utmost  fairness.  This  was 
the  only  serious  attempt  at  rioting,  or  opposition  to 
the  law,  made  during  the  war,  in  Cnyahoga  county. 
Besides  the  numerous  organizations  mentioned  in 
the  following  chaptei's,  when  the  State  was  threatened 
with  invasion  by  Bragg  in  1863,  and  a  large  number 
of  "squirrel  hunters"  were  called  on  to  help  defend 
it,  a  company  marched  to  the  front,  from  Berea  and 
vicinity,  armed  with  their  "squirrel  rifles,"  and 
ready  to  aid  in  repelling  the  enemy  if  necessary. 
They  were  not  called  on  to  do  so,  however,  and  some 
returned  homo. 

It  was  not  strange  that  Cuyahoga  county  mani- 
fested so  much  energy  and  zeal  in  the  Union  cause; 
for  two  of  the  war  governors  of  Ohio  resided  wholly 
or  partially  within  its  limits.  Hon.  David  Tod,  who 
was  elected  governor  by  the  Union  Republican  party 
in  the  autumn  of  1861,  taking  his  seat  on  the  Ist  of 
January  following,  had  a  residence  at  Cleveland,  and 
also  one  outside  of  the  county.  Hon.  John  Brough, 
the  leonine  statesman  who  was  elected  by  the  Repub- 
licans over  Vallandigham  in  the  autumn  of  1863  by  a 
hundred  thousand  majority,  was  also  a  resident  of 
Cleveland,  and  president  of  the  Bellefontaine  railroad 
company.  In  the  spring  of  1864  he  consulted  with 
other  western  governors  and  proposed  that  they 
call  out  a  hundred  thousand  men  for  a  hundred  days, 
to  guard  posts  and  otlierwise  aid  in  achieving  success 
in  the  campaign  of  that  year.  All  agreed,  as  did  the 
war  department  at  Washington.  The  latter  tele- 
graphed for  thirty  thousand  Ohio  militia  in  ten 
days.  Thirty-eight  thousand  responded  within  the 
time.  This  sturdiest  of  Unionists  and  most  ener- 
getic of  governors  died  in  the  office  he  had  done  so 
much  to  dignify  and  make  useful. 

During  the  war  business  was  active,  on  account  of 
the  great  mci'ease  of  paper  money  in  volume  and  de- 
preciation in  value;  yet  there  were  few  permanent  im- 
provements made;  both  because  people's  minds  were 
absorbed  in  the  war,  and  because  they  were  unwilling 
in  the  disturbed  state  of  the  finances  to  make  large 
government  investments.  The  principal  public  en- 
terprise which  was  carried  out  at  this  period  in  north- 
ern Ohio  was  the  Atlantic  and  Great  Western  rail- 
road, which  was  built  principally  with  foreign  capital. 
In  1863,  it  leased  the  Cleveland  and  Mahoning  rail- 
road for  ninety-nine  years,  and  immediately  supplied 
it  with  an  extra  track;  so  it  could  be  used  for  broad 
or  narrow  gauge  cars.  It  has  been  employed  espe- 
cially for  the  transportation  of  coal  from  the  beds  of 
Mahoning  county,  immense  amounts  of  which  have 
been  brought  to  Cleveland,  the  manufactories  of 
which  have  been  greatly  stimulated  thereby. 

On  the  close  of  the  war  the  soldiers  of  Cuyahoga 
county,  like  those  of  the  rest  of  the  Union,  at  once 
put  ofE  their  military  habits  and  resumed  the  avoca- 
tions of  civil  life.  Less  than  six  months  saw  the 
transformation  complete,   and  all  the  energy  lately 




given  to  the  arts  of  destruction^mployed  in  those  of 
construction.  But  the  latter,  though  more  pleasant, 
and  in  the  long  run  more  important,  than  the  former, 
do  not  by  any  means  make  so  brilliant  a  mark  on 
the  page  of  history.  The  current  of  events  flows 
broadly,  swiftly  and  beneficently  onward  in  peace, 
but  it  is  the  rapids  and  cataracts  of  war  which  strike 
the  eye. 

In  1869,  Professor  Newberry,  before  mentioned  in 
connection  with  the  Sanitary  Commission,  was  ap- 
pointed chief  geologist  of  the  State  of  Ohio.  As 
such,  with  a  corps  of  assistants,  he  made  an  exhaustive 
geological  survey  of  the  State,  embodied  in  several 
valuable'  volumes. 

By  the  census  of  1870  the  population  of  the  county, 
notwithstanding  the  war,  had  reached  the  number  of 
one  hundred  and  thirty-two  thousand  nine  hundred 
and  three.  Of  these  ninety-two  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  twenty-eight  were  in  Cleveland,  while 
the  remainder  were  to  be  found  in  the  respective 
townships  as  follows:  Bedford,  1,788 ;  Brecksville, 
1,007 ;  Brooklyn,  3,713 ;  Chagrin  Falls,  1,321  ; 
Dover,  1,145  ;  East  Cleveland,  5,044;  Euclid,  3,188; 
Independence,  1,761  ;  Mayfield,  893  ;  Middleburg, 
3,662;  Newburg,  6,237;  Olmstead,  1,570;  Orange, 
1,802;  Parma,  1,433;  Rockport,  3,001;  Royaton, 
1,089;  Solon,  899;  Strongsville,  896;  Warrensville, 
1,426.  It  will  be  seen  that,  while  the  agricultural 
township  had  increased  very  little,  and  some  of  them 
had  decreased,  since  the  i)revious  census,  the  popula- 
tion of  Cleveland  had  more  than  doubled,  besides 
the  large  number  who  had  located  in  the  adjoining 
towns,  so  as  to  become  in  fact  suburban  residents  of 
the  city. 

In  1873  the  same  causes,  inflation  and  speculation, 
which  had  brought  about  the  financial  crash  of  1837, 
produced  another,  far  less  violent  than  the  one  men- 
tioned but  more  injurious  than  that  which  occurred 
in  1857.  Business  and  improvements  of  all  kinds 
received  a  severe  check,  five  years  saw  but  slight 
progress,  and  it  is  only  during  the  present  season 
that  a  decided  change  for  the  better  has  been 

In  1875  the  fourth  court-house  of  Cuyahoga  county 
was  begun,  and  so  far  completed  in  1876  as  to  be  used 
by  the  courts  and  for  other  public  purposes.  The 
court-house  erected  in  1858  is  also  still  in  use.  It  is 
somewhat  difficult  to  describe  the  new  one;  for  one 
hardly  knows  whether  to  give  its  dimensions  and 
appearance  as  it  is,  or  as  it  is  to  be.  Probably  the 
former  is  the  safer  method,  with  a  brief  reference  to 
what  it  may  be. 

The  present  building,  then,  is  of  stone,  and  fronts 
on  Seneca  street,  extending  back  nearly  to  the  court- 
house of  1858.  Its  width  is  seventy-five  feet  and  its 
depth  ninety-two  feet.  There  is  a  high  basement 
story,  occupied  by  some  of  the  county  officers  and  for 
other  purposes.  On  the  first  story  above  this  is  a  wide 
hall,  with  the  rooms  of  the  probate  judge  and.  sheriff 
on  either  side.     On  the  second  floor  is  the  criminal 

court  room,  sixty-eight  feet  long,  sixty  feet  wide  and 
thirty-five  feet  high, .and  very  elaborately  finished. 
On  the  third,  or  Mansard,  floor  are  rooms  for  the  use 
of  juries  and  for  other  purposes. 

The  proposed  north  wing  is  to  be  thirty-four  feet 
front  and  eighty-four  feet  deep.  The  south  wing  is 
to  be  forty-nine  feet  front  and  eighty  four  feet  deep, 
and  it  is  expected  that  in  due  time  it  will  be  sur- 
mounted by  a  tower  a  hiindred  and  twenty  feet  high. 
The  wings,  when  completed,  are  to  be  occupied  by 
the  various  courts  and  county  officers  who  are  now 
located  in  the  building  of  1858. 

A  very  large  and  strong  jail  was  also  built  in  1875, 
on  the  same  ground  (north  of  the  court  house),  for- 
merly occupied  by  the  jail  of  1851,  which  was  removed 
to  give  place  to  its  successor.  The  new  jail,  very 
substantially  built  of  stone,  has  three  departments, 
respectively  for  men,  women  and  boys.  The  men's 
department  is  sixty  feet  wide  by  a  hundred  and  thirty 
feet  long,  with  one  hundred  and  twenty  cells. 

The  boys'  department  is  twenty  feet  by  twenty-four, 
with  sixteen  cells.  The  women's  department  is  in 
the  same  building  as  the  sheriff's  residence,  and  like- 
wise has  sixteen  cells.  The  whole  building  last  men- 
tioned is  ninety  feet  by  thirty-seven,  and  three  stories 

Notwithstanding  the  financial  closeness  since  1873, 
numerous  local  improvements  have  been  made 
tliroughout  the  county,  which  are  noticed  under 
their  appropriate  heads.  We  now  close  the  consecu- 
tive record  of  Cuyahoga  county  for  the  purpose  of 
presenting  our  readers  with  sketches  of  various  or- 
ganizations pertaining  to  it,  beginning  with  the 
regiments  and  batteries  representing  that  county  in 
the  war  for  the  Union. 



Organization  of  First  Infantry— The  Cleveland  Grays— Vienna —BuU 
Eun— Reorganization  for  Three  Years— Cuyahoga  Companies— In 
Kentucky  and  Tennessee— Pittsburg  Landing— A  Fight  at  Huntsville 
-Stone  River— Chiclcamauga— Orchard  Knob— Capture  of  Mission 
Rldge—Resaoa— Burnt  Hickory— Number  of  Engagements— Mustered 
Out— Members  from  Cuyahoga  County— The  Fifth  Infantry— Connec- 
tion with  Cuyahoga  County— Men  Transferred  from  Seventh— List  of 


The  First  Infantry  was  organized  in  April,  1861, 
in  response  to  the  President's  first  call  for  troops. 
The  Cleveland  Grays,  an  old  and  highly  esteemed 
militia  organization,  formed  one  of  its  companies, 
under  Captain  T.  S.  Paddock,  and  Lieutenants 
Jeremiah  Ensworth  and  J.  B.  Hampson.  So  prompt 
was  the  answer  to  the  call  that  within  sixty  hours 
afterwards  the  regiment  was  on  its  way  to  the  capital. 
It  was  attached  to  General  Schenck's  brigade  and  was 
611  route  to  Vienna  when  its  first  engagement  with 
tlie  enemy  was  had.  The  rebels  fired  into  the  train, 
when  the  First  tjuickly  formed  on  the  side  of  the 



track,  followed  by  the  other  regiments,  and  made  so 
effective  a  resistance  as  to  be  enabled  to  retire  with 
but  small  loss.  In  the  battle  of  Bull  Run  the  regi- 
ment took  no  active  part,  but  rendered  excellent  ser- 
vice in  guarding  the  retreat. 

In  August,  1861,  the  reorganization  of  the  regi- 
ment for  three  years'  service  was  begun,  but  not 
completed  until  October.  Company  D  was  largely 
from  Cuyahoga  county,  as  well  as  a  few  men  from 
companies  F,  G  and  I.  In  November  the  regiment 
was  made  a  part  of  the  Fourth  Brigade  of  the  Second 
Division,  under  General  McCook.  From  December 
17th,  1861,  until  February  14th,  1862,  it  remained 
in  camp  at  Green  River,  Kentucky.  On  the  17th 
the  brigade  marched  to  Nashville;  arriving  five  miles 
out  on  Franklin  Turnpike  it  went  into  camp.  On  the 
31st  it  crossed  Duck  river  and  moved  toward  Sa- 

On  the  morning  of  April  6th  the  march  was  re- 
sumed. Savannah  reached  at  half  past  seven  p.m., 
and  Pittsburg  Landing  at  daylight  the  next  morning. 

At  six  a.m.,  the  First  moved  to  the  front  and 
formed  in  line  of  battle.  After  fighting  until  noon, 
repeatedly  charging  the  enemy  and  recapturing  Gen- 
eral Sherman's  headquarters,  the  regiment  retired  to 
procure  ammunition.  This  being  obtained,  it  again 
advanced  and  participated  in  the  general  charge  on 
the  enemy's  front.  The  First  was  then  sent  to  assist 
Colonel  Gibson's  command;  arriving  just  in  time  to 
repel  a  vigorous  attack.  In  this  battle  the  regiment 
was  commanded  by  Colonel  B.  F.  Smith,  and  lost 
sixty  officers  and  men. 

On  May  27th  six  companies  of  the  First,  under 
Major  Bassett  Langdon,  had  a  sharp  fight  at  Bridge 
Creek.  At  Huntsville  they  took  the  cars  and  reached 
Boiling  Fork,  a  tributary  of  the  Elk  river,  July  1st. 
On  the  28th  the  regiment  moved  to  Altamont,  and 
September  1st  to  Nashville,  passing  through  Man- 
chester, Murfreesboro  and  Lavergne.  At  Dog-walk, 
on  the  9th  of  October,  the  First  took  part  in  the  bat- 
tle, and  lost  several  men.  On  the  11th  it  joined 
General  Buell's  forces  at  Perryville. 

On  December  31st  the  battle  of  Stone  river  com- 
menced. The  First  was  stationed  on  the  right  of  E. 
W.  Johnson's  division.  A  half  hour's  brisk  skirmish- 
ing followed,  and  the  enemy  was  promptly  checked. 
A  heavy  force  appeared  and  made  an  attack  on  the 
First,  compelling  it  to  fall  back.  In  doing  this,  much 
confusion  occurred  and  the  whole  right  wing  was 
forced  back.  At  the  Nashville  and  Chattanooga  rail- 
road re-enforcements  arrived,  and  the  enemy  was 
driven  back. 

After  many  hard  marches  and  a  number  of  sharp 
skirmishes,  the  regiment  reached  Stevenson,  Alabama, 
August  30th,  1863,  to  take  part  in  the  Chickamauga 
campaign.  On  the  19th  of  September  it  reported  to 
Genei-al  Thomas,  and  was  placed  in  the  front  line 
under  heavy  firing.  A  charge  was  made  on  the  ene- 
my, General  Baird's  position  retaken  and  several 
pieces  of   artillery   captured.     A  most  terrific  fight 

ensued  in  the  darkness,  and  the  First  was  compelled 
to  change  position.  In  doing  this  they  fell  back 
about  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards.  The  enemy  soon 
retired  and  the  battle  ceased  for  the  night.  The  next 
afternoon  the  First  and  the  Louisville  Legion  charged 
and  put  to  rout  a  body  of  the  enemy,  but  at  length 
shared  in  the  general  disaster  which  befell  the  army. 
The  regiment  lost  in  this  fight  one  hundred,  and 
twenty  men. 

On  the  20th  of  October  the  First  formed  a  part  of 
the  force  that  surprised  and  captured  the  ridge  be- 
tween Lookout  valley  and  Racoon  mountain. 

On  November  23d  the  regiment  engaged  in  the  bat- 
tle of  Orchard  Knob,  and  on  the  25th  rendered  noble 
service  at  the  capture  of  Mission  ridge.  The  entire 
loss  of  the  Seventh  during  this  battle  was  five  officers 
and  seventy-eight  men,  killed  and  wounded.  On 
January  17th,  1864,  during  the  East  Tennessee  cam- 
paign, the  regiment  had  a  brisk  engagement  at  Straw- 
berry Plains,  losing  some  men.  On  the  Atlanta  cam- 
paign. May  10th,  1864,  at  Buzzard's  Roost,  several 
were  wounded  and  thi-ee  killed.  May  14th,  at  Re- 
saca,  Georgia,  two  were  killed  and  sixteen  wounded, 
and  the  next  day  four  were  killed  and  twelve  wounded. 
At  Adairsville  the  regiment  had  a  sharp  skirmish; 
losing  two  killed  and  two  wounded.  At  Burnt  Hick- 
ory, May  27th,  eight  men  and  two  officers  were  killed 
and  seventy-one  men  wounded.  June  17th,  atKene- 
saw,  eight  men  were  wounded.  At  the  crossing  of 
Chattahoochie  river  two  men  were  killed. 

During  its  term  of  service  the  First  was  engaged  in 
twenty-four  battles  and  skirmishes,  and  had  five 
hundred  and  twenty-seven  officers  and  men  killed  and 
wounded.  The  last  man  of  the  regiment  was  mus- 
tered out  October  14th,  18G4. 



Edward  J.  Collins,  enrolled  August  17,  1861;  promoted  to  First  Lieuten- 
ant March  25,  1863,  and  to  Regimental  Quartermaster  May  8,  1863. 
Mustered  out  with  regiment  Septemlier  24,  1864. 

William  A.  Davidson,  enrolled  as  Corporal  August  20,  1861 ;  promoted  to 
Quartermaster.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

James  Hill,  enrolled  as  Regimental  Quartermaster  August  23,  1861 ;  pro- 
moted to  First  Lieutenant  and  transferred  to  Company  H  May  8, 
1863.    Resigned  October  17,  1883. 


Andrew  J.  Mabb,  enrolled  August  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Commissary 
Sergeant.    Mustered  out  with  regiment. 


James  B.  Hampson,  enrolled  as  Captain  August  17,  1861;  promoted  De- 
(  cember  31,  1863,  to  Major  124th  Regiment.  Killed  at  Pickett's  Mills, 
Georgia,  May  27,  1864. 

George  L.  Hayward,  enrolled  as  First  Lieutenant  August  17, 1861-;  pro- 
moted to  Captain  December  10,  1862,  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  129th 
Regiment  July  2rth,  1863. 

Sylvanus  S.  Dixon,  enrolled  as  First  Sergeant  August  20,  1861:  promoted 
to  Second  Lieutenant  June  24, 1862,  and  to  First  Lieutenant  Novem- 
ber 15,  1863.    Killed  near  Dallas,  Georgia,  May  27,  1864 

Alexander  Varian,  enrolled  August  20,  1861;  promoted  to  Second  Lieu- 
tenant May  26, 1862,  and  to  First  Lieutenant  December  10, 1862.  Died 
June  2,  1864,  of  wounds  received  at  Resaca,  Georgia. 

William  M.  Carpenter,  enrolled  as  Second  Lieutenant  August  17,  1861 ; 
promoted  to  First  Lieutenant  May  26,  1862.    Resigned  April  10,  1863. 

Willard  C.  Prentiss,  enrolled  as  Corporal  August  20,  1861;  promoted  to 
Second  Lieutenant  December  10,  1862.    Resigned  June  10,  1863. 

Charles  Wherritt,  enrolled  as  Sergeant  August  20,  1861. 

William  Duncan,  enrolled  as  Sergeant  August  20,  1861. 

Heni-y  Galloway,  enrolled  as  Sergeant  August  20,  1861. 



Rufus  A.  Hampson,  enrolled  as  Corporal  September  1, 1881. 

Orrin  J.  Brown,  enrolled  as  Corporal  August  20,  1861. 

George  A.  Wilson,  enrolled  as  Corporal  August  20, 1861.    Killed  at  the 

battle  of  Resaca,  Georgia. 
Leavitt  Aldrich,  enrolled  as  Corporal  August  20, 1861. 
Clement  H.  Farier,  enrolled  as  Corporal  August  20,  1861. 
Joh.i  Mullen,  enrolled  as  Musician  August  20, 1861. 
James  B.  De  Land,  enrolled  as  Masician  Auzust  20,  1861. 
Charles  H.  Anderton,  enlisted  August  17, 1861. 
Samuel  M.  Bearby,  enlisted  August  20,  1861,    Killed. 
John  L.  Buihiell,  enlisted  August  20,  1861. 
Eli  Bennett,  enlisted  August  1'',  1861. 
William  Buibeck,  enlisted  August  17,  1861. 
Edwin  Barber,  enlisted  August  17, 1861. 
Charles  W.  Campbell,  enlisted  August  17, 1861. 
William  Caolder,  enlisted  August  17,  1831. 
Horace  J.  Conant,  enlisted  August  17,  1861. 
John  F.  Cady,  enlisted  August  17,  1861. 
William  Cowan,  enlisted  August  17,  1861. 
Robert  A  Oarran,  enlisted  August  17, 1S61. 

Lawrence  Dubber,  enlisted  August  17, 1861. 

William  P.  De  Land,  enlisted  August  17,  1861. 

Mwvin  L.  Eddy,  enlisted  August  17,  1861 . 

Horace  W.  Farwell,  enlisted  August  17,  1861. 

Frankiu  A.  Farwell,  enlisted  August  17,  1861. 

Reuben  Goss,  enlisted  August  19,  1861. 

Henry  vv.  Hayward,  enlisted  August  18,  1861. 

William  C.  Isham,  enlisted  August  18,  1861. 

Enoch  F.  Jones  enlisted  August  18,  1861. 

Reuben  B.  Kelley,  enUsted  August  19,  1861. 

Albert  C.  Leach,  enlisted  August  19,  1871. 

Samuel  A.  Lamoreaux,  enlisted  August  18,  1861. 

Joseph  C.  Merrick,  enlisted  August  18, 1861. 

Chester  C.  Pulver,  enlisted  August  17,  1861. 

Louis  W.  Pick,  enlisted  August  17,  1861. 

Eugene  Roberts,  enlisted  August  19,  1861. 

Charles  L.  Scobie,  enlisted  August  18,  1861. 

Frederick  Scan,  enlisted  August  18,  1861. 

James  M.  Sala,  enlisted  August  20,  1861. 

Benjamin  Sala,  enlisted  August  20,  1861. 

Christopher  Tod,  enlisted  August  20,  1801. 

Henry  R.  Van  Ness,  enUsted  August  20,  1861. 

James  Van  Fossen,  enlisted  September  9, 1861. 
John  A.  WiUdnson,  enlisted  August  20, 1801. . 

Julius  C.  Watterson,  enli  ted  August  19,  1861. 

Robert  F.  Watterson,  enlisted  August  19,  1861. 

Frederick  Zimmerman,  enlisted  August  18,  1861. 


William  Hall,  enlisted  December  11,  186.3.    Transferred  to  Company  H. 
James  McGee,  enlisted  November  23,  1863.    Transferred  to  Com  pany  H 


Simon  Keck,  enUsted  September  30,  1861    Discharged  November  4, 1865. 
Jacob  Welch,  enlisted  September  29,  1864       Discharged  October  1,  1865. 


Ebenezer  Clark,  enlisted  January  5,  1864.    Transferred  to  Company  H, 
September  1,  1864.    Mustered  out  May  18,  1865. 

John  Cartwright.  enlisted  January  11,  1864.    Transferred  to  Company  H, 
September  1,  1864. 

George  A.  Joice,  enlisted  January  5,  1864.    Transferred  to  Company  H, 
September  1.  1864. 

Henry  Lowes,  enlisted  December  28, 1863.    Transferred  to  Company  H 
Sept  1, 1864. 

Francis  Moses,  enlisted  January  7,  1864.    Transferred  to  Company  H, 
September  1,  1864.  ,  ^    „ 

Clayton  E.  Worden,  enUsted  December  :9,  1863.    Transferred  to  Com- 
pany H,  September  1, 1864. 


The  principal  connection  of  this  regiment  with 
Cuyahoga  county  arises  from  the  fact  that  thirty  men 
of  the  Seventh  Infantry,  residents  of  that  county, 
were  transferred  to  the  Fifth  from  the  Seventh  In- 
fantry, when  the  Litter  was  mustered  out  of  service; 
the  terms  of  those  men  not  liaving  expired.  Al- 
though the  Seventh  was  mustered  out  in  June,  1864, 
the  transfer  was  not  consummated  until  October. 
With  the  Fifth  they  marched  with  Sherman  on  this 
.rrandcampaig'.i  to  the  Sea,  accompanied  him  through 
the  Garoliaas,  and  took  part  in  the  great  review  at 


Thence  the  regiment  was  sent  to  Louis 
ville,  Kentucky,  where  it  was  mustered  out  of  service 
on  the  2Gth  day  of  July,  1865. 



Albert  Berger,  enlisted  August  30,  1863.    Mustered  out  June  31,  1865. 
Henry  Alexander,  enlisted  September  8, 1862.   Mustered  out  .luly  36, 1 865 . 
Solomon  Brobst,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1864.    Mus- 
tered out  June  31,  1865. 
James  C.  Brooks,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1864.    Mus- 
tered out  June  21,  1865. 
Ed.  A.  Crosby,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31, 1864.    Mustered 

out  June  21, 1866. 
Frank  J.  Covert,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1864.     Mus- 
tered out  June  21,  1865. 
Peter  M.  Hardman,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1864.  Mus- 
tered out  June  21.  1865. 
James  Loveless,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1864.    Dis- 
charged July  14,  1865, 
Jonathan  Moore,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  186-1,    Dis- 
charged July  7,  1865, 
Otis  Martin,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1864.    Mustered 

out  June  31,  1865. 
George  W.  Oliver,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31, 1864.    Mus- 
tered out  June  21,  1865. 
Abraham  Eamalia,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31, 1864.   Mus- 
tered out  June  21, 1865. 
James  Hunt,  transfen-ed  from  7th  Infantry  October  31, 1864.  Discharged 

May  29, 1865. 
Theodore  W.  Pratt,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31, 1864.  Mus- 
tered out  June  21,  1865. 
William  Stanford,  tranferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1864.    Mus- 
tered out  July  28,  1885. 
Charles  Zimmerman,  transferred  from  7th  Infanti-y  October  31,  1864. 

Mustered  out  June  21, 1885. 
Charles  Walley,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1884.    Mus- 
tered out  June  21,  1865. 
Sigo  Tyroler.  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1864.    Mustered 

out  June  21, 1865. 
Jacob  Sehneerberger,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31, 1864. 
Franz  Schaedler.  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1861.    Mus- 
tered out  January  25,  1865. 
Michael  Schmidt,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1864.    Mus- 
tered out  July  2,  1865. 
Martin  Saizer.tran'^ferred  from  7th  Infantry  October 31, 1864.    Mustered 

out  June  21,  1885. 
John  Schirssler,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  June  11,  1864. 
Joseph  Rowe,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31, 1864.    Wounded 

June  37     Mustered  out  August  8,  1865. 
Henry  Hoffman,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  June  11,  1864. 
David  F.  Dove,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  June  11,  1864. 
Coney  Deitz,  transferred  from  7th  Infant  y  October  31,  1864,    Mustered 

out  July  26,  1865. 
Conrad  Buchman,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31,  1864.    Mus- 
tered out  July  26,  1865. 
William  Weber,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  June  11,  1864. 
Andrew  Rick,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  June  11,  1864. 
Christian  Ottinger,  transferred  from  7th  Infantry  October  31, 1864.  Mus- 
tered out  May  31, 1885. 
Herman  Tetzer,  enUsted  1864.    Mustered  out  June  21,  1865. 



Organized  for  Three  Months-First  Field  Officers  — Reorganized  for 
Three  Years— Number  from  Cuyahoga  County— Sent  to  West  Vir- 
ginia—Its First  Loss— The  Disaster  at  Cross  Lanes— Goes  east- 
Breaks  up  a  Rebel  Camp-Battle  of  Winchester— Port  Republic— Suc- 
cessive Repulses  of  the  Enemy-Retreat  of  the  Union  Army-Cedar 
Mountain— Ten-ible  Loss  of  the  Seventh -■  Antietam  —  Driving  the 
Enemy— Defeating  Hampton  at  Dumfries-Chancellorsville-Gettys- 
burg— Ordered  west-Mission  Ridge -Taylor's  Ridge— A  Disastrous 
Repulse-Deaths  of  Creighton  and  Crane— Losses  of  the  Regiment- 
Its  Services  in  1864  -Pumpkin  Vine  Creek- Ordered  Home— Grand 
Reception  at  Cleveland-Mustered  Out. 

The  Seventh  Infantry  was  organized  for  three 
months  service,  at  Camp  Taylor,  Cleveland,  in  the 
latter   part   of   April,   1861;    three  companies  being 

♦  Condensed  from  Major  G.  L.  Wood's  "Seventh  Regiment.'' 



from  Cuyahoga  county,  and  the  remaindei'  from  other 
counties  of  the  Western  Reserve.  It  soon  went  to 
Camp  Deuuison,  near  Cincinnati.  On  the  11th  of 
May  the  regiment  elected  E.  B.  Tyler,  of  Ravenna, 
as  colonel;  W.  R,  Creighton,  of  Cleveland,  as  lieu- 
tenant-colonel; and  J.  S  Casement,  of  Painesville,  as 
major.  Three  days  later,  on  the  three  years  call 
being  submitted  to  the  men,  about  three-fourths 
enlisted  for  that  term.  The  others  were  discharged, 
recruiting  officers  were  sent  home,  and  on  the  19th 
and  20th  of  June  the  Seventh  Ohio  Infantry,  with 
full  ranks,  was  mustered  into  the  service  for  three 

Companies  A,  B  and  K  were  principally  from  Cuy- 
ahoga county;  Company  A,  during  the  war,  having  a 
hundred  and  fifty-four  men  from  that  county;  Com- 
pany B,  eighty-four  men,  and  Company  K,  a  hundred 
and  sixteen.  Besides  these.  Company  C  had  twenty- 
seven  men  from  Cuyahoga  during  the  war;  Company 
D,  twenty-three;  Company  E,  three;  Company  F, 
six;  Company  G,  six;  Comi^any  H,  fourteen;  and 
Company  I,  four;  the  total  in  the  regiment,  with  field 
and  staff,  being  four  hundred  and  thirty-seven. 

In  the  last  days  of  June  the  Seventh  was  ordered 
to  Clarksburg,  West  Virginia.  While  there,  a  stand 
of  colors  was  presented  to  it  on  behalf  of  the  German 
Turners  Society,  of  Cleveland.  The  first  severe  march 
was  made  from  that  place  to  Weston,  thirty  miles 
distant,  on  the  last  afternoon  and  night  of  June. 
After  scouting  in  this  vicinity  a  short  time,  the 
Seventh  marched  to  the  Gauley  valley. 

On  the  15th  of  August  it  took  post  at  Cross  Lanes, 
where  its  suffered  its  first  loss.  Captain  Schutte 
and  fourteen  men  of  Company  K,  while  on  a  scout, 
were  ambushed;  the  captain  being  mortally  wounded, 
and  all  but  four  of  the  men  being  also  killed  or 

Having  retired  from  Cross  Lanes,  and  being  or- 
dered to  return,  it  reached  there  alone  on  the  even- 
ing of  August  35th.  Next  morning  it  was  vigorously 
attacked  by  a  heavy  rebel  force,  and  some  of  the  com- 
panies thrown  into  confusion.  Captain  Crane,  with 
Company  A,  made  a  charge,  piercing  the  rebel  line 
and  capturing  a  stand  of  colors.  His  detachment 
was  cut  off  from  the  main  body,  however,  and  obliged 
to  escape  through  the  mountains  to  Gen.  Cox's  army 
at  Gauley  Bridge.  Four  hundred  men  under  Major 
Casement,  being  nearly  surrounded  by  an  overwhelm- 
ing force,  also  escaped  through  the  mountains. 
Others  escaped  singly  or  in  squads,  but  the  regiment 
had  twenty-one  men  killed  and  wounded,  and  ninety- 
six  taken  larisoners. 

The  last  of  October  the  regiment  took  part  in  driv- 
ing the  rebel  Gen.  Floyd  from  his  intrenchments  on 
Cotton  Hill,  but  without  loss. 

In  December  the  Seventh  moved  to  Romuey,  near 
the  Potomac,  and  in  the  forepart  of  January,  1863, 
with  several  other  regiments,  made  a  vigorous  and 
successful   movement,    breaking  up  the  intrenched 

camp  of  a  rebel  colonel  in  the  mountains,  and  killing 
and  capturing  about  a  hundred  of  his  men. 

During  the  remainder  of  the  winter  the  Seventh 
served  under  that  brave  and  enterprising  leader.  Gen. 
Lander,  and  after  his  sudden  death  passed  under 
the  command  of  Gen.  James  Shields.  On  the  11th 
of  March  his  coriimand  occupied  Winchester,  and  on 
the  37th  the  Seventh  took  part  in  its  first  severe 
battle,  that  of  Winchester. 

After  the  enemy's  plans  had  developed  themselves, 
the  Third  brigade,  with  the  Seventh  Ohio  at  its  head, 
was  sent  to  charge  a  battery,  holding  an  important 
position,  in  flank.  A  heavy  rebel  force  was  stationed 
in  support,  behind  a  ravine  and  a  stone  wall.  The 
column  charged  gallantly,  and,  although  unable  at 
once  to  drive  the  foe  from  his  strong  position,  held 
its  ground  and  maintained  a  desperate  conflict.  Re- 
inforcements came  up  on  both  sides,  and  the  two 
armies  were  soon  fully  engaged  in  furious  strife. 
Near  night  the  rebels  began  to  retreat.  The  Union 
army  made  a  charge  along  its  whole  line  and  the  re- 
treat soon  became  a  rout.  Two  pieces  of  artillery  and 
four  caissons  were  captured  by  the  Third  brigade. 
The  enemy  was  pursued  the  next  day,  but  could  not 
be  overtaken.  The  Seventh  had  fourteen  killed  and 
fifty-one  wounded  in  this  battle. 

After  various  marches  in  the  valley  of  the  Shenan- 
doah, the  regiment  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Port 
Republic  on  the  9th  of  June.  While  it  was  support- 
ing a  section  of  Huntington's  battery,  the  enemy 
charged  the  guns.  The  Seventh  lay  hidden  by  a  grow- 
ing field  of  wheat  until  the  rebels  were  within  easy 
range.  Then  the  ringing  tones  of  the  gallant  Creigh- 
ton were  heard,  giving  the  order  to  rise  up  and  fire. 
A  shower  of  bullets  riddled  the  lines  of  the  advanc- 
ing column.  It  staggered  and  halted.  The  Seventh 
dashed  forward,  and  after  a  short  but  desperate  con: 
flict  tlie  foe  was  driven  back,  followed  by  the  .victori- 
ous men  of  Ohio. 

Another  charge  on  the  extreme  right  was  also 
repelled  by  the  Seventh  and  some  other  troops.  The 
fiery  Jackson  was  in  command  of  the  Confederates 
and  a  third  assault  was  soon  made  on  the  Union 
center,  which  was  repulsed  with  still  more  loss  than 

Another  attack  was  made,  and  a  battery  captured  on 
the  Union  left.  The  Fifth  and  Seventh  Ohio  were 
directed  to  regain  it.  Under  a  tremendous  fire  they 
dashed  up  a  hill  and  drove  the  rebels  from  the  guns. 
Five  color-bearers  of  the  Seventh  were  shot  down  in 
as  many  rods.  Lieutenant  King  seized  the  flag  as 
the  fifth  man  fell,  iiressed  forward  and  was  followed 
by  the  regiment,  which  drove  the  enemy  to  the  shel- 
ter of  a  neighboring  hill.  From  this,  too,  they  were 
driven  by  the  gallant  Seventh  and  their  comrades. 

At  this  time  large  reinforcements  joined  the  enemy, 
and  as  General  Shields,  with  a  jjortion  of  the  Union 
army,  was  several  miles  in  the  rear,  General  Tyler, 
who  was  in  command,  thought  it  best  to  retreat.  In 
this  conflict  the  Seventh  had  nine  men  killed,  and 



two  officers  and  fifty-eight  men  wonnded;  one  of  the 
officers  being  Captain  Wood,  author  of  the  history  of 
the  regiment. 

Colonel  Tyler  having  received  a  brigadier's  star, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Creighton  had  been  made  colonel, 
and  Captain  Crane,  of  Company  A,  major. 

Being  sent  to  Alexandria,  the  regiment  remained 
there  a  month,  and  then  joined  McDowell's  forces  in 
central  Virginia.  On  the  9th  of  August  the  brigade 
to  which  the  Seventh  belonged,  then  commanded  by 
General  Geary,  was  with  Banks  at  Cedar  Mountain. 
In  the  afternoon  the  Seventh,  which  was  stationed  on 
Telegraph  Hill,  was  ordered  forward  under  the  fire  of 
thirty  pieces  of  artillery,  to  occupy  a  cornfield  in  front 
of  it.  Though  its  ranks  were  torn  by  canuon  balls 
and  shell,  and  its  men  were  falling  at  every  step,  it 
moved  steadily  forward  and  occupied  the  assigued 

At  four  o'clock  it  moved  into  a  meadow,  and  alone 
engaged  in  a  desperate  conflict  with  a  vastly  superior 
force  of  the  enemy.  Creighton  was  wounded  and 
forced  to  retire.  Crane  was  disabled.  Captain 
Molyneaux  took  command.  At  length,  when  out  of 
three  hundred  and  seven  men  a  hundred  and  eighty- 
one,  nearly  two-thirds  of  tlie  whole  number,  were 
killed  or  wounded,  the  little  band  who  remained  un- 
injured slowly  and  sullenly  fell  back  to  a  safer 

Even  then  its  losses  were  not  ended,  for  at  night  it 
was  sent  out  on  picket,  and  while  advancing  was  fired 
on  by  heavy  forces  in  front  and  on  both  flauks,  and 
was  foi'ced  to  retire. 

During  the  night  Banks'  entire  corps  withdrew  to 
the  position  it  had  held  before  the  battle.  Three 
officers  and  twenty-seven  men  of  the  Seventh  were 
killed  in  this  battle,  and  eight  officers  and  a  hundred 
and  forty-three  men  wounded. 

The  regiment  next  retreated  with  Pope's  command 
to  Washington,  but  was  not  engaged  during  the  time. 
Soon  moving  north  with  McClelian,  on  the  17th  of 
September  the  depleted  band,  scarcely  to  be  called  a 
regiment,  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Antietam. 
Ordered  to  attack  the  enemy,  strongly  posted  behind 
a  rail  fence  in  the  edge  of  a  wood,  the  Seventh  with 
other  troops  maintained  a  fierce  conflict  with  mus- 
ketry for  an  hour  and  a  half,  then  charged  and  drove 
the  rebels  from  their  covert  at  the  point  of  the  bayo- 
net, pursuing  them  fully  three-fourths  of  a  mile. 

Taking  up  an  advanced  position,  the  division 
repelled  a  charge  of  General  A.  P.  Hill's  division,  and 
again  completely  routed  the  enemy.  Similar  efforts 
all  along  the  line  gave  to  the  Union  army  the  victory 
of  Antietam.  The  Seventh  had  five  men  killed  and 
thirty -eight  wounded  in  the  battle. 

The  regiment  soon  passed  into  Virginia.  While 
holding  the  post  of  Dumfries,  on  the  27th  of  Decem- 
ber, 1862,  with  two  other  regiments,  the  command 
was'  attacked  by  Hampton's  division  of  cavalry  in  the 
night.  A  few  prisoners  were  captured  on  the  picket 
line,  but  when  the  dismounted  cavalry  charged  upon 

the  main  force  they  were  defeated  again  and  again, 
with  very  heavy  loss.  The  Seventh  had  one  man 
killed,  eight  wounded  and  eleven  captured. 

Remaining  in  northern  Virginia  through  the  winter, 
in  April,  1863,  it  advanced  with  the  Army  of  the 
Potomac,  then  under  Hooker,  and  on  the  second  of 
May  became  warmly  engaged  in  the  battle  of  Chan- 
cellorsville.  It  was  ordered  to  support  a  line  of 
skirmishers,  but  as  these  would  not  advance,  the 
Seventh  passed  them,  drove  back  the  foe,  and  held 
the  ground  till  ordered  to  retire,  which  it  did  in  good 

On  the  3d  of  May  the  Seventh  led  its  brigade  in  a 
fiery  charge  on  the  enemy,  who  were  driven  back,  but 
the  brigade,  being  unsupported,  was  in  turn  compel- 
led to  retire  a  short  discance.  During  the  night  the 
heavy  cannonading  compelled  its  withdrawal  to  the 
vicinity  of  United  States  Ford.  Though  only  en- 
gagen  a  short  time  in  this  battle,  the  little  regiment 
had  fourteen  men  killed,  and  seventy  wounded. 

It  will  be  understood  that  a  portion  of  the  vacancies 
caused  by  death  and  disability  were  made  good  by 
recruits  from  time  to  time,  but  only  a  portion.  The 
constant  tendency  was  toward  decrease. 

In  June  the  Seventh  went  north  with  the  army  of 
the  Potomac,  and  on  the  second  of  July  was  engaged, 
but  not  severely,  in  the  battle  of  Gettysburg.  It  was 
also  engaged  on  the  third,  but  was  not  in  the  hottest 
of  the  fight  and  was  generally  under  cover.  It  had 
one  man  killed  and  seventeen  wounded. 

The  regiment  was  soon  after  sent  to  New  York,  to 
help  maintain  order  during  the  draft  disturbances, 
but  in  September  was  ordered  back  to  the  Rapidan. 

A  little  later  the  war-worn  Seventh  was  sent  with 
Hooker's  two  corps  to  join  the  Western  army,  and  in 
due  time  arrived  at  Bridgeport.  Early  in  November 
it  reached  the  grand  army  at  Chattanooga,  which, 
on  the  24th  of  that  month,  advanced  against  Mis- 
sion Ridge.  Only  some  preliminary  skirmishing  took 
place  that  day.  The  next  day  it  moved  with  the 
whole  army  up  the  precipitous  heights  of  Mission 
Ridge,  but  in  front  of  its  line  the  foe  fled  with  com- 
paratively little  resistance. 

On  the  27th  the  regiment  with  other  troops  reached 
Ringgold,  Georgia,  where  it  found  the  rebel  rear- 
guard strongly  posted  on  Taylor's  Ridge.  The  brigade 
to  which  it  belonged,  commanded  by  its  own  colonel, 
the  fiery  Creighton,  was  ordered  to  dislodge  them. 
The  Seventh  and  Sixty-sixth  Ohio  charged  up  the 
hill,  but  met  with  such  a  withering  fire  that  they  weve 
compelled  to  fall  back  into  a  ravine.  A  dea'dly  fire 
was  concentrated  on  them  here,  and  Col.  Creighton 
again  ordered  them  to  retire.  As  they  reached  a 
fence,  the  colonel  faced  the  enemy  and  waited  for  his 
men  to  cross  it.  While  in  this  position  he  was  shot 
through  the  body  with  a  rifle-bullet,  fell  to  the 
ground  with  his  wife's  name  on  his  lips,  and  almost 
immediately  expired. 

A  few  moments  later  Lieutenant  Colonel  Crane, 
then  in  command  of  the  Seventh,  was  instantly  killed 



by  a  rifle  ball  througb  the  forehead.     The  command 
rapidly  fell  back. 

The  rebels  were  soon  obliged  to  retire  by  the  ap- 
proach of  other  Union  troops,  but  they  bad  inflicted 
an  irreparable  loss  on  the  ever-faithful  Seventh  Ohio. 
Out  of  two  hundred  and  six  men  in  the  action  four- 
teen men  were  killed  and  forty-nine  wounded.  The 
instant  death  of  the  colonel  and  lieutenant  colonel 
within  a  few  moments  of  each  other,  both  being  niea 
of  remarkable  valor,  beloved  and  honored  by  their 
comrades,  had  a  very  depressing  eft'ect  on  the  regi- 
ment and  drew  attention  throughout  the  army.  Gen- 
eral Hooker  exclaimed,  when  he  beard  of  it: 

"My  God,  are  they  dead?  Two  braver  men  never 

The  loss  of  the  regiment  in  the  three  battles  of 
Lookout  Mountain,  Mission  Ridge  and  Taylor's  Ridge 
was  Ave  officers  and  fourteen  men  killed,  and  eight 
officers  and  fifty-four  men  wounded.  At  Taylor's 
Ridge  only  one  officer  present  was  left  alive  and  un- 

The  bodies  of  the  two  young  heroes,  Creighton  and* 
Crane  (the  former  was  but  twenty-six  and  the  latter 
thirty-four),  were  sent  home  to  Cleveland,  and  buried 
with  all  the  honors  that  a  patriotic  and  deeisly  affected 
community  could  bestow. 

The  Seventh  remained  near  Chattanooga  through 
the  winter,  and  in  the  spring  of  1864  advanced  with 
Sherman  toward  Atlanta.  At  Pumpkin  Vine  Creek, 
on  the  35  th  of  May,  it  was  warmly  engaged  for  a 
short  time;  having  three  men  killed  and  fifteen 
wounded.  In  June,  while  in  camp  at  Allatoona,  the 
term  of  the  Seventh  expired  and  it  was  at  once  or- 
dered homo.  About  two  hundred  and  fifty  men, 
wiiose  terms  had  not  expired,  were  transferred  to  the 
Fifth  Infantry.  Two  hundred  and  forty-five  officers 
and  men,  all  told,  returned  home;  the  remnants  of 
over  a  thousand  who  went  forth  at  their  country's 
call  three  years  before.  They  were  welcomed  at 
Cleveland  on  the  10th  of  June,  1804,  by  an  immense 
concourse,  and  accorded  a  banquet  and  a  formal  recep- 
tion; being  addressed  by  Governor  Brougb  and  Pros- 
ecuting Attorney  Grannis. 

The  men  were  given  a  brief  furlough;  not  being 
mustered  out  until  after  the  Fourth  of  July,  on 
which  day,  with  the  Eighth  Ohio,  they  received  an- 
other grand  ovation. 

During  the  service  of  the  Seventh  Ohio  more  than 
six  hundred  and  thirty  of  its  men  were  killed  and 
wounded;  a  hundred  and  thirty  being  slain  in  the 
field.     About  a  hundred  also  died  of  disease. 

Taking  it  all  in  all,  considering  the  number  of  its 
battles,  its  marches,  its  losses,  its  conduct  in  action, 
it  may  safely  be  said,  that  not  a  single  regiment  in 
the  United  States  gained  more  lasting  honor  or  de- 
served better  of  its  country  than  the  Seventh  Ohio 
Volunteer  Infantry. 



William  R.  Creighton,  enrolled  as  Captain  Company  A-,  April  19,  18G1. 
Promoted  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  June  19,  1861,  and  to  Colonel  May 
ao,  1S62.    Killed  at  Mission  Ridge,  November  27,  1863. 

Orrin  J.  Crane,  enrolled  as  Captain  June  19, 1861.  Promoted  to  Major 
May  2fi,  1862,  and  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  March  2,  1863.  Killed  at 
Mission  Ridge  November  27,  1863. 

Morris  Baxter,  enrolled  as  Corporal  April  22,  1861.  Promoted  to  Ser- 
geant June  20, 1861;  to  Second  Lieutenant  Company  H,  June  1, 1863; 
and  to  Adjutant  September  1,  1863.  Died  November  30,  1863,  from 
wounds  received  at  Ringgold,  Georgia,  November  27,  1863. 

John  C.  Ferguson  enrolled  as  Assistant  Surgeon  May  4,  1863.  Mustered 
out  with  the  Regiment  July  8,  1864. 

John  Morris,  enrolled  as  Quarter  Master  April  25,  1861.  Resigned  De- 
cember 24,  1861. 

Dean  C.  Wright,  enrolled  as  Chaplain  January  11,  1862.  Resigned  Janu- 
ary 9,  1863. 

Curtiss  J.  Bellows,  enrolled  as  Surgeon  December  1,  1862.  Mustered  out " 
with  the  Regiment. 


Dwight  H.  Brown,  enrolled  as  Sergeant,  June  19, 1861.  Promoted  to  Ser- 
geant Major  May  24,  1862;  to  Second  Lieutenant  June  1,  1863. 

Joseph  P.  Webb,  enrolled  June  7,  1861,  Promoted  to  Sergeant  Major 
January  1,  1862.  Killed  at  battle  of  Winchester,  Virginia,  March  23, 

Reuben  W.  Walters,  enlisted  August  15,  1862.  Transferred  to  Non-Com- 
rais«ioned  Staff  as  Hospital  Steward,  March  15, 1864.  ■  Discharged  for 
disability  March  1,  1865. 


Orrin  J.  Crane,    (See  Field  and  Staff.) 

Joseph  B.  Molyneaux,  enrolled  as  First  Lieutenant  June  18,  1861.  Pro- 
moted to  Captain  January  1, 1863.  Honorably  discharged  February 

William  A  Howe,  enrolled  as  Sergeant  June  19, 1861.  Promoted  to  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant  April  13, 1862;  to.First  Lieutenant  November  11, 1863, 
and  to  Captain  .fune  1,  1863     Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 

Albert  C.  Burgess,  eni'oUed  as  First  Lieutenant  June  19, 1861.  Promoted 
to  Captain  Company  F.  November  25,  1861. 

George  A.  McKay,  enrolled  as  First  Sergeant  June  19,  1861.  Promoted 
to  Second  Lieutenant  November  7,  1862;  to  First  Lieutenant  June  1, 
1863,  and  to  Captain  March  19, 1864.  Wounded  at  Ringgold,  Georgia, 
November  27, 186.3.    Mustered  out  July  8, 1864. 

Dudley  A.  Kimball,  enrolled  as  Second  Lieutenant  June  19,  1861.  Re- 
signed April  1,  1862. 

Dwight  H.  Brown,  enrolled  as  Sergeant  June  19,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Ser- 
geant Major  May  24,  1862,  to  Second  Lieutenant  June  1,  1863,  and  to 
First  Lieutenant  November  1,  1863.    Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 

J.  G.  ClaCHin,  enrolled  as  Sergeant  June  19,  1861;  promoted  to  First  Ser- 
geant November  7, 1862.   Mustered  out  with  the  regiment  July  8, 1864. 

Zebulon  P.  Davis,  enrolled  as  Corporal  June  19,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Ser- 
geant Novembfr  20,  1801.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

John  H.  Mallory.  enrolled  as  Corporal  June  19,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Ser- 
geant May  14  1862.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

Francis  Williams,  enrolled  as  Corporal  June  19,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Ser- 
geant September  1,  1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment, 

John  H.  Galvin,  enlisted  June  19,  1861;  promoted  to  Coi-poral  September 
1, 1862,  and  to  Sergeant  January  16, 1864.  Mustered  out  with  the 

Albert  Bishop,  enlisted  lune  17,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

Joseph  McClain,  enlisted  June  19,  1861 ;  made  Bugler  July  22,  1862.  Mus- 
tered out  with  the  regiment. 

Hiram  V.  Warren,  enlisted  June  19,  1861;  promoted  to  Corporal  May  14, 
1862.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

Heniy  A.  Blaiklock,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  reg- 

Joseph  T.  Brightmore,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Mustered  out  with  the 

Frederick  W.  Brand,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  reg- 

Carlos  A.  Burroughs,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  reg- 

.John  Cronin,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

jindrew  J.  Crippen,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 

Henry  C.  Eckert,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

Jacob  F.  Houck,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.   Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

Benjamin  Hatfield,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 

Robert  B.  Johnston,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 

Luther  W.  Loomis,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 
AJonzo  J.  Morgan,  enlisted  June  19,  1851.     Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 



Charles  E.  Preble,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 

Charles  W.  Powell,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 

Thomas  C.  Sherwood,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  reg- 

Alfred  W.  Smith,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 
Edward  A.  Swayne,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 
Charles  W.  Smith,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 
William  H.  Thurston,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  reg- 
George  E.  Vaughn,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 
James  White,  enlisted  June  19, 1881.    Left  in  hospital  at  Cincinnati. 
Richard  L.  Wilsdon,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regi- 
Townley  Gillett,  enlisted  June  19,  1801;  promoted  to  Corporal.    Killed  at 

Port  Eepuhlic,  Virginia,  June  9,  1888. 
Alfred  Austin,  enlisted  June  19,  1881 ;  promoted  to  Corporal  September 

11, 1861.    Killed  at  Ringgold,  Georgia,  November  28, 1863. 
John  D.  Craig,  enlisted  June  19,  1881 ;  promoted  to  Corpora  1  October  30, 

1861.    Killed  at  Chaneellorsville,  Virginia.  May  2,  1863. 
John  C.  Collett,  enlisted  June  19, 1861 ;  pi-omoted  to  Corporal.    Killed  at 

Ringgold,  Geoi^ia,  November  27,  1863. 
Joseph  Blackwell,  enlisted  September  20,  1861.    Killed  at  Cedar  Moun- 
tain, Virginia,  August  10,  1862. 
John  Handle,  enUsted  June  19, 1881.    Killed  at  Winchester,  Virginia,  May 

2,  1862. 
Charles  H.  Cheeney,  enlisted  August  7, 1862.    Killed  at  Chaneellorsville, 

Virginia,  May  1, 1883. 
Henry  A.  Pratt,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Killed  at  Chaneellorsville,  Vir- 
ginia, May  3,  1863. 
Charles  Stem,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Killed  at  Winchester,  Virginia, 

March  23,  1862. 
Adolph  Snider,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Killed  at  Port  Republic,  Virginia, 

August  9,  1862. 
Ephraim  M.  Towne,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Killed  at  Chaneellorsville, 

Virginia,  May  3. 1863. 
Morris  J.  Holly,  enrolled  as  Corporal  June  19, 1861;  promoted  to  Ser- 
geant: taken  prisoner  July  22, 1863.    Mustered  out  December  17, 1864. 
William  Kehl,  enrolled  June  19, 1961.  Missing  since  battle  of  Winchester, 

Virginia,  March  23,  1868. 
Leonard  Wacker,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Missing  since  battle  of  Cedar 

Mountain,  Virginia,  August  9,  1862. 
Teeodore  Leoompte,  em-oiled  as  Sergeant  June  18, 1861.    Died  at  Sutton, 

Virginia,  July  28, 1861. 
Henry  J.  Brown,  enlisted  June   19,1861;  promoted  to  Corporal.    Died 
August  26, 1862,  at  Alexandria,  Virginia,  of  wounds  received  at  Cedar 
Mountain,  August  9,  1862. 
Edward  T.  Kelley,  enlisted  June  19, 1861 ;  promoted  to  Corporal.    Died 

April  20, 1862,  from  wounds  received  at  Winchester. 
Francis  I.  Werz,  enlisted  June  19,  1861;  promoted  to  Corporal.    Died 
January  5,  185.3,  at  Alexandria,  Virginia,  from  wounds  received  at 
Cedar  Mountain,  August  9,  1862. 
Morrison  J.  Cannell,  enlisted  September  11,  1861.    Died  at  Newburg, 

Ohio,  November  18,  1861. 
Thomas  Dowse,  enlisted  August  14, 1862.    Died  at  Chattanooga,  Tennes- 
see, December  19, 1863,  from  wounds  received  at  Ringgold,  Gporgia, 
November  27th. 
Abraham  Ginter,  enlisted.June  19  1861.    Died  at  Alexandria,  Virgima, 
September  1, 1862,  from  wounds  reaeived  at  Cedar  Mountain,  Au- 
gust 9th. 
Jeremiah  C.  Jones,  enlisted  June  19, 1881.    Died  at  Bridgeport,  Alabama, 

February  22,  1864.  „.     .  . 

Willis  F.  McLain,  enlisted  June  19, 1881.    Died  at  Gauley  Ridge,  Virgmia, 

September  27, 1861,  from  accidental  wound. 
Michael  McCaune,  enlisted  October  30, 1861.    Died  at  Charleston,  Vir- 
ginia November  8, 1881,  of  accidental  wound. 
Thomas  Shepley,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Died  at  Carnifax  Ferry,  Vir- 
ginia, September  2,  1861,  from  wounds  received  at  Cross  Lanes, 
August  26, 1861.  ,       „     , 

Louis  ihroeder,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Accidentally  drowned  at  Fred- 
ericksburg Virginia,  May  24,  1862. 
George  E  Spencer,  enlisted  August  28,  1862.    Died  at  Chattanooga  Ten- 
nessee, December  21,  1883,  from  wounds  received  at  Ringgold,  No- 

Chelt^e™  w'^B^adley,  enlisted  August  8, 1862;  taken  prisoner  at  Dumfries 
Virginia,  December  27, 1861 ;  was  paroled  and  exchanged.    Mustered 

Simrj"'SLlsey,'en.istedAugustl3,1362.    Furloughed June  1, 1863 and 

never  rejoined  the  regiment. 
Evan  Evans,  enlistedJune  19, 1861;  taken  prisoner  at  Cross  Lanes  .^^- 
ginia,  August  26, 1862;  paroled  and  exchanged  but  never  rejoined 
the  regiment. 

Andrew  J.  Scovill,  enlisted  June  19, 1861 ;  taken  prisoner  at  Cross  Lanes, 
Virginia,  August  26, 1862;  paroled  and  exchanged  but  never  rejoined 
the  regiment. 

Carlos  A.  Smith,  enlisted  June  19,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Sergeant.  Dis- 
charged for  disability  December  21,  1861. 

Frank  Dutton,  enrolled  as  Corporal  June  19,  1801.  Discharged  for  disa- 
bility caused  by  wounds  received  at  Cross  Lane  August  27th. 

Milton  D.  Holmes,  enlisted  June  19,  1801 ;  promoted  to  Corporal.  Dis- 
charged January  8,  1883. 

Aaron  C.  Lovett,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.  Discharged  Seplember  14,  1882, 
for  disability  caused  by  wounds  received  at  Port  Republic,  Virginia, 
June  9th. 

Samuel  Sweet,  enlisted  June  19,  1881;  jjromoted  to  Corporal.  Dis- 
charged at  Harper's  Ferry,  Virginia,  October  20,  1862. 

Herbert  L.  Smalley,  enrolled  as  Fifer  Junel9,  1881;  promoted  to  Cor 
poral.    Discharged  at  Bridgeport,  Alabama,  February  23,  1864. 

Marcus  Broekway,  enrolled  as  drummer  June  19, 1801 .  Mustered  out 
with  the  regiment. 

Edward  Mullen,  enlisted  October  13,  1861 ;  made  drummer.  Discharged 
April  14,1862. 

Lewis  Austin,  enlsited  June  19, 1861.  Discharged  February  16,  1863,  for 

Perry  Bennett,  enlisted  June  19,  1801.  Discharged  for  disability  Decem- 
ber 24,  1863. 

Charles  Ballou,  enlisted  September  20, 1861.  Discharged  for  disability 
May  10, 1862. 

John  H.  Burton,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Discharged  for  disability  July 
25,  1802. 

Samuel  E.  Buchanan,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.  Discharged  for  disability 
August  13,  1802. 

Theodore  Burt,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Discharged  July  1.3,  1862. 

John  G.  Burns,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Discharged  April  25,  1863. 

Daniel  W.  Clancy,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Discharged  July  19,  1802. 

Ferdinand  Cregne,  enhsted  June  19, 1861.  Discharged  lor  disability 
November  3, 1802. 

Leander  H.  Campbell,  enlisted  June  19,  1801.  Discharged  for  disability 
December  10, 1862. 

Alexander  M  Clinton,  enlLsted  September  20, 1861.  Discharged  for  dis- 
abiUty  November  27,  1862. 

George  W.  Evans,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.  Discharged  for  disability  June 
20,  1862. 

Thomas  Fresher,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.  Discharged  for  disability  May 
6, 1862. 

Fred.  P.  Fai  rand,  enlisted  September  20, 1861.  Discharged  tor  disability 
November  4,  1882. 

H.  F.  Gardner,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Discharged  for  disability  June 

15,  1862. 

William  F.  Gillson,  enUsted  September  11,  1861.  Discharged  for  disa- 
ability  January  23, 1883. 

Jabez  C.  Gazely,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Discharged  tor  disability 
April  8,  1863. 

William  N.  Hubbell,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Discharged  for  disability 
December  24, 1881. 

Fred.  W.  Hoffman,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Discharged  tor  disability 
October  29,  1862. 

Orvis  F.  Jackman,  enlisted  August  8,  1862.    Discharged  Nov.  20,  1883. 

Philip  Kelley,  enlisted  March  28,  1862,  Discharged  for  disability  No- 
vember 28,  1862. 

Charles  A.  Keller,  enlisted"  June  19,  1861.  Discharged  for  disability 
November  11, 1802. 

Frederick  Keller,  enlisted  October  20,  1801.  Discharged  for  disability 
January  5,  1863. 

David  B.  Lawrence,  enlisted  June  19,  1801.    Discharged  July  20,  1802. 

Arthur  Lappin,  enlisted  June  19, 1801.  Discharged  for  disability  Decem- 
ber 24, 1862. 

James  J.  Lloyd,  enlisted  June  19,  1861,  Discharged  for  disability  Jan- 
uary 2,  1863. 

William  Lucas,  enlisted  September  8,  1802.  Discharged  for  disability 
February  5, 1863. 

Fred.  G.  McDowell,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Discharged  for  disability 
February  1, 1862. 

Joseph  Miller,  enUsted  June  19,  1861.    Discharged  tor  disability  July 

16,  1862. 

Isaac  Mascfield,  enlisted  June  19, 1801.  Discharged  fordisability  Janu- 
ary 18,  1883. 

Stephen  Mills,  enli^ted  August  11,  1862.  Discharged  for  disability  Feb- 
ruary 9,  1863. 

John  n.  Prestage,  enUsted  June  19,  1861.  Discharged  for  disability 
December  23,  1801. 

John  G.  Parsons,  enUsted  June  19,  1801.  Discharged  for  disability 
January  8, 1803. 

Charles  H.  Ranney,  enlisted  June  19. 1861.  Discharged  tor  disability 
October  6, 1861. 

Thomas  BicheU,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.  Discharged  for  disability  Sep- 
tember 20, 1862. 

Edward  St.  Lawrence,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Discharged  for  disability 
January  31, 1863. 



Thomas  J.  Scovill,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Discharged  for  disability 

July  8,  1862. 
George  W.  Simmons,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Discharged  for  disability 

January  17, 1863. 
David  Q.  Stein,  enUsted  June  19, 1861.    Discharged  April  28, 1863. 
William  N.  Thompson,  enhsted  June  19,  1861.    Discharged  for  disability 

March  31,  1863. 
t'ord  W.  White,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Discharged  for  disability  Octo- 
ber 20, 1881. 
William  Saddler,  enrolled  as  Corporal  June  19,  1861;  promoted  to  Ser- 
geant.   Transferred  to  the  invalid  corps  January  15,  1864. 
John  H.  Bower,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Transferred  to  the  invalid  corps 

September  1, 1863. 
Theo,  F.  Hammond,  enlisted  June  19,    1861.    Transferred  to  invalid 

dorps  July  1, 1863. 
Jacob  Heege,  enlisted  August  11,  1862.    Tranferred  to  invalid  corps 

September  1, 1863. 
Frederick  Rhodes,  enlisted  August  8,  1863;  transferred  to  invalid  corps 

January  15,  1864.    Mustered  out  June  30, 1865. 
Isaac  Stratton,  enUsted  April  20, 1861.     Transferred  to  Company  F. 

June  20, 1861. 
Myron  H.  Whaley,  enlisted  June  19, 1861 ;  taken  prisoner  at  Cross  Lanes, 
Virginia,  August  26, 1891.    Exchanged  and  transferred  to  2d  United 
States  Cavalry. 
Albert  D.  Forby,  enUsted  August  31,  1862;  transferred  to  Company  B, 

5th  Regiment,  October  31,  1864.    Mustered  out  May  30,  1865. 
William  Southwell,  enlisted  August  26, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864;  promoted  to  Sergeant  November 
22,  1864;  mustered  out  June  5,  1865. 
Stephen  Averill,  enlisted  August  5,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  and  promoted  to  Corporal  October  31,  1864;  mus- 
tered out  May  29,  1865. 
Thomas  Ryan,  enlisted  July  2, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B,  Fifth 
Regiment,  October  31,  1864;  promoted  to  Corporal  March  1,  1865; 
mustered  out  June  5, 1865. 
Edwin  L.  Wright,  enlisted  August  25,  1802.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  and  promoted  to  Corporal  October  31,  1864;  mus- 
tered out  June  5, 1865. 
}Uchard  L.  Barber,  enlisted  August  30, 1862;    Transferred  to  Company  B, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864;  mustered  out  May  -30,  1865. 
John  Euoher,  enlisted  August  31, 1882;   Transferred  to  Company  B,  Fifth 

Regiment,  October  31,  1864;  mustered  out  July  5,  1865. 
John  Gear,  enlisted  August  2,  1862;    Transferred  to  Company  B,  Fifth 

Regiment,  October  31,  1864;  mustered  out  June  5,  186.5. 
William  Horn,  enlisted  August  1, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B,  Fifth 

Regiment,  October  31,  1884;  mustered  out  June  5,  1865. 
Jacob  Ott,  enlisted  August  19,  1863.    Transferred  to  Company  B,  Fifth 

Regiment,  October  31,  1864;  mustered  out  June  5,  1885. 
James  Sherwood,  enlisted  August  6,  1863.     Transferred  to  Company  B, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864;  mustered  out  June  5,  1865. 
Samuel  Sadler,  enlisted  August  26,  1863.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31, 1864;  mustered  out  June  5,  1863. 
Leonard  Noble,  enlisted  August  7,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864;  mustered  out  June  5,  1885.  Randall,  enlisted  October  9,  1862.     Transferred  to  Company  B, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1861;  mustered  out  July  26,  1865. 
Adolphus  M,  Randall,  enlisted  October  8,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company 

B,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1884;  mustered  out  July  18,  1885. 
William  H.  Johnson,  enlisted  October  10,  1881.    Transferred  June~  11, 

1864,  to  Fifth  Infantry. 
Franklin  G.  Rockefeller,  enlisted  September  20,  1861.    Transferred  June 

11,  1864,  to  Fifth  Infantry. 
William  Seufert,  enli^ed  October  11,  1881.    Transferred  June  11, 1864,  to 

Fifth  Infantry. 
WilUam  Williams,  enlisted  October  11, 1861.    Transferred  June  11,  1864, 

to  Fifth  Infantry. 
Lewis  J.  Watkins,  enlisted  September  11,  1861.    Transferred  June  11 

1864,  to  Fifth  Infantry. 
Wilham  E .  Forbey,  enlisted  Septem  ber  20, 1 881 .    Promoted  to  Coiporal 

Transferred  June  11,  1864,  to  Fifth  Infantry. 
Charles  A.  Wood,  enlisted  September  11,  1861.    Transferred  June  11, 

1864,  to  Fifth  Infantry. 
Charles  Baker,  enlisted  August  26, 1883.    Transferred  June  11,  1864,  to 

Fifth  Infantry. 
Edward  Hart,  enlisted  August  18, 1883.    Transferred  June  11,  1861,  to 
Fifth  Infantry. 


James  F.  Sterling,  enrolled  as  Captain,  April  22,  1861.  Promoted  Sep- 
tember 1, 1862,  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Third 

Merwin  Clark,  enrolled  as  First  Sergeant,  June  19,  1861.  Promoted  to 
Second  Lieutenant  February  20,  1862;  to  First  Liautenant  July  23, 
1862,  andto  Captain  June  1, 1883.  Mustered  out  July  6,  1864.  Re-en'- 
listed  as  Lieutenant  Colonel  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Eighty-Third 
Regiment,  November  16,  1864.  KiUed  in  action,  at  Franklin,  Ten- 
nessee, November  30, 1864. 

Henry  Z,  Eaton,  enrolled  as  Second  Lieutenant,  June  17,  1861.    Pro- 
moted to  First  Lieutenant,  February  20, 1862.    Honorably  discharged 
November  14, 1862. 
Edwin  H.   Bourne,  enrolled  as  Sergeant  Company  K,  April  22,  1861. 
Promoted  Second  Lieutenant  July  25, 1863,  and  to  First  Lieutenant 
of  Company  B,  November  1,  1863.     Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 
Joseph  Cryne,  enrolled  as  Sergeant  June  19,  1861.    Promoted  to  Second 
Lieutenant  July  23, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company  I,  May  25,  1863. 
Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 
Levi  F.  Bauder.  enrolled  as  Sergeant  April  23,  1861.    Promoted  to  First 

Sergeant  September  30,  1803.    Mustered  out  July  6, 1884. 
Marcus  M.  Cutler,  enrolled  as  Corporal  April  22,  1861    ';promoted  to 
Sergeant  September  1,  1882.    Wounded  at  Ringgold,  Georgia,  No- 
vember 27,  1863 . 
Joseph  Frotier.  enlisted  June  20. 1881.     Promoted  to  Corporal  May  10, 
1862,  and  to  Sergeant  November  1,  1862.    Wounded  at  Cedar  Moun- 
tain Augiist  9,  1883.    Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 
Marshall  Walker,  enlisted  June  20, 1861.    Promoted  to  Corporal  Septem- 
ber 1,  1862,  and   to  Sergeant  June  1,  1863.    Mustered  out  with  the 
Company  July  6, 1864. 
Franklin  R,  Gasklll,  enlisted  June  30,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corporal  Sep- 
tember 1,  1862,  and  to  Sergeant  January  1,  1864.    Wounded  at  Cedar 
Mountain,  Virginia,  August  9, 1862,  and  at  Reseca,  Georgia,  May  15, 
1884.    Mustered  out  July  6, 1864, 
Jesse  Hardesty,  enlisted  June  30,  1861,    Promoted  to  Corporal  Septem- 
ber 1,  1862.    Taken  prisoner  at  Cedar  Mountain,  August  9,  1862,  and 
paroled  September  13th.    Wounded  at  Gettysburg,  July  3,  1863. 
Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 
Lawrence  K.  Lamphear,  enlisted  June  20,  1881      Promoted  to  Corporal 
January  1,  1864.    Wounded  at  Antietara,  Maryland,  September  17, 
1882.    Mustered  out  July  0,  1864. 
Jacob  Marks,  enlisted  June  20,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corporal  September 
1, 1862,    Wounded  at  Cedar  Mountain,  August  9,  1862  and  at  Dallas, 
Georgia,  May  25, 1864.    Mustered  out  .January,  fm,  1865. 
Samuel  E.  Gordon,  enlisted  April  23,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corporal  Janu- 
ary 1,  1802.    Wounded  at  Cedar  Mountain,  Virginia,  August  9, 1863, 
Mustered  out  July  8,  1864 
Edward  E.  Stebbins,  enrolled  as  Drummer,  June  20  1861.    Mustered  out 

July  6,  1864. 
Andrew  Attoff,  enlisted  April  22,  1861.    Taken  prisoner  at  Dumfries, 
Vu-ginia,  December  27,  1863.     Rejoined  the  Company,  June  5, 1863. 
Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 
Daniel  T.  Boyle,  enhsted  June  8,  1861 .    Taken  prisoner  at  Cross  Lanes, 
Virginia,  August  36,  1881;  released  lune  8,  1882.    Wounded  at  Chan- 
cellorsville.  May  3,  1868.     Transfered  to  Invalid  Corps,  September 
30,  1863. 
Lucius  Aley,  enUsted  June  30,  1861.    Mu-stered  out  July  6,  1864. 
Charles  F.  Chase,  enUsted  June  7,  1861.    Transferred  to  Battery  I,  First 

Ohio  Light  Artillery,  December  5,  1861. 
Jacob  A.   Carson,  enUsted  August  32,  1862.    Wounded  at  Gettysburg, 
July  3, 1883,  and  at  Kenesaw  Mountain,  Georgia,  June  19, 1864.   Trans- 
ferred to  Company  B,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1861 .    Discharged 
June  5,  1865. 
Sylvester  Carter,  enlisted  August  7,  1862.    Wounded  at  Dumfries,  Vir- 
ginia, December  37,  1882.     Transferred  to  Company  B,  Fifth  Regi- 
ment, October  31, 188t.    Mustered  out.  May  30,  1865, 
Edward  Case,  enlisted  September  2:3,  1863,    Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864.    Absent  at  Hospital  since  24th 
April,  1885. 
Francis  Clifford,  enlisted  J^ne  20, 1861.    Mustered  out  July  6,  1884. 
John  F   Gordon,  enlisted  August  13,  1882.    Taken  prisoner  at  Dumfries, 
Virginia,  December  37,  1802.    Released  and  rejoined  the  Company. 
Wounded  at  Gettysburg,  July  3,  1863.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment  October  31,  1864.    Mustered  out  July  26, 1865. 
George  H.  Simmonds,  enlisted  June  10,  1861.    Transferred  to  Battery  I, 

First  Ohio  Light  Artillery,  December  5,  1861. 
Albert  A.  Wooley,  enlisted  June  5,  1861 .    Transferred  to  Battery  I,  First 

Ohio  Light  Artillery,  December  5,  1861. 
GustavusA.  Zirnier,  enlisted  June  8,  1861.    Discharged  for  disability 

December  5,  1862. 
Ernest  A.  Zwicker,  enUsted  April  22,  1861.    Wounded  at  Cedar  Mountain, 

August  9,  1862,    Discharged  October  35,  1863. 
Renssalear  R.  Peebles,  enlisted  May  30, 1861.    Discharged  November  20, 

Albert  E.  Withers,  enlisted  June  6,  1861.    Wounded  at  Winchester,  Vir- 
ginia, March  23, 1863.    Dischar  ^ed  October  24,  1863, 
George  A.  Wood,  enlisted  June  6,  1861.    Wounded  at  Antietam,  Mary- 
land, September  17,  1869.    Discharged  October  34,  1883. 
Mitchell  St.  Ange,  enlisted  Junell,  1881.    Wounded  at  Chancellorsville, 
Virgmia,  May  3, 1863.   Leg  crushed  in  railroad  accident.  Discharged 
January  23, 186i. 

Duncan  Reid,  enUsted  June  3,  1861 .  Wounded  at  Winchester,  Virginia, 
March  33,  1862.    Discharged  July  30,  1862. 

Joseph  Gasser,  enUsted  June  20,  1861.  Wounded  at  Winchester,  Vir- 
gmia, March  33,  1882.    Mustered  out  July  6, 1864. 

Frank  Henrich,  enlisted  June  20,  1861.  Wounded  at  Cedar  Mountain, 
Virginia,  August  9,  1862.    Mustered  out  July  6, 1864. 



Joseph  Kubler,  enlisted  Juue  80, 1801.    Wounded  at  Antietam,  Septem- 
ber 17, 1863,  aud  at  Ohancellorsville,  May  3, 1863.    Mustered  out  July 
6, 1864. 
Bernard  Mulgrew,  enlisted  June  20,  1801 .    Mustered  out  July  6, 1804^ 
Thomas  C.  Riddle,  enlisted  Juue  20, 1861 .    Wounded  at  Cedar  Mountain, 
Virginia,  August  9, 1862.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment  July  6, 
E.  M.  MoClatnin,  enlisted  June  20,  1801.    Wounded  at  Gettysburg,  July 

1, 1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 
David  Russell,  enlisted  June  20, 1831 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 
Johnson  Russell,  enlisted  June  20,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regi- 
George  C .   Robinson,  enlisted  June  30, 1861.    Taken  prisoner  at  Cross 
Lanes,  Virginia,  August  26, 1861.    Released  June  0,  1802,  but  never 
rejoined  the  Company. 
George  Steinberger,  enlisted  June  20,  1861.     Wounded  at  Antietam, 

Maryland.  September  17, 1862.    Mustered outwibh.the  Regiment. 
Frederick  Spencer,  enlisted  June  20, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg' 

iment . 
Gustavus  Schmidt,  enrolled  as  Sergeant  June  20, 1861.    Mustemd  out 

with  the  regiment. 
James  E.  Wyalt,  enlisted  June  20, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 
George  W.  Williams,  enlisted  June  20,  1861;  taken  prisoner  at  Cross 
Lanes .  Virginia,  August  26, 1861 ;  released  January  6, 1862.    Mustered 
out  with  the  regiment. 
Starr  B.  Wood,  enlisted  Aprill  38,  1861;  deserted  December  10, 1861;  re- 
joined the  company  September  11, 1863;  wounded  at  Dallas,  Georgia, 
May  25,  1804.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 
Thomas  0.  Brown,  enlisted  April  22,  1861;  promoted  to  Corporal.   Killed 

at  Cedar  Mountain,  Virginia,  August  9,  1863. 
Clark  L.  Wilsoh,  enlisted  June  ^,  1801;  promoted  to  Corporal.    Killed 

at  Cedar  Mountain,  Virginia,  August  9,  1862. 
William  Adams,  enlisted  June  20,  1861.    Killed  at  Cedar  Mountain,  Au- 
gust 9,  1862. 
James  Carroll,  enlisted  Juno  20, 1861.    Killed  at  Winchester,  Virginia, 

March  23,  1862. 
Allen  C.  Lamb,  enlisted  June  20,  1861.     Killed  at  Winchester,  March  23, 

Elleridge  Meacham,  enlisted  April  22, 1861.    Killed  at  Antietam,  Mary- 
land. September  17, 1863. 
Edgai'  G.  Meekins,  enlisted  March  7,  1832.     Killed  at  Cedar  Mountain, 

Virginia,  August  9,  1862. 
George  O.  Sperry,  eiilisted  June  20, 1861.    Killed  at  Antietam,  Maryland, 

September  17, 1862. 
Grant  Goodrich,  enlisted  June  20, 1861.    Died  in  hospital  at  Alexandria, 

Virginia,  July  39,  1862, 
James  McCabe,  enlisted  June  20, 1861 :  taken  prisoner  at  Cross  Lanes, 
Virginia,  August  26, 1861 .    Paroled  and  died  at  Cleveland,  Ohio,  while 
on  furlough  January  — ,  1803. 
Morris  Baxter,  sfee  Field  and  StafE. 

Asa  H,  t'ltch,  enrolled  as  Sergeant  April  22,  1801;  wounded  at  Winches- 
ter, Virginia,  March  23,  1862.    Discharged  December  19,  1873. 
Nohemiah  G.  Eddy,  enlisted  April  22,  1801;  promoted  to  Corporal.    Dis- 
charged July  11, 1862. 
David  I.  Ezekial.  enrolled  aS  Corporal  June  SO,  1861;  promoted  April  18_ 

1862,  to  Sergeant. 
William  E.  Smith,  enrolfed  as  Corporal  June  20, 1861;  wounded  at  Win- 
chester, Virginia,  March  23,  1802,  and  at  Cedar  Mountain,  Virginia, 
August  9,  1802.    Discharged  at  hospital  December  9,  1863. 
Alonzo  Austin,  enlisted  June  20,  1861.    Discharged  July  31,  1862. 
Abraham  S.  Bennett,  enlisted  September  5,  1802.    Discharged  October 

15.  1802. 

Charles  Cunningham,  enUsted  April  22,  1861.    Discharged  September 

16,  1863. 

William  Oonnell,  enUsted  June  20,  1831;   wounded. at  Cedar  Mountain, 

August  9,  1862.    Discliarged  October  18,  1803. 
Charles  L.  Chapman,  enli  ted  April  22,  1861.    Taken  prisoner  at  Cross 

Lanes,  Virginia,  August  20,  1861.    Released  January  13,  1863,  and 

discharged!.  .  .     ,,. 

John  Coyle,  enlisted  June  20, 1861;  wounded  at  Cedar  Mountam,  Vir- 
ginia, August  9,  1863.    Discharged  January  9,^863. 

John  Davis,  enlisted  August  26,  ISO.'     '^■-"'■ 
ruary  3, 1803. 

Eugene  W  Elliott,  enlisted  June  20,  1801.    Discharged  July  16. 1802. 

Charles  Fagan,  enlisted  June  20, 1801;  wounded  at  Winchester,  Vir- 
ginia March  23, 1802.    Discharged  January  1,  1863. 

Leonard  Geitz,  enlisted  June  20, 1861.    Discharged  May  23,  1862 

Jo^iah  M.  Holt,  enlisted  April  23, 1861.    Discharged  .January  9,  1802. 

PUnvE  Hill  Unlisted  June  20, 1801;  wounded  at  Cedar  Mountam,  Vir- 
ginia, August  9,  1862,  and  at  Antietam,  ifaryland,  September  17, 
1862. '  Discharged  October  25,  1862.  ,r  ic«o 

John  Haylor,  enlisted  June  20, 1861.    Discharged  November  15,  1862. 

Benjamin  Hashfleld,  enlisted  June  80,  1861;  wounded  at  Cedar  Moun- 
tain, Virginia,  August  9,  1862.    Discharged  November  6  1862 

John  D  Jones,  enlisted  June  30, 1861.    Discharged  February  1^  1862 

WUnam  F.  Laid.,  enlisted  April  22, 1801;  wounded  at  Cedar  Mountain, 
Virginia,  August  9,  1802.    Discharged  January  29, 1863. 

Discharged  for  disability  Feb- 

Edward  L.  Marble,  enlisted  April  22, 1861.    Discharged  February  1, 1862. 

Roswell  E.  Mathews,  enlisted  June  20, 1861.  Discharged  for  disability 
November  28, 1862. 

Martin  Nicholas,  enlisted  June  20, 1861.    Discharged  January  9, 1862. 

Charles  Cowan,  enlisted  April  33, 1861;  discharged  at  hospital,  March  4, 
1863;  re-enlisted  September  25, 1863;  wounded  July  20, 1864;  trans- 
ferred to  Company  B.,  SthRegiment,  October31, 1804.  Mustered  out 
July  20,    1865. 


Llewellyn  R.  Davis,  enrolled  as  Corporal  June  19,  1861.  Promoted  to 
Second  Lieutenant  Company  D,  May  1,  1862;  to  First  Lieutenant 
Company  E,  November  2,  1862;  to  Captain  Company  C,  March  30, 
1864.  Taken  prisoner  at  Dallas,  Georgia,  May  35,  1804.  Discharged 
December  19,  1804.  Re-enlisted  as  Lieutenant  Colonel  of  the  One 
Hundred  and  Eighty  Seventh  Regiment,  March;2,.1865.  Mustered  out 
January  23, 1866. 
Charles  fe.  Wall,  enlisted  August  25, 1862.    Killed  at  Ringgold,  Georgia, 

November  27, 18S3. 
Joseph  McCanon,  enlisted  August  25,  1862.    Died  ,July  22,  1863,  from 

wounds  received  at  Gettysburg,  July  3. 
Levi  Myers,  enlisted  August  30,  1863.    Died  in  hospital  at  Nashville,  De- 
cember 30,  1863. 
Thomas  Sweet,  enlisted  August  29,  1862.    Died  November  30,  1863,  of 

wounds  received  at  Ringgold,  November  27. 
Nicholas  GafEett,  enlisted  September  10, 1862.    Discharged  February  18, 

Philip  Grigsby,  enlisted  September  11, 1862.    Discharged  July  24, 1863, 
becauseoE  wounds  received  at  Dumfries,  Virginia,  December  27, 1862. 
Edward  E.  Kelsey,  enlisted  February  27, 1S03.    Discharged  March  25, 1864. 
True  Rand,  enlisted  August  30, 1862.    Transferred  June  11, 1804,  to  Com- 
pany B,  Fifth  Infantry. 
John  Phillips,  enlisted  September  8, 1862;  wounded  at  Ringgold,  Georgia, 
November  27,  1803.    Transferred  June  11. 1864,  to  Company  B,  Fifth 
William  O.  Barnes,  enlisted  August  15,  1802;  wounded  at  Ringgold, 
Georgia,  November  27, 1803.    Transfen-ed  to  Fifth  Regiment,  Com- 
pany B,  October  31, 1864.    Discharged  for  disabihty. 
Freeman  Bunker,  enlisted  August  30, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864,  and  promoted  to  Corporal.    Mus- 
tered out  June  5,  1865. 
Alfred  T.  Dann,  enlisted  September  13, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company 

B,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864.    Mustered  out  June  5, 1865. 
John  Finneran,  enhsted  September  4, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31, 1864.    Mustered  out  July  36,  1865. 
Daniel  P.  Wood,  enlisted  August  13,  1862.    Killed  at  Ringgold,  Georgia, 

November  27,  1863. 
Benjamin  L.  Sevey,  enlisted  August  23, 1802.    Discharged  for  disabihty 

February  5,  1803. 
R.  C.  Van  Orman,  enlisted  August  30,  1802.    Discharged  for  disability 

February  15, 1864. 
James  W.  Raymond,  enlisted  August  6,  1863.    Promoted  to  Corporal. 
Wouuded  at  Ringgold,  Georgia,  November  37,  1863.    Transferred 
June  11,  1864,  to  Fifth  Infantry, 
fames  C.  Bartlett,  enUsted  August  18,  1862.    Transferred  June  11,  1864 

to  Fifth  Infantry. 
Franklin  M.  Forbes,  enhsted  August  14, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company 

B,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31, 1864.    Discharged. 
Silas  Gleason,  enlisted  Augu  1 9, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B,  Fifth 

Regiment,  October  31,  1864.    Mustered  out  May  30,  1865. 
William  Grant,  enlisted  August  11,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864.    Transferred  again  to  Veteran 
Reserve  Corps. 
Owen  Hicks,  enlisted  August  20,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31, 1804.    Promoted  to  First  Sergeant  June 
0  1805.    Mustered  out  July  26,  1865. 
John  Lowrey,  enUsted  August  30,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31, 1864.    Mustered  out  July  26, 1865. 
James  T.  Myers,  enlisted  August  80, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31, 1864.    Mustered  out  June  38, 1865. 
WiUiam  Proctor,  enlisted  August  30,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B^ 
Fifth  Regiment.  October  31,  1804.    Transferred  agam  to  Veteran 
Reserve  Corps. 
Joseph  M .  Stowe,  enlisted  August  30, 1802.    Transferred  to  Company  B> 

Fifth  Regiment  October  31, 1864.    Mustered  out  May  15, 1865 
Mitchell  H .  Sheldon,  enUsted  August  85, 186b .    Transferred  to  Company 
B,  Fifth  Regiment  October  31,  1864,  and  promoted  to  Sergeant. 
Mustered  out  June  5, 1865. 


George  Shively .  enlisted  August  25, 1868.  Discharged  for  disability  Jan- 
uary 18, 1863. 

John  B.  Wirts,  enlisted  August  14, 1862,  Discharged  for  disability  Feb- 
ruary 19,  1863. 

Frederick  Bose,  enlisted  March  20,  1862.  Transfen-ed  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864.    Discharged  March  20, 1865. 

Edwin  Green,  enhsted  August  19,  1862.  Transferred  June  11,  1864, 
to  Fifth  Infrntry. 



William  J .  Hutchinson,  enlisted  August  15, 1862.  Transferred  to  Com- 
pany B,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864.  Mustered  out  June  5, 

Westal  W.  Hunt,  enlisted  August  15,  1862.  Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  81,  18B4.    Mustered  out  June  5,  1865, 

George  Heni-ick,  enlisted  August  25,  1862.  Transferred  to  Company  B. 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864.     Mustered  out  July  13, 1865. 

Slierman  R.  Norris,  enlisted  August  8,  1862.  Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864.    Mustered  out  June  5,  1865. 

Albert  W.  Nash,  enUsted  August  20,  1862.  Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31, 1864.    Mustered  out  July  26,  186.5. 

Samuel  R.  Pullman,  enlisted  August  13,  1862.  Transferred  to  Company 
B,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1364.    Mustered  out  June  21, 1865. 

George  Valleau,  enlisted  October  o,  1802.  Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1801.    Discharged  for  disability. 

John  A.  Franks,  enlisjed  June  19,  1861 ;  taken  prisoner  May  3,  1803 ;  re- 
.ioined  the  Company  November  5,  186:J.    Mustered  out  July  7,  1864. 

Alfred  E.  Smith,  enlisted  June  7, 1801.  Mustered  out  with  the  Company 
July  7,  1804. 

Perry  H.  Smith,  enhsted  June  7  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Company. 

Norman  L.  Norris,  enlisted  April  23,  1861;  promoted  to  corporal.  Died 
at  Alexandria,  Virginia,  September  4, 1802,  from  wounds  received  at 
Cedar  Mountain  August  9th. 

Emory  W.  Force,  enlisted  as  sergeant  June  19,  1861.  Discharged  for 
disability  May  10,  1862. 

Amos  C.  Fisher,  enlisted  June  19,  1861;  promoted  to  Corporal.  Dis- 
charged for  disabiUty  May  10,  1862. 

John  A.  Cutler,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Discharged  October  22, 1868. 

Thomas  M.  Lander,  enlisted  June  19, 1861.    Discharged  October  27,  1863. 

John  Rowe,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.    Discharged  October  17,  1802. 

James  A.  Rubicon,  enlisted  June  19,  1801.  Discharged  for  disability  Oc- 
tober 20,  isca. 

Stephen  A.  Smith,  enUsted  June  7,  1801.  Discharged  for  disability  June 
16.  1802. 


Oliver  Grinnell,  enlisted  August  30,  1862.    Killed  at  Ringgold,  Georgia, 

November  ~T,  1863. 
Daniel  Floro,  enlisted  September  3, 1862.    Died  at  Alexandria,  Virginia 

January  5,  1863. 
Jesse  Floro,  enlisted  September  3,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company  B, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864.    Mustered  out  June  5,  1865. 


Albert  C.  Burgess,  transferred  from  Company  A.  Promoted  to  Captain 
November  25,  1861 .     Resigned  July  9,  1802. 

Oscar  W.  Sterle,  enrolled  as  Second  Lieutenant  of  Company  K  June 
17,  1801.  Promoted  to  First  Lieutenant  February  2,  1802,  and  trans- 
ferred to  Company  F.    Resigned  April  18,  1803. 

Harlow  Camp,  enlisted  August  21,  1862.  Died  at  Harper's  Ferry,  Vir 
ginia,  November  25,  1863. 

John  Rohr,  enhsted  June  20,  1861.  Discharged  for  disability  October  1, 
IHia.  Be  enlisted  October  23,  1802.  Accidentally  wounded,  and  dis- 
charged July  3,  1863. 

John  Bergin,  enlisted  October  10,  1862.  Transferred  June  11, 1864,  to 
Fifth  Infantry . 

William  Stanford,  enlisted  March  28.  1864.  Transferred  to  Company  G, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1861. 

Isiiac  Stratton,  enlisted  Ax>ril  20,  1861,  in  Company  A.  Transferred  to 
Company  F,  June  20,  1861 .  Promoted  to  Sergeant  February  28,  1862. 
and  to  First  Sergeant  September  1, 180;3.  Wounded  slightly  at  Chan- 
cellorsville,  Virginia,  May  3,  1803.  Lost  left  eye  at  Gettysburg,  July 
3,  1803.    Killed  near  Dallas,  Georgia,  May  25,  1801. 


Albert  Stedman,  enUsted  March  27,  1862.  Killed  at  Port  Republic  Vir- 
ginia, June  9,  1802. 

Enoch  iM.  Douthett,  enlisted  August  8, 1862.  Died  at  Dumfries,  Virginia 
March  4,  1803. 

George  H.  Clark,  enlisted  September  13, 1862.  Transferred  to  the  Inva- 
lid Corps  August  15,  1863. 

Tunis  S.  Danforth,  enlisted  July  29,  1862.  Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864.     Mustered  out  June  16,  1865. 

Ephraim  Flickhiger,  enhsted  August  11,  1862.  Transferred  to  Invalid 
C'urp.s,  August  11,  1863. 

John  Garrison,  enlisted  August  8,  1862.  Transferred  to  Company  B, 
Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1804.    Mustered  out  June  5,  1865. 


Christian  Nesper,  enlisted  in  Company  K,  April  22,  1861.  Promoted  to 
Second  Lieutenant.  July  25,  1802;  to  Fii-st  Lieutenant,  November  1, 
1863,  and  to  Captain;  transtei  red  to  Company  H,  April  23, 1801_  Mus- 
tered out  J  uly  7,  1864. 

Amnion  D.  Barnum,  enUsted  August  21, 1802.  Died  at  Harper's  Ferry 
Virginia,  February  12,  1863. 

Samuel  H.  Barnum,  enlisted  August  20, 1862.    Died  at  Washington,  D. 

C,  May  17, 1663,  from  wounds  received  at  Chaucellorsville,  Virginia, 

May  3. 
William  H.  Fox,  enlisted  August  26,  1862.    Discharged  November  20, 

1863,  for  disabili  y  caused  by  wounds. 
Solomon  Brobst,  enlisted  September  6, 1863.    Transferred  to  Company 

G,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
James  C.  Brooks,  enlisted  August  30,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company  G, 

Fifth  Regira.  nt,  October  31,  1864. 
Ed.  A.  Crosby,  enlisted  Augiist  13,  1863.    Transferred  to  Company  G, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
Frank  J .  Covert,  enlisted  August  23,  1863.    Transferred  to  Company  G, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
Peter  M.  Hardman.  enlisted  August  37,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company 

G,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
James  Loveless,  enUsted  August  38,  1863.    Transferred  to  Company  G, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
Jonathan  Moore,  enlisted  Atigust  28, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company  G, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
Otis  Martin,  enUsted  August  22,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company  G,  Fifth 

Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
George  W.  Oliver,  enlisted  August  11, 1863.    Transferred  to  Company  G, 

Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
Abraham  Ramalia,  enlisted  August  22, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company 

G,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
James  Hunt,  enlisted  August  22,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company  G, 


Fifth  Regiment,  October  31, 1864. 

Randall  B.  Palmer,  enlisted  December  17,  1861.  Discharged  for  disa- 
ability  July  22,  1863. 

Thomas  B.  Doran,  enlisted  June  19,  1861.  Transferred  to  Veteran  Re- 
serve Corps,  March  16,  1864. 

George  Metcalf ,  enUsted  December  17,  1861.  Tiansferred  to  Company 
B,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864.  Discharged  at  end  of  term, 
December  17, 1864. 

Theodore  W.  Pratt,  enlisted  December  17,  1861.  Transferred  to  Com- 
pany G,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 


John  T.  Schulte,  enroUed  as  Captain  April  23,  1S61.    Killed  in  skirmish 

near  Cross  Lanes,  Virginia,  August  20,  1861, 
E.  T.  Krieger,  enrolled  as  First  Sergeant  April  22,  1861 ;  promoted  to 

First  Lieutenant  April  13,  1862,  and  to  Captain  February  9,  1863. 
'    Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 
L.  F.  Mitchelm,  enroUed  as  First  Lieutenant  June  17, 1861.    Resigned 

April  13,  1862. 
Christian  Nesper,  enUsted  April  32, 1861 ;  promoted  to  Second  Lieutenant 

July  25,  1862;  to  First  Lieutenant  November  1,  1863,  and  to  Captain 

Company  H  April  23,  1864. 
Oscar  W.  Sterle,  enrolled  as  Second  Lieutenant  June  17,  1801;  promoted 

to  First  Lieutenant  February  3,  1863,  and  assigned  to  Company  F. 
Charles  Ludwig,  enlisted  June  3,  1861 ;  promoted  to  First  Sergeant  Feb- 
ruary 1, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Company  July  7,  1864. 
George  Sohl,  enUsted  April  23, 1861;  promoted  to  Sergeant.    Mustered 

out  with  the  company. 
John  Hacfele,  enlisted  April  22,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Sergeant.    Mustered 

out  with  the  company. 
Conrad  Sommers,  enrolled  as  Corporal  April  32,  1861.    Mustered  out 

with  the  company. 
John  Schott,  enlisted  April  22,  1861;  promoted  to  Corporal.    Mustered 

out  with  the  company. 
Charles  Zimmerman,  enUsted  August  3,  1863.    Transferred  to  Company 

G,  5th  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
Charles  Walley,  enlisted  August  9, 1862.    Transferred  to  Company  G,  5th 

Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
Charles  Haehkel,  enlisted  April  22,  1861.    Transferred  to  Mississippi  Ma- 
rine Brigade. 
Sigo  Tyroler,  enUsted  August  25,  1863.    Transferred  to  Company  G,  5th 

Regiment,  October  31, 1864. 
Jacob  Schneeberger,  enhsted  October  7, 1861.    Transferred  to  Company 

G,  5th  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
Franz  SchaeiUer,  enUstedOctober  7,  1861.    Transferred  to  Company  G, 

5th  Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
Michael  Schmidt,  enUsted  August  37, 1863.    Transferred  to  Company  G, 

6th  Regiment,  October  31, 1864. 
Martin  Saizer,  enlisted  August  30,  1862.    Transferred  to  Company  6,  5th 

Regiment,  October  31,  1864. 
John  Schurssler,  enUsted  June  3, 1861.    Transferred  June  11, 1864,  to  -. 
Joseph  Rowe,  enhsted  August  31,  1863.    Transferred  to  Company  G,  5th 

Regiment,  October  3],  1864. 
Henry  Hoffman,  enlisted  August  35,  1863.    Transferred  June  11,  1864, 
to . 

David  F.  Dorr,  enlisted  August  36,  1863.    Transferred  June  11,  1864,  to 



Coney  Deitz,  enlisted  August  30, 1862 .    Transferred  to  Company  G,  Fifth 

Eeglment,  October  31, 1864. 
Conrad  Buchman,  enlisted  December  28, 1863.    Transferred  to  Company 
G,  Fifth  Regiment,  October  31, 1864. 

William  Weber,  enlisted  August  27, 1862.  Promoted  to  Corporal.    Trans- 
ferred June  11,  1864,  to . 

Andrew  Rick,  enlisted  October  5, 1861 .    Promoted  to  Sergeant.    Trans- 
ferred June  11,  1864,  to 

Christian  Oettinger,  enlisted  June  3, 1861.  Transferred  to  Company  G, 
I  ifth  Regiment  October  31, 1864. 

Herman  Tetzer,  enlisted  March  28, 1862.  Discharged  June  14,  1864,  for 
disability  caused  by  wounds 

John  Bauer,  enlisted  June  3, 1861 .  Mustered  out  with  the  Company, 
July  7,  1864. 

Frederick  Bock,  enlisted  April  22, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Albert  Burgur,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.     Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Henry  Faubel.  enlisted  April  22, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Engelbert  Fenz,  enlisted  Juno  3, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Tobias  Flabbig,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Christian  Hahn,  enlisted  June  3  1861.     Mustered  out  with  the  Company. 

George  Hoffman,  enlisted  April22, 1861.  Left  sick  at  Washington  D .  C, 
September  — ,  1862. 

Solomon  Rentz,  enlisted  June  3, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Company . 

John  L.  Rinnei-,  enlisted  June  3, 1861 .     Mustered  out  with  the  Company. 

George  Buckler,  enlisted  April  22, 1861 .  Mustered  out  with  the  Com- 

Ferdinand  Schlegel,  enlisted  April  22,  1861.  Mustered  out  with  the 

Fred.  H.  Schmidt,  enlisted  April  22, 1862.  Mustered  out  with  the  Com- 

Henry  Schmidt,  enlisted  June3, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Company. 

John  Schwenck,  enlisted  April  22,  1861 ,  Mustered  out  with  the  Com- 

Frank  Miller,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.     Mustered  out  with  the  Company. 

George  Raquette,  enlisted  June  3, 1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  Com- 

Frederick  Selbach,  enlisted  April  22, 1861.  Mustered  out  with  the  Com- 

George  Wandel,  enlisted  April  22, 1871.  Mustered  out  with  the  Com- 

Jacob  Wenner,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Company. 

George  Zipp,  enlisted  April  22, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Company, 

H  enry  Schlattmeyer,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.    Discharged  for  disability. 

John  Smith,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.  Discharged  for  disability  July 
30,  1862. 

John  Stegmeyer,  enlisted  April  22, 1861.  Discharged  for  disability  No- 
vember 27,  1862. 

Fred.  W.  Steinbauer,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.  Discharged  because  of 
wounds  February  2, 1862. 

John  T.  Voelker,  enlisted  June  3, 1861.  Discharged  for  disability  Febru- 
ary 18,  1863. 

George  Weissenbach,  enlisted  April  22, 1861.     Discharged  July  24,  1862. 

Julius  Wolf,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.    Discharged  July  30,  1862. 

Anthonisius  Zittsmann,  enUsted  June  3,  1861.    Discharged  July  30, 1862. 

John  Volker,  enUsted  October  7,1861.  Discharged  for  disability  July 
7.  1862. 

William  Lanterwassar,  enrolled  as  Sergeant  April  22, 1861 ;  promoted  to 
1st  Sergeant.  Died  at  Washington,  July  3,  1862,  from  wounds  re- 
ceived at  Fort  Ktr-public,  June  9. 

Henry  Ackerman,  enlisted  June  3,  1861,  Killed  at  ChaneellorsviUe, 
May  30,  1862. 

Frank  Dietrich,  enlisted  April  22,  1861.  KUled  at  Winchester,  March 
23,  1862. 

John  Doll,  enlisted  June  3, 1861.  Died  September  10. 1861,  from  wounds 
received  at  Cross  Lanes,  Virginia,  August  26th,  1861. 

Henry  Frank,  enlisted  June  3, 1861.  Killed  at  Cedar  Mountain,  August 
9,  1862. 

Frank  Karbacher,  enlisted  April  22,  1861.  Killed  at  Winchester,  Vir- 
ginia, March  23,  1862. 

Frank  Lorenz,  enlisted  October  8, 1861.  KUled  at  Winchester,  Virginia, 
March  23,  1862. 

John  Geissler,  enUsted  April  22,  1861.  Died  August  28, 1861,  from  wounds 
received  at  Cross  Lanes,  Virguiia,  August  26, 1861. 

Vincent  Header,  enlisted  April  22.  1861.  KUled  at  Cedar  Mountain, 
August  9,  1862. 

^ohn  Muntz,  enlisted  October  8, 1861.  Died  at  Cumberiand,  Maryland, 
February  24,  1862. 

Jacob  NoUc,  enlisted  April  22,  1861.  Died  April  2,  1862,  from  wounds  re- 
ceived at  Winchester,  March  23. 

William  Pfahl,  enlisted  AprU  22, 1861.  KiUed  at  Ringgold,  Georgia,  No- 
vember 37,  1863. 

Victor  Perlev,  enlisted  August  25, 1862.  KiUed  at  ChancellorsvUle,  Vir- 
ginia, May  2,  1863. 

William  Russell,  enlisted  April  22, 1861.  Died  at  Frederick,  Maryland 
June  1, 1862,  from  wounds  received  at  Winchester,  Virginia,  March  23, 

Joim  Reber,  enlisted  October  7, 1861.  Killed  at  Port  Republic,  June  9, 

John  Schnibs,  enlisted  AprU  22, 1861.  Killed  at  Port  Republic,  June  9, 

John  Stern,  enlisted  April  22, 1861.  Killed  at  Cedar  Mountain,  August  9, 

Joseph  Seibel,  enlisted  AprU  22,  1861,  KUled  at  Winchester,  Virginia, 
March  23,  1862. 

Franz  Weber,  enlisted  AprU  22,  1861.  Died  at  GaUipolis,  Ohio,  Septem- 
ber 2,  1862. 

John  Wiegand,  enlisted  April  22,  1861.  Died  while  a,  pris.ner,  Septem- 
ber 13,  1862. 

John  Weiland,  enlisted  October  17,  1661  KUled  at  Cedar  Mountain, 
August  9,  1862. 

Frederick  Schinkel,  enrolled  at  Sergeant,  April  22,  1861.  Missing  since 
battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Virginia,  August  9,  1802. 

John  Lenllcy,  enlisted  October  5,  1861.  Missing  since  battle  of  Port  Re- 
public, June  9,  1862. 

WUliam  Voges,  enroUed  as  Sergeant,  April  22,  1861.  KiUed  at  Port  Re- 
public, ,lune9,  1862. 

Adolphus  Rohlmann,  enrolled  as  Sergeant,  April  22,  1861,  Died  at  New 
Orleans,  while  prisoner,  November  13, 1862. 

Elmore  Hinkston.  enrolled  as  Sergeant,  June  3,  1861.  Promoted  to  First 
Sergeant.  Died  at  Chattanooga,  Tennessee,  January  21,  from 
wounds  received  in  action. 

James  Grebe,  enrolled  as  Corporal  jVpril  22,  1861.  Promoted  to  Ser- 
geant. Died  at  ."Slrxandria,  Virginia,  August  27, 1862,  from  wounds 
received  at  Cedar  Mouutain,  August  9. 

Charles  Rich,  enlisted  June  8,  1861.    Discharged  July  26,  1862. 

WilUam  Ritchie,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.  Discharged  February  8,  1802,  for 
disability  caused  by  wounds. 

Henry  Roshotte,  enrolled  as  Corporal  April  22, 1861 :  promoted  to  Ser- 
geant.   Discharged  for  disability  July  19,  1862. 

WUliam  Butzman,  enrolled  as  Corporal  April  22,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Ser- 
geant.   Discharged  for  disability  February  18, 1863. 

Henry  Strachle,  enrolled  as  Corporal  April  22,  1861;  promoted  to  Ser- 
geant.   Discharged  for  disability  November  26,  1862. 

Herman  Sohaub,  enlisted  June  3, 1861 ;  promoted  to  Sergeant.  Discharged 
for  disabiUty  AprU  3, 1803. 

Jacob  Kurtz,  enlisted  June  8,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Sergeant.  Discharged 
because  of  wounds  April  10,  1863. 

Wi  liam  Lehr,  enUsted  April  22,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Corporal.  Discharged 
on  account  of  wounds  July  3,  1862 

George  Denzel,  enlisted  April  22, 1801 ;  promoted  to  Corporal.  Discharged 
on  account  of  wounds  July  21,  1802. 

Christian  Reisse,  enrolled  as  Corporal  June  3,  1861.  Discharged  on  ac- 
count of  wounds  July  21,  1863. 

John  Hummell,  enlisted  AprU  22,  1801;  promoted  to  Corporal.  Dis- 
charged on  account  of  wounds  October  27,  1862. 

Peter  Kind,  enrolled  as  musician  AprU  22,  18B1.  Discharged  for  disa- 
bility October  2, 1861. 

PhUlip  Anthony,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.  Discharged  on  account  of 
wounds  Sepi  ember  1,  1862 

Constantine  Armbrunster,  enlisted  June  3, 1861.  Discharged  for  disabil- 
ity February  19,  1803. 

Simon  BeU,  enlisted  April  22,  1861.    Discharged  July  28,  1862. 

Charles  Breitenbach,  enlisted  April  32,  1861.  Discharged  on  account  of 
wounds  December  11,  1862. 

Fred.  Brinckelmeyer,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.    Discharged  July  21,  1862. 

John  Colbrun,  enhsted  AprU  23, 1861.    Discharged  July  19,  1862. 

Louis  Dehmel,  enUsted  June  3,  18()1.    Discharged. 

Edwin  Dunton,  enlisted  June  3.  1861.  ■  Discharged. 

Emil  Glanser,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.    Discharged. 

Charles  Graiter,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.  Discharged  on  acccount  of 
wounds  December  19,  1862. 

Gottlieb  Grucnowald,  enlisted  June  8, 1861.    Discharged  July  26,  1862. 

Jacob  H.  Hege,  enlisted  AprU  23,  1861.    Discharged  July  21, 1802. 

Fred  Gassand,  enlisted  June  3,  1801,    Discharged  July  24,  lb02. 

Henry  Lehr,  enlisted  June  3,  1861,     Discharged  June  37,  1802, 

Andrew  Malichus,  enlisted  April  32,  1861  Discharged  because  of 
wounds,  October  14,  1801. 

Matthias  Merkel,  enlisted  June  3,  1861.     [discharged  February  28,  1863. 

Fred.  Mitchell,  enlisted  June  3, 1861.  Discharged  on  account  of  wounds 
November  21,  1862. 

Theodore  Miller,  enlisted  June  3, 1861.    Discharged. 

GottUeb  Popp,  enlisted  J  une  3, 1861.  Discharged  for  disability  October 
2,  1861. 





Company  B,  of  the  Eighth  —  Organized  for  Three  Months  —  Re-organ- 
ized for  Three  Years  — In  West  Virginia  — Loss  from  Sickness  — 
Romney  and  Hangmg  Rock  —  Blooming  Gap,  Cedar  Creek  and  Stras- 
burg  — Battle  of  Wincliester- Numerous  Skirmishes— South  Moun- 
tain and  Antietam  —  F.  edericksburg  —  Chancellors  villa  —  Gettysburg 
—  Heavy  Loss  — Skirmishes  at  Bristow  Station,  Mine  Run,  etc.,  in 
1S«4  — The  Battle  of  Martin's  Ford  —  The  Battle  of  the  Wilderness  — 
Cold  Harbor  and  Petersbuig  —  Mustered  Ont  —  Members  from  Cuya- 
hoga County -Fourteunth  Infantry  —  Mention  of  its  Services  — Its 
Members  from  this  County  —  Seventeenth  Infantry  —  Mention  of  its 
Services  —  Members  from  this  County  —  The  Colonel  of  the  Twentieth. 


The  connection  of  the  Eighth  with  Cuyahoga  is 
confined  to  Company  B,  having  eighty  men,  and  one  or 
two  of  Company  D.  These  were  enlisted  originally 
for  the  three-months  service,  in  response  to  the  Presi- 
dent's first  call  for  troops  in  April,  18C1.  In  June 
following  all  of  the  companies,  except  Company  I, 
were  re-enlisted  for  three  years.  On  July  9, 1861,"  the 
regiment  left  Camp  Dennison,  and  arrived  on  the 
12th  at  West  Union,  Va.  For  several  weeks  it  was 
stationed  among  the  mountains,  and  along  the  Balti- 
more and  Ohio  railroad,  where  the  men  suffered 
severely  from  fever.  At  "Maggotty  Hollow"  over 
three  hundred  were  in  the  hospital,  and  thirty-five 
deaths  resulted  in  a  short  time. 

On  September  24th,  the  Eighth  engaged  in  the 
battle  of  Komney.  At  Hanging  Rock  it  was  under 
fire,  and  lost  several  in  killed  and  wounded.  On 
October  24th,  for  a  second  time  at  Romney,  and  soon 
afterwards  at  Blue's  Gap.  On  February  14,  1862 
it  was  engaged  at  Bloomey  Gap;  on  March  18th 
at  Cedar  Creek,  and  on  the  19th  at  Strasburg  as 
skirmishers.  The  regi  ment  was  deployed  as  skirmish- 
ers before  and  after  the  battle  of  Winchester.  The 
killed  and  wounded  during  this  battle  was  more  than 
one-fourth  of  its  number. 

During  March  and  April  the  regiment  skirmished 
at  Woodstock,  Mount  Jackson,  Edinburg  and  New 
Market.  In  May,  from  Eectortown  it  skirmished 
a  distance  of  eighteen  miles.  At  Chickahominy 
Swamps  it  was  again  engaged;  losing  seven  wounded. 
At  South  Mountain  the  Eighth  formed  part  of  the 
reserve  corps,  not  actively  engaged,  but  skirmished  at 
Boonsboro'  and  Reedyville. 

At  Antietam,  while  ^engaged,  the  Eighth  and  the 
Fourteenth    Indiana   were  obliged    to  change  front 
which    was   done  with   great  steadiness,   saving   the 
brigade  from  rout. 

The  regiment  moved  with  its  corps  to  Bolivar 
Heights,  and  on  October  1st,  to  Leesburg.  From 
there  to  Falmouth,  skirmishing  at  Hulltown,  Snicker 
Gap  and  United  States  Ford.  At  Fredericksburg  the 
Eighth  was  in  the  right  wing.  In  passing  up  Han- 
over street,  it  lost  twenty-eight,  and  at  the  close  of  the 
battle  the  loss  was  thirty-four  killed  and  wounded.  The 
regiment  was  under  constant  fire  for  nearly  four  days 
at  Chancellorsville,  losing  only  two  killed  and  eleven 
wounded.     At   Gettysburg,    July  2d,    the  regiment 

captured  and  held  a  well  defended  knoll;  three  times 
repulsed  the  attacks  of  superior  numbers,  and  cap- 
tured   three    stands   of  colors.      Its    loss    was   one 
hundred  and  two  killed  and  wounded.     The  regiment 
engaged   in  several  skirmishes  prior  to  August  15, 
1803,  when  it  was  sent  to  New  York  to  quell  the 
riots.     Returning  to  the  field,  it  was  engaged  at  Au- 
burn and  Bristow,  October  14th,  having  two  wounded. 
On  November  27th,  28th  and  29th,  the  regiment  acted 
as  skirmishers  _  at  Robinson's   Cross   Roads,    Locust 
Grove  and  Mine  Run,  losing  several  men.     At  the 
battle  of   Morton's  Ford,  February  6,  1864,  several 
officers  and  men  were  wounded. 

At  the  Wilderness  the  Eighth  was  engaged  on  May 
6th,  7th,  8th,  9th,  10th  and  12th,  losing  in  all  over 
sixty  killed  and  wounded.  It  also  engaged  in  numer- 
ous skirmishes  from  Spotsylvania  to  Petersburg;  took 
and  held  a  fort  at  North  Anna,  and  fought  at  Cold 
Harbor  and  Petersburg. 

At  the  expiration  of  its  term  the  Eighth  was  in  the 
trenches  before  Petersburg  with  only  seventy-two 
officers  and  men. 

On  July  13,  1864,  the  regiment  was  formally 
mustered  out  of  service. 



William  Kinney,  enr.  as  Captain  April  18,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the 

regiment  July  13,  1864. 
James  K.  O'Reilly,  enr.  as  First  Serg-ant  April  18,  1861;  promoted  to 
First  Lieutenant  September  23,  1862,  and  to  Captain  March  3,  18M. 
Mustered  out  with  the  regiment  July  13,  1864. 
William  Delaney,  enl.  as  First  Lieutenant  April  18,  1861;  wounded  at 

Antiefam  September  17, 1862.    Died  September  33d,  1862. 
Thomas  F.  Galway,  enr.  as  Sergeant  April  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Second 
Lieutenant  September  7,  1863,  and  to  First  Lieutenant  January  30, 
1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 
John  Lautry,  enl.  as  Second  Lieutenant  April  18,  1861.    Killed  at  Antie- 
tam September  18,  1863. 
John  Hennessey,  enr.  as  Sergeant  April  18,  1861,    Mustered  out  with  the 

John  G.  Fairchild,  enr.  as  Sergeant  April  18, 1861;  promoted  to  First 

Sergeant.    Wounded  July  3,  1864. 
Charles  McCartney,  enr.  as  Corporal  April  18,  1861.    Mustered  out  with 

the  regiment. 
John  Tracey,  enr.  as  Corporal  April  18,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Sergeant.    Dis- 
charged for  disability  December  20,  1863. 
Chauncey  Lathrop,  enr.  as  Corporal  April  18,  1863.    Discharged  for  dis- 
ability November  36,  1863. 
Edward  J.  Newell,  enr.  as  Corporal  April  18, 1861;  promoted  to  Sergeant; 

wounded  May  18,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 
James  Kelly,  enr.  as  Corporal  April  18,  186  r;  promoted  to  Sergeant. 

Died  of  wounds,  July  7,  1803,  received  at  Gettysburg. 
Richard  O'Rourke,  enr.  as  Corporal  April  18,  1861.    In  hospital  at  Wash- 
ington May  12,  1864. 
Patrick  O'Leary,  enr.  as  Corporal  April  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Sergeant. 

Mustered  out  with  the  regiment  July  13,  1864. 
John  Reedy,  enr.  as  Corporal  April  18,  1861.    Discharged  September  23' 

WiUiam  H.  Alderman,  enl.  June  19, 1861.    Discharged  for  disability  Jan. 
uary  6,  1803. 

Joseph  Burton,  enl.  June  17,  1861.    Discharged'  for  disability  November 

33,  1802. 
John  Burk,  enl.  June  18,  1861.    Wounded  July  3,  1863. 
William    Brown,    enl.    June    13,    1861.     Killed    at    Gettysburg,  July  * 

3,  1863. 
Henry  Black,  enl.  June  13, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 
James  Brown,  enl.  June  14, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 
Lewis  Buhran,  enl.  June  8,  1861.    Discharged  for  disability  November 

30, 1863. 
Samuel  Brown,  enl.  June  33,1861;   promoted  to  Corporal  same  day. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 
William  Cones,  enl.  April  18, 1861.    Discharged  October  25,  1863. 
John  E.  Chichester,  enl.  May  25,  1861.     Died   December  28,  1863,  of 

wounds  received  at  Fredericksburg,  Virginia. 



Patrick  Cashen,  enl.  June  17, 1861.      Mustered  out  with  the  Eegiraent. 
Stephen  J.  Carr,  enl.  June  8,  1861,    Killed  December 29,  1861,  at  Wire 

Bridge,  Virginia. 
Frederick  Connelly,  enl.  June  13, 1861 .  Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 
William  Campion,  enl.  June   15,  1861.    Killed  September  17, 1862,  at 

battle  of  Antietam,  Maryland. 
James  Conlan,  enl.  June  9, 1861;  promoted  to  Sergeant;  wounded  at 

Wilderness,  May  10, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 
James  Denief ,  enl.  April  18, 1861.    Discharged  October  25, 1862. 
John   Durophey,  enl.  Jnne  10,  1861.     Transferred   to    Invalid  Corps    | 
July  15, 1863.  | 

Joseph  Evans,  enl.  June  15, 1861 ;  promoted  to  Corporal.    Mustered  out 

with  the  Regiment. 
Jacob  Frailer,  enl.  June  13, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 
Charles  Gallagher,  enl.  June  11, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 
Edward  Gibbons,  enl.  June  14, 1861.    Discharged  October  25, 1862. 
Edward  Gorman,  enl.  Juno  22,  1861.    Transferred  to  Invalid  Corps,  May 

11,  1864. 
Edward  Greer,  enl.  April  18,  1861. 

John  Hogan,  enl.  April  18,  1861.    Discharged  October  25,  1862. 
James  Hardway,  enl.  April  18, 1861.     Discharged  for  disability,  May  11, 

Henry  Hall,  enl.  June  17, 1861.    Discharged  October  25, 1862. 
James  Higgins,  enl.  June  9, 186$.    Died  October  24, 1861,  at  New  Creek, 

Simon  Hogan,  enl.  June  9,  1861.    Discharged  for  disability,  August  26, 

William  Joyce,  enl.  April  18, 1861.    Discharged  tor  disability  January  5, 

Francis  Kelly,  enl.  June  11,  1861.    Discharged  October  25,  1863. 
Eugene  Lahore,  enl.  April  18,  1861. 

Joseph  Lloyd,  enl.  April  18, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 
James  Laeper,  enl.  June  13,  1861.   Discharged  for  disability  October  26, 

f  homas  Largee,  enl.  June  15,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment 

July  13,  1864. 
Peter  Mainans,  enl.  April  18,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corporal;  mustered 

out  with  the  Regiment. 
Joseph  Moonshine,  enl.  April  18, 1861 .    Discharged  for  disability  March 

21, 1863. 
Henry  H.  McKeever,  enl.  April  l'^,  1861-    Discharged  tor  disability  Feb- 
ruary 17,  1863. 
Bernard  Milvey,  enl.  June  11,  1861.    Disi  barged  for  disability  April  18, 

John  Malone,  enl.  June  11, 1861.    Promoted  to  Corporal;  wounded  May 

15,  1864.    Left  in  Hospital  in  Rhode  Island . 
John  D.  McNamara,  enl.  June  9,  1861.    Discharged  for  disability  De- 
cember 17,  1862. 
Alexander  McLain,  enl.  June  21,  1861.    Discharged  for  disability  Au- 
gust 13,  1862. 
Allen  McDougall,  enl.  June  14,  1861.    Discharged  for  disability  Novem- 
ber 13,  1862. 
Thomas  Munson,  enl .  June  1 ,  1861 .    Discharged  for  disability  August  13, 

William  McDonald,  enl.  June  18,  1861.    Discharged  for  disability  De- 
cember 20, 1861 . 
Bernard  McGuire,  enl,  June  32,  1861.     Died,  July  10,  186.3,  of  wounds 

received  at  Gettysburg . 
Keyton  Niggle,  enl.  June  to,  1861.    Discharged  Eordisability  July  6, 1801. 
William  O'Hallem,  enl.  April   18,  1861.     Discharged  fur  disability  May 

3,  1862. 
Thomas  O'Kelly,  enl.  April  18, 1861.     Dis  barged  for  disability  May  2, 

James  O'Neil,  enl,  June  9, 1861,    Transferred  to  Invalid  Corps  August 

Gardiner  Oaks,  eni,  June  14  1861 ,      Dischai-ged  October  23,  1862, 

John  Quinn,  enl.  June  14,  1801.      Killed  at  Spottsylvama,  May  24,  1864. 

James  C.  Rogers,  enl.  April  18,  1801,      Discharged  for  disability  Aprd 

ThomassTuires,  enl.  Jnne  10, 1801.  Discharged  October  25, 1862. 
John  Sheridan,  enl.  June  17, 1861.  Discharged  October  25, 1862. 
John   Shepherd,  enl.    June  17,  1861.     Killed  at  Antietam,    Maryland 

September  17, 1862.  j  j  t  ,    <■  iqcq 

George  T.  Upright,  enl.  April  18, 1861.    Wounded  July  3, 1803, 
George  R.  Wilson,  enl.    June   14,   1861.     Killed  at  Gettysburg, 

3  1863 
Alfred  Wood,  enl.  June  14, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment 
Charles  F.  Wamekey,  enl.   April  18, 

at  Cumberland,  Maryland. 
David  Wilson,  enl.  June  1. 1861 
John  Garvey,  enl.  June  5, 

7th  Virginia  Volunteers, 

17,  1862.  rinfoher  31     186^1;   transferred  to  4th  Ohio  Battal- 

'°'LTo:p-y  B°tre';4'U.    Discharged  at  end  of  term,  Novem- 
her  28, 1804. 



Discharged   for  disability 

Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

1861 ;  transferred  to  and  commissioned  in 

Killed  at  /Vntietam,  Maryland,  September 


Joseph  Dewalt,  enl.  June  3, 1861.     Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment 
July  13, 1864. 


The  members  of  this  regiment  from  Cuyahoga 
county,  nine  in  number,  were  enlisted  in  1864  in 
Cos.  A,  I  and  K.  As  members  of  the  Fourteenth 
they  engaged  with  tlie  regiment  in  the  battle  at 
Jonesboro,  pursued  Hood's  troops  on  their  advance 
into  Tennessee,  joined  Sherman's  forces  at  Atlanta, 
and  participated  in  the  "  March  to  the  Sea,"  and 
tlirough  the  Carolinas  to  Goldsboro'  and  Raleigh. 

The  regiment  was  mustered  out  at  Louisville  in 
July,  18G5. 



Thomas  Hines,  enl,  September  2",  1804.    Discharged  with  the  regiment 

July  11,  1865. 
Henry  Lesson,  enl.  September  26,  1801,    Discharged  .Tune  3,  1865, 
Francis  L,  Jones,  enl,  September  26,  1864,    Discharged  June  .3,  1865. 


David  Loper,  enl.  December  15,  1863.  Promoted  to  Corporal  May  1, 
1804,  and  to  Sergeant  November  20,  1864.  Mustered  out  with  the 
regiment  July  11,  1865. 

George  Burton,  enl.  January  25, 1804.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

Robert  J.  Barnes,  enl.  September  23,  1804.    Discharged  June  3, 1805. 
Edward  Condon,  enl.  September  27,  1864,    Discharged  June  3,  1805. 


Isaac  Parker,  enr.  as  Corporal  December  15,  1803.    Discharged  June  10, 

Joseph  StuU,  enl.  Septemter  23, 1864,    Discharged  June  3,  1865. 


The  members  from  Cuyahoga  county  in  the  Seven- 
teenth were  ten  in  number,  nine  of  whom  were  en- 
listed in  Co.  E  in  1864,  and  saw  but  very  little  service 
that  could  be  called  severe.  They  followed  Sherman 
through  the  Carolinas,  passed  in  review  before  the 
President  at  Washington,  and  were  mustered  out  at 
Louisville  in  July,  1865. 



Henry  J  Herrick,  enrolled  as  Assistant  Surgeon  February  14,  1862. 
Promoted  to  Surgeon  December  12,  1802.  Resigned  September  20, 


Julian  Berbinger,  enlisted  September  26, 1864.    Died  at  Savannah,  Geor 

gia,  March  2, 1805. 
Walter  H.  Teeple,  enl.  September  27, 1864.    Died  at  Goldsboro,  North 

Carolina,  March  24, 1862. 
James  McBride,  enl.  September  22,  1864.      Discharged  June  7,  1865. 
Wilham  Neville,  enl   September  23,  1804.    Discharged  June  7,  1805. 
Henry  Stark,  enl.  September  86,  1864,    Discharged  June  7,  1865. 
Archibald  Scott,  enl,  September  28,  1864,      Discharged  June  7,  1865. 
WiUiam  Simps,  enl ,  September  "24,  1864 ,    Discharged  June  7,  1865 , 
James  Wilson,  enl.  September 26,  1864,    Discharged  June 7, 1865, 
John  Wetzel,  enl,  September  23,  1804,    Discharged  June  7,  1865. 


Charles  Whittlesey,  appointed  Assistant  Quarter  Master  General  of 
Ohio,  April  15,  1801;  Chief  MiUtary  Engineer  of  State  of  Ohio,  July 
4,  1801;  ColonelTwentieth  Infantry  August  19, 1801;  Chief  Engineer 
Military  Department  of  Ohio  September  23, 1801.  Resigned  April 
19,  1802. 





Ct^lebrated  Officers  —  Number  from  Cuyahoga  —  The  Regiment  serves 
in  West  Virginia^  Carnifex  Ferry  —  Services  in  Autumn  and  Winter 
of  1861  — A  Winter  March— A  Sharp  Fight— A  Forced  March  —Bat- 
tle of  South  Mountain  —  Hiyes  wounded— A  Brilliant  Bayonet 
Charge  — Antietam  -  Corporal  BuITs  Pistol  —  Back  in  West  Virginia — 
The  Victory  of  Cloyd  Mountain  -  New  River  Bridge  —  Hunter's  Expe- 
dition to  Lynchburg  —  Retreat  —  Extraordinary  Hardsliips  —  In  the 
Shenandoah  Valley  — The  Battle  of  Winchester  — Fighting  all  Sum- 
mer —  The  Battle  of  Opequan  —  Crossing  a  SI  iugh  —  A  Complete  Vic- 
tory —  North  Mountain  —  Cedar  Creek  —  Sheridan  in  the  Field  —  An- 
other Victory  —  Colonel  Hayes  made  a  Brigadier  —  Subsequent  Ser- 
vices of  the  Regiment- Mustered  Out. 

This  regiment  has  become  celebrated  by  the  number 
of  distinguished  men  who  have  graduated  from  its 
ranks.  When  it  was  organized  at  Camp  Chase,  Ohio, 
in  the  month  of  June,  18G1,  its  colonel  was  William 
S.  Rosecrans,  afterwards  major  general  and  com- 
mander of  the  army  operating  in  middle  Tennessee; 
its  lieutenant-colonel  was  Stanley  Matthews,  late 
United  States  senator,  and  its  major  was  Rutherford 
B.  Hayes,  now  President  of  the  United  States.  Col. 
Rosecrans  was  appointed  a  brigadier  general  within  a 
few  days  afterwards,  and  was  succeeded  by  E.  Parker 
Scammon,  who  also,  at  a  later  day,  became  a  brig- 
adier. Among  the  subsequent  colonels  was  James  M. 
Comly,  now  minister  to  the  Sandwich  Islands. 

There  were  in  all  two  hundred  and  forty-six  mem- 
bers of  the  regiment  from  Cuyahoga  county,  includ- 
ing the  whole  of  Company  A,  the  greater  part  of 
Company  D,  and  a  few  men  each  in  Companies  E,  F, 
G  and  I. 

On  tiie  25th  of  July,  1861,  the  regiment  proceeded 
to  Clarksburg,  West  Virginia,  and  was  occupied 
throughout  the  summer  in  that  State,  operating 
against  guerrillas,  guarding  important  points,  etc. 
In  the  forepart  of  September  the  Twenty-Third,  as 
a  part  of  Gen.  Rosecrans'  army,  marched  to  Carnifex 
Ferry,  where,  on  the  evening  of  the  tenth  of  that 
month,  it  was  busily  engagaged  in  skirmishing  with 
the  enemy.  The  latter  abandoned  his  position  during 
the  night,  and  was  pursued  by  the  Twenty-Third  and 
other  regiments  to  Big  Sewell  Mountain.  The  regi- 
ment soon  fell  back  to  Camp  Ewing  on  Xew  river, 
where  they  remained  several  months,  suffering  severely 
from  sickness. 

During  the  autumn  the  Twenty-Third  was  thor- 
ouglily  drilled  by  its  officers,  and  soon  attained  great 
proficiency.  In  January  and  February,  1862,  Com- 
panies A,  B,  F,  and  G,  were  stationed  at  Raleigh 
Court-House,  under  Major  Comly,  and  on  the  tenth 
of  the  latter  month  that  officer  marched  with  his  men 
twenty-eight  miles  through  a  snow  storm  to  the  month 
of  Blue  Stone  river,  driving  .a  regiment  of  rebel  in- 
fantry across  that  stream,  and  capturing  their  tents, 
forage,  etc.  The  gallantry  and  fortitude  displayed  in 
this  exploit  were  highly  complimented  by  Gen.  Rose- 
crans in  general  orders. 

The  regiment  remained  in  winter  quarters  until  the 
32d  of  April,  when  it  moved  in  the  advance  of  the 
brigade  toward   Princeton,   under  the   command  of 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Hayes.  On  the  8th  of  May  nine 
companies  of  the  Twenty-Third  were  attacked  by 
four  rebel  regiments  under  General  Heth,  and  after  a 
gallant  resistance,  were  forced  to  retreat.  Soon  after, 
the  command  proceeded  to  Flat  Top  mountain,  where 
it  remained  until  the  middle  of  July. 

After  the  month  spent  at  Green  Meadow,  the 
regiment  made  a  forced  march  of  a  hundred  and  four 
miles  in  a  little  over  three  days  (claimed  to  be  the 
fastest  on  record  by  a  force  of  that  size)  to  the  Great 
Kanawha,  whence  it  went  by  boat  and  car  to  Wash- 
ington, D.  C.  Thence  it  proceeded  under  Gen.  Mc- 
Clellan  to  meet  Lee,  and  on  the  14th  of  September, 
1862,  engaged  in  the  battle  of  South  Mountain. 

This  was  the  first  severe  battle  in  wliich  the  regiment 
took  part,  and  it  proved  to  be  one  of  the  hardest  in 
which  it  ever  was  engaged.  Though  only  a  compara- 
tively small  portion  of  the  army  was  in  this  battle, 
yet  that  portion  was  called  on  to  display  its  utmost 
courage.  The  enemy  was  posted  behind  stone-walls^ 
and  poured  in  musketry,  grape  and  canister  on  our 
advancing  columns  at  short  range,  and  with  terrible 
effect.  About  nine  o'clock  the  Twenty-Third,  three 
hundred  and  fifty  strong,  commanded  by  Lieutenant 
Colonel  Hayes,  advanced  with  the  utmost  gallantry. 
In  a  short  time  that  officer  was  badly  wounded, 
Lieut.  Henry  G.  Hood,  of  Cuyahoga  county,  met  with 
a  similar  misfortune,  and  a  hundred  officers  and  men 
(nearly  thirty  per  cent,  of  the  whole  number)  were 
killed  and  wounded. 

Major  Comly  then  took  command,  and  engaged 
successfully  with  a  rebel  force  on  the  left.  Col. 
Hayes  soon  came  back  with  his  wound  half  dressed, 
and  insisted  on  fighting,  against  the  remonstrance  of 
his  officers,  until,  weak  from  from  loss  of  blood,  he 
was  carried  from  the  field.  The  whole  brigade  now 
made  a  gallant  charge  across  an  open  field  against  the 
enemy  ensconced  behind  a  stone-wall-  Our  inform- 
ant, Lieut.  Benjamin  Killam,  who  was  wounded  in 
the  battle,  declares  that  the  only  men  he  saw  killed 
with  the  bayonet  in  the  numerous  conflicts  in  which 
he  took  part,  were  slain  in  this  charge.  With  cheers 
of  defiance  the  Union  men  rushed  foi'ward  at  the  top 
of  their  speed  across  the  open  space.  The  rebels  re- 
mained behind  the  wall  until  their  enemies  were 
springing  over  it.  They  then  attempted  to  escape, 
but  many  of  them  were  slain  with  the  bayonet  before 
they  could  do  so. 

Two  other  bayonet  charges  were  made  by  the  brig- 
ade during  the  day,  but  the  rebels  broke  before  they 
could  be  reached.  The  regiment,  in  company  with 
its  division,  continued  the  contest  until  near  night- 
fall, the  enemy  being  driven  back  at  all  points. 
Nearly  two  hundred  men  of  the  Twenty-Third,  more 
than  half  the  whole  number  engaged,  had  been  killed 
or  wounded.  Among  the  former  was  Capt.  Abraham 
G.  Hunter,  of  Cuyahoga  county;  among  the  latter 
from  that  county  were  Joshua  L.  Barnes,  John  Dunn 
and  Thaddeus  G.  Ross.  The  severity  of  the  conflict 
was  also  emphasized  by  the  condition  of  the  colors, 



which  were  riddled  with  bullets,  the  "field"  being 
almost  entirely  carried  away. 

At  Antietam  the  regiment  was  less  severely  en- 
gaged, but  even  there  it  suffered  seriously  from  a  flank 
attack  by  the  enemy  in  which  the  colors  were  shot 
down,  although  they  were  immediately  replanted  by 
Major  Comly  in  a  new  line,  where  the  regiment 
quickly  established  itself  and  succeeded  in  repulsing 
its  assailants. 

Among  the  mortally  wounded  at  Antietam  was 
Corporal  Sheridan  B.  Bull,  of  Solon,  in  this  county. 
He  fell  just  as  the  regiment  was  compelled  to  give 
way  before  the  sudden  attack  of  the  enemy.  He  car- 
ried a  pistol  marked  with  his  name,  "S.  E.  Bull." 
Seeing  the  enemy  advancing,  he  hastily  dug  a  hole 
and  concealed  the  weapon.  .  One  of  his  comrades. 
Private  Henry,  noticed  the  act,  and  made  a  hasty  ob- 
servation of  the  surrounding  objects.  Both  men  were 
captured.  Bull  died  while  a  prisoner;  Henj-y  re- 
covered and  was  exchanged.  Sixteen  and  a  half 
years  after  the  battle,  in  the  month  of  April  last,  Mr. 
Henry,  then  principal  of  the  public  schools  at  Coshoc- 
ton, Ohio,  revisited  the  field  of  strife,  discovered  the 
locality  in  question,  and  after  a  little  digging  had  the 
good  fortune  to  find  the  pistol  of  his  old  comrade, 
badly  rusted  but  still  intact,  and  still  bearing  the  name 
"S.  B.  Bull,"  cut  by  the  fingers  of  the  young  patriot 
when  he  went  forth  to  battle  for  his  country.  The 
weapon  was  sent  to  Corporal  Bull's  father,  L.  S.  Bull, 
Esq.,  now  postmaster  at  Solon,  mentioned  in  the  his- 
tory of  that  township  as  a  son  of  the  earliest  settler. 

In  October  the  Twenty-Third  returned  to  West 
Virginia,  where  Col.  Scammon  was  appointed  a  brig- 
adier-general. Lieut. -Col.  Hayes  was  commissioned 
as  colonel.  Major  Comly  as  lieutenant-colonel,  and 
Capt.  J.  P.  Mcllrath,  of  Cuyahoga  county,  (Captain 
of  Company  A)  as  major. 

The  regiment  was  on  garrison  and  scouting  duty  in 
West  Virginia,  without  being  called  on  for  very  seri- 
ous work,  from  this  time  until  the  last  of  April,  1864, 
when  it  marched  with  the  forces  under  General  Crook 
in  a  raid  on  the  Virginia  and  Tennessee  railroad. 
The  men  made  a  very  severe  march  through  moun- 
tains, forests  and  snows,  and  on  the  9th  of  May  found 
the  enemy  intrenched  on  the  first  crest  of  Cloyd 

Passing  through  a  belt  of  woods,  the  line  came  to 
an  open  meadow,  beyond  which  was  a  wooded  hill, 
with  rough  breastworks  near  the  top  defended  by  in- 
fantry and  artillery.  Led  by  its  officers,  the  regiment 
charged  swiftly  across  the  meadow  under  a  heavy  fire, 
and  then,  after  a  brief  pause,  dashed  up  the  hill  and 
drove  the  rebels  from  their  intrenchments  at  the  point 
of  the  bayonet.  Our  informant,  previously  mentioned, 
describes  it  as  "a  sharp,  little  fight  while  it  lasted." 
Two  attempts  were  made  by  the  rebels  to  rally  higher 
up  the  mountain,  but  in  both  cases  they  were  easily 


Capt.  A.  A.  Hunter,  of  Cuyahoga  county,  (com- 
mander of  Company  K)  was  killed  in  the  action,  and 

forty  or  fifty  officers  and  men  were  killed  and  wounded. 

At  New  River  Bridge,  on  the  same  expedition,  (May 
10,  1864,)  there  was  a  sharp  and  successful  skirmish, 
after  which  the  bridge  and  several  miles  of  the  Vir- 
ginia and  Tennessee  railroad  were  destroyed. 

After  another  month  of  hard  marching  and  occa- 
sional skirmishing  over  the  mountains  of  West  Vir- 
ginia, the  command  joined  General  Hunter's  foi'ces  at 
Staunton,  in  the  Shenandoah  valley,  on  the  8th  of 
June.  The  whole  command  then  proceeded  up  the 
valley  and  across  toward  Lynchburg.  They  defeated 
the  enemy  in  a  sharp  fight  two  miles  from  that  city, 
but  as  no  attack  was  made  that  night,  heavy  re-en- 
forcements were  brought  up  from  Richmond,  and  its 
capture  became  impracticable. 

The  army  then  retreated  to  West  Virginia.  The 
whole  expedition  was  one  of  extraordinary  severity,  on 
account  of  the  hard  marching  through  the  moun- 
tains accompanied  by  a  great  lack  of  food.  During 
nine  days  of  continuous  marching  and  fighting  the 
men  had  less  than  quarter  rations,  and  when  they  at 
length  met  a  supply-train  they  are  described  by  an 
officer  present  as  camping  and  "eating  all  night." 

In  the  following  month  Crook's  command,  includ- 
ing the  Twenty-Third,  was  ordered  to  the  Shenandoah 
valley  to  meet  Early.  On  the  34th  of  that  month  the 
regiment  took  part  in  one  of  the  numerous  battles  of 
Winchester.  This  was  one  in  which  the  United 
States  forces  were  defeated;  the  Twenty-Third  having 
ten  officers  and  a  hundred  and  forty-three  officers  and 
men  killed  and  wounded. 

It  were  idle  to  attempt  to  recount  the  unnumbered 
marches,  countermarches  and  minor  conflicts  which 
occurred  during  the  remainder  of  the  summer.  They 
may  be  summed  up  in  the  words  of  the  gentleman 
before  quoted,  "we  were  fighting  all  the  time," 
said  he;  "We  fought  more  that  summer  than  we  did 
during  all  the  rest  of  our  service."  During  the  sum- 
mer the  Twenty-Third  was  consolidated  with  the 
Twelfth  the  new  regiment  comprising  seven  com- 
panies of  the  former  and  three  of  the  latter,  and 
retaining  the  name  of  the  Twenty-Third. 

At  the  battle  of  Opequan,  on  the  19th  of  Septem- 
ber, Hayes'  bi-igade,  including  the  Twenty-Third, 
was  in  advance  on  the  extreme  right  of  the  infantry. 
After  driving  back  the  enemy's  cavalry  and  coming 
under  fire  from  his  infantry,  the  brigade  reached  a 
slough,  some  fifty  yards  wide,  in  which  the  water  was 
nearly  waist  deep,  while  beneath  it  was  a  bed  of  soft 
mud,  of  varying  depth  and  treacherous  consistency. 

The  whole  line  halted  at  this  formidable  obstacle, 
but  Colonel  Hayes,  the  brigade  commander,  plunged 
in,  and,  although  his  horse  several  times  fell  in  the 
mud,  urged  him  on  and  reached  the  farther  shore,  the 
first  one  across.  The  brigade  followed,  many  men 
being  drowned  in  the  treacherous  morass,  but  most 
of  them  reached  the  farther  shore,  formed  their  lines, 
dashed  upon  the  enemy  and  drove  them  back.  This 
was  repeated  several  times;  the  cavali-y  charging 
every  time,  and  capturing  a  large  number  of  prison- 




ers.  The  division  commander  was  wounded  and  car- 
ried from  the  field;  leaving  Colonel  Hayes  in  com- 
mand, who  led  the  division  during  the  remainder  of 
the  battle  with  the  most  reckless  gallantry — half  of 
the  time  being  in  advance  of  the  line  of  infantry. 

The  result  of  the  whole  battle  was  a  complete  vic- 
tory for  the  Union  arms,  eight  battle  flags  and  several 
thousand  prisoners  being  captured,  of  which  the 
Twenty-Third  took  two  hundred. 

At  the  battle  of  North  Mountain,  Hayes'  brigade 
charged  with  such  fury  that  the  rebels  made  almost 
no  resistance  and  were  driven  in  utter  rout  from  their 
intrenchments,  while  the  Unionists  suffered  very 
little  loss. 

On  the  19th  of  October  th«  Twenty-Third  took 
part  in  the  battle  of  Cedar  Creek;  the  conflict  which 
has  become  celebrated  throughout  the  country  by  the 
meteor-like  appearance  of  Sheridan  on  his  coal-black 
steed  to  retrieve  the  fortunes  of  the  day.  The  enemy 
having  stolen  across  an  unguarded  ford.  Crook's  com- 
mand and  the  Nineteenth  corps  were  driven  back 
with  heavy  loss.  At  length,  however,  they  established 
themselves  on  a  new  line,  and  were  awaiting  develop- 
ments when  Sheridan  dashed  up  from  Winchester. 
A  roar  of  cheers  greeted  him,  and,  after  making  the 
necessary  arrangements,  he  ordered  the  advance  of 
the  line.  Another  great  victory  was  the  result;  the 
infantry  driving  back  the  enemy  again  and  again, 
and  the  cavalry,  as  before,  charging  each  time  and 
capturing  prisoners  by  the  thousand. 

Colonel  Hayes  was  promoted  to  brigadier  general 
and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Comly  to  colonel  for  their 
part  in  the  battle  of  Cedar  Creek;  their  commissions 
both  dating  from  that  day. 

The  regiment  remained  in  the  valley  and  in  West 
Virginia  during  the  remainder  of  the  war,  but  was 
not  called  on  to  take  part  in  any  important  conflicts. 
It  was  mustered  out  on  the  25th  of  July,  1865,  and 
then  proceeded  to  Camp  Taylor,  Cleveland,  where 
the  men  were  paid  off  and  discharged. 



Russell  Hastings,  enr,  as  Second  Lieutenant  Company  I,  May  23,  1861; 

promoted  to  First  Lieutenant  March  23,  1862;  to  Captain  Company 

K  August  8.  1863 ;  and  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  March  8,  1865.    Mustered 

out  with  the  regiment. 
James  P.  Mcllrath,  enr.  as  Captain  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Major 

November  3,  1862.    Mustered  out  at  end  o£  term,  June  11,  1864. 
Harry  Thompson,  enr.  as  First  Sergeant  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to 

Second  Lieutenant  July  24.  1861 ;  to  First  Lieutenant  September  24, 

1862;  to  Captain  June  14, 1864;  and  to  Major  March  8, 1865.    Mustered 

out  with  regiment. 


Jehial  L.  Chamberlain,  enr.  as  Corporal  Company  A  May  18,  1861;  pro- 
moted to  Sergeant  November  30,  1863,  and  transferred  to  Non-Com- 
missioned Staff,  with  rank  of  Commissary  Sergeant  January  12, 1865. 
Mustered  out  with  the  regiment  July  26, 1865. 

Edward  V.  Spring,  enr.  May  18,  1861;  transferred  to  Non-Commissioned 
Staff  as  Chief  Musician  July  1,  1864.    Mustered  out  July  26,  1865. 

James  Thompson,  enl.  May  18,  1861;  transferred  to  Non-Commissioned 
Staff  as  Commissary  Sergeant  July  1,  1864;  promoted  to  Quarter- 
Master  Sergeant  January  12, 1865.    Mustered  out  July  26,  1865. 


Eugene  Clarli,  transferred  from  Company  I,  and  made  Captain  Company 
A  May  1,  1865.    Mustered  out  July  26,  1865. 


Wallace  J.  Woodward,  tnr.  as  First  Lieutenant  May  18, 1861.    Promoted 

to  Captain  Company  G  July  24, 1861. 
Benjamin  Killam,  enr.  as  Corporal  May  18, 1861;  promoted  to  Sergeant 

November  30,  1863;  to  Second  Lieutenant  January  14,  1804;  and  to 

First  Lieutenant  July  1  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 
John  F.  Wall,  enr.  as  Second  Lieutenant  May  18, 1861;  promoted  to  First 

Lieutenant  July  24,  1861.    Resigned  September  19, 1861. 
George  W.  Hicks,  enr,  as  Sergeant  May  18,  1661;  promoted  to  Second 

Lieutenant  February  8,  1862,  and  to  First  Lieutenant  November  20, 

1862.  Resigned  June  11,  1864. 

William  P.  Chamberlain,  enr.  as  Corporal  May  IS,  1861;  promoted  to 
Sergeant;  to  Second  Lieutenant  November  3,  lf62;  and  to  First  Lieu- 
tenant August  8,  1863.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term,  June  11,  1864. 

Frederick  Thompson,  enr,  as  Corporal  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Ser" 
geant  November  30,  1863;  to  Second  Lieutenant  October  11, 1864;  and 
to  First  Lieutenant  April  20,  1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment, 

Orville  W.  Richards,  enr,  as  i  orporal  May  18,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Ser- 
geant; to  Second  Lieutenant  August  18, 1863,  Mustered  out  with  the 

Charles  H,  Moore,  enr.  as  Sergeant  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Second 
Lieutenant  July  14,  1864.    Resigned  September  23,  1864. 

Charles  A,  Willard,  enr.  May  18,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Sergeant  November 
30, 1863 ;  and  to  Second  Lieutenant  April  .30, 1865.  Mustered  out  with 
the  regiment. 

Charles  H.  Morgan,  enr.  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Sergeant;  and  to 
Second  Lieutenant  August  18, 1863  Transferred  to  Company  D  May 
1,  1865, 

Leander  H,  Lane.  enr.  as  Corporal  Company  D  May  20,  1861 ;  promoted 
to  Sergeant  November  27,  1863;  to  Second  Lieutenant  of  CompanyA 
July  34,  1864;  to  First  Lieutenant  Company  G  July  21, 1864. 

Hugh  McCanna,  enl.  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to  First  Sergeant  May  1> 
1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment,  July  26,  1865. 

Cassius  L.  Mather,  enl.  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Corporal  October  1, 
1803;  and  to  Sergeant  April  20,  1665.    Mustered  out  July  36, 1865. 

James  Hays,  enl.  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Coiporal  November  30, 
1863;  and  to  Sergeant  May  1,  1865,     Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

Nathan  I,  Kelley,  enl.  May  18,  1661 ;  promoted  to  Corporal  November  30, 
1863;  and  to  Sergeant  May  1,  1865.    Mustered  out  ivith  the  regiment, 

John  K.  Wise,  enl.  May  18,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Corporal  October  1,  1863, 
Mustered  out  with  the  regiment, 

Eli  H,  Botsford,  enl.  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Corporal  October  1, 1863, 
Mustered  out  with  the  i  egiment, 

Charles  Biseut,  enl.  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Corporal  November  30, 

1863.  Mustered  out  with  the  regiment, 

Charles  Hartman,  enl.  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Corporal  January  24, 
1865.    Mustered  out  B-ith  the  regiment. 

John  Black,  enl.  as  private  May  18,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Corporal  May  1 
1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

David  T.  Howe,  enl.  May  18,  1861;  promoted  to  Coi-poral  May  1,  186B, 
Mustered  out  with  the  regiment, 

Thomas  Bowra,  enl.  May  18,  1861,    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment, 

Joiiu  Biseut,  enl.  February  5,  1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

Hugh  Cameron,  enl.  Dectmber  31,  1S63.    Mustered  out  with  regiment. 

John  H.  Clute,  enl.  Januarj'  5,  1864,    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

Joseph  C.  Caldwell,  enl.  November  1, 1863.   Mustered  out  with  regiment. 

Charles  E.  Dermott,  enl,  Dec, 22, 1863,    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment, 

Charles  E,  Dibble,  enl,  Feb,  24, 1364.     Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

James  B    Greenup,  enl.  Feb .  24, 1864,     Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment, 

James  A.  Hill,  enlisted  May  18,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Johnson  Black,  enl .  Nov .  29,  1863 .     Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Albert  G.  Bently,  enl.  Deo.  26,  1863.     Mustered  out  with  theEegiment. 

Norman  H.  Bull,  enl.  Feb.  19,  18B4.    Slustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Frederick  Hanna,  enl.  May  18,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Francis  Halpin,  enl.  May  18, 1861 ,    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment, 

Oren  S.  Hoyt,  enl.  May  18,  1861.    Mustered  cut  with  the  Regiment. 

Levi  S.  Harper,  enl.  May  18, 1861.     Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Patrick  Hogan,  enl.  January  8, 1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

John  Kalbrunner,  enl    Dec.  3,  1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Wilham  Lett,  enl.  Decembers,  1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Edward  Lynch,  enl.  March  24,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

George  Kempf,  enl.  May  18,1861.     Mustered  out  with  theEegiment. 

James  S .  Mitchell,  enl.  May  18, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Martin  McGrath,  enl.  Jan.  14, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Oliver  R.  Mosley,  enl.  Feb.  18, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Edward  A .  Parmalee,  enl.  January  28, 1664  Mustered  out  with  the  Reg- 

EdwardJ.  Stephens,  enl.  January  14, 1864.  Mustered  out  with  the  Reg- 

Alexander  Stewart,  enl.  May  18,  1861,    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Charles  Stahl,  enl.  May  18,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

William  H,  Sawyer,  enl.  May  18,  1861,    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Bernard  Schmitz,  enl.  May  18, 1661.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reguneut. 

Charles  P.  Smith,  enl.  May  18, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Joseph  Zelenka,  enl.  May  18. 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

James  Palmer,  enl.  May  18, 1861;  promoted  to  Corporal  and  to  Sergeant 
January  24,  1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

Henry  L.  Braddish,  enl.  May  18,  1861.    Taken  prisoner  May  9, 1664. 



Ira  Burlingame,  enl.  January  5, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Eegimeut. 

John  Caldwell,  enl.  January  23,  1864.  Left,  sick,  at  Winchester,  Vir- 
ginia, May  5,  1865. 

Franklin  Giles,  enl.  January  4, 1864.    Taken  prisoner. 

George  Watson,  enl.  December  23, 1863.  Left,  sick,  at  Harpers  Ferry, 
Virginia, . 

Sheridan  E.  Bull,  enr.  as  Corporal  May  18,  1861.  Killed  at  Antietam, 
Maryland,  September  17,  1862. 

Michael  Butler,  enl.  May  18,  1861 ;  promoted  to  Corporal.  Killed  in  ac- 
tion, May  9, 1864. 

Joshua  L.  Barnes,  enl.  May  18, 1861.  Killed  at  South  Mountain,  Mary- 
land, September  14,  1862. 

George  S.  Ayres,  enl.  Dec.  20,  1863.    Killed  in  action,  July  24,  1864. 

John  Dunn,  enl.  May  18, 1861.  Killed  at  South  Mountain,  Maryland, 
September  14,  1862. 

Charles  H.  Hickox,  enl.  May  18.  1861.  Killed  at  Cloyd  Mountain,  Vir- 
ginia, May  9,  1884. 

Jacob  Henry,  enl.  May  18,  1861.  Killed  at  Cloyd  Mountain,  Virginia, 
May  9,  1864. 

John  G.  Monger,  enl.  January  27, 1864.  Killed  at  Winchester,  Virginia, 
July  24, 1864. 

Thadeus  A.  Ross,  enl.  May  18,  1864.  Killed  at  South  Mountain,  Mary- 
laud,  September  14, 1862. 

Frank  W.  Bumell,  enl.  May  19, 1861.  Died  at  Green  Meadows,  Virginia, 
August  5,  1862. 

Robert  C.  Cornwall,  enl.  May  18, 1861.  Died  of  wounds  received  in  ac- 
tion, November  3, 1862. 

Henry  H.  Cragin,  enl.  May  18, 1861 .  Died  at  Wheeling,  West  Virginia, 
December  24,  1863. 

Manville  Clark,  enl.  February  24,  1864.  Died  at  Parkersburg,  West 
Virginia,  July  27.  1864. 

Joseph  W.  Fell,  enl.  May  IS,  1861.  Drowned  in  Little  Kanawha  river, 
August  23,  1861. 

Lorenzo  A.  Fuuver,  enl.  January  S3,  1864.  Died  in  rebel  prison  at 
Danville,  Virginia. 

Henry  E.  Hazen,  enl.  May  18, 1861.  Died  at  Cross  Lanes,  Virginia,  Octo- 
ber 2,  1861. 

William  H.  Hubbell,  enl.  February  23,  1864.  Died  in  rebel  prison  at 
Danville,  Virginia. 

Abram  S.  Johnson,  enl.  February  25,  1864.  Died  at  Frederick  City, 
Maryland,  October  19, 1864. 

Alva  A.  Rice,  enl.  February  5,  1864.  Died  in  rebel  prison  at  Savannah, 
Georgia,  August  25,  1864. 

Harry  Thompson.    (See  Field  and  Staff.)  •   " 

Henry  M.  Haven,  enr.  as  Sergeant,  May  18,  1861.  Promoted  to  Captain 
of  Company  G,  December  10,  1861, 

Alfred  A.  Jerome,  enl .  May  18,  1861.  Promoted  to  Corporal  and  to  Ser- 
geant November  30, 1863.    Discharged  for  disabiUty  June  5, 1865. 

James  E.  Doughty,  enr.  as  Corporal  May  18,  1861.  Pomoted  to  Sergeant 
February  14,  1862. 

AsaM.  Van  Sickle,  enl.  May  18, 1861.  Promoted  to  Corporal.  Discharged 
for  disability  July  1, 186a. 

George  C.  Thurston,  enl.  May  18,  1861.  Promoted  to  Corporal.  Dis- 
charged at  end  of  term,  June  11, 1864. 

James  H.  Armour,  enl  May  18,.1861.  Promoted  to  Corporal.  Discharged 
at  end  of  term  June  11, 1864. 

Stephen  Lejeune,  enr.  as  Corporal  May  18, 1861.  Discharged  for  disa- 
bility April  3,  1865. 

Sylvester  F.  Moore,  enl.  May  18,  1861.     Discharged  for  disability  April 

'     2, 1862. 

John  S.  Chapman,  enl.  May  18,  1861.     Discharged  January  5, 1865. 

Wilbur  Bentley,  enl.  May  18,  1861.    Disoh.  for  disability  May  16, 1865. 

Henry  Burmester,  enl.  May  18, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  May  28, 1863. 

Andrew  S.  Barker,  enl.  May  18, 1861.  Discharged  Jaauary  80,  1863,  in 
order  to  join  the  Cavalry. 

Thomas  0.  Connors,  enl.  May  18,  1861.  Transferred  to  Company  H, 
March  15, 1864.    Mustered  out  June  30, 1861. 

John  O.  Corvin,  enl.  May  18,  1861.  Transferred  to  Company  H,  March 
15,  1864.    Mustered  out  June  30, 1864. 

Michael  Deady,  enl.  May  18, 1861.  Discharged  for  disability  February 
26,  1863. 

John  Fitch,  enl.  May  18,  1861.    Discharged  at  end  of  term,  June  11,  1864. 

Sanford  H.  Fitch,  enl.  May  18, 1861.     Disoh.  for  disability  June  2, 1865. 

Andrew  M.  Green,  enl.  May  18, 1861.  Discharged  at  end  of  term,  June 
11,  1864. 

Edward  E.  Henry,  enl.  May  18, 1861.  Transf.  to  Co.  H,  March  15, 1864, 
Mustered  out  June  30,  1864. 

Joseph  S.  Harris,  enl.  May  18,  1861,    Promoted  July  1,  1862,  to  Sergt. 

Frederick  Harris,  enl.  May  18,  1861.  Transf.  to  Co.  H,  March  15,  1864. 
Mustered  out  June  30,  1864. 

John  E.  Hewitt,  enl.  May  18, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability. 

Henry  W.  Higby,  enl.  May  18,  1861.  Traosf.  to  Co.  H,  March  15, 1864. 
Mustered  out  June  30,  1864. 

George  W.  Jenkins,  enl.  May  18,  1861.  Disch.  at  end  of  term,  June  11, 

Thomas  Jones,  enl.  May  18,  1861.  Transf.  to  Co.  H,  March  15,  1864, 
Mustered  out  June  30,  1864. 

David  H.  Kimberly,  enl.  Miy  18,  1861.  Disoh.  at  end  of  term,  June  11, 

Washington  Litoh,  enl.  May  18,  1861.  Transf.  to  Co.  H,  March  15, 1864. 
Mustered  out  June  30, 1864. 

Henry  C.  Lufkin,  enl.  May  18,  1861.  Transf.  to  Co.  H,  Feb.  27,1864. 
Mustered  out  June  30,  1864 . 

William  G.  Lee,  enl.  May  18, 1861.    Disoh.  tor  disability  June  5,  1865. 

Edgar  G.  Meekins,  enl.  May  18,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  June  1,1882. 

Edwin  F.  Parker,  enl.  May  18, 1861.    Disoh.  at  end  of  term,  June  11,  1864. 

James  K.  Rudolph,  enl.  May  18, 1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term,  June  11, 1864. 

Joseph  Rudolph,  enl.  May  18, 1881.  Transferred  March  1, 1862,  to  Com- 
pany A,  Forty-Second  Regiment.    Disoh.  at  end  of  term,  July  6,  1864. 

Charlts  P.  Smith,  enl.  May  18,  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term,  June  11, 1864. 

Joseph  Smith,  enl.  May  18,  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term,  June  11, 1864. 

WilUam  A.  TUl,  enl.  May  18,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Dec.  11,  1868. 

Isaac  Ullman,  enl.  jiay  18,  1881.  Disch.  January  30,  1883,  in  order  to 
enUst  in  the  Cavalry. 

Henry  S.  Wenbau,  enl.  May  18, 1861.  Transferred  to  Company  H  March 
15,  1884.    Mustered  out  June  30,  1864. 

William  Wallace,  enl.  May  18,  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  cerm,  June  11, 1864. 

Henry  K.  Wise,  enl.  May  18,  1881.    Disoh.  for  disability. 

Thomas  J.  u  lugam,  enl.  May  18, 1881.    Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  21,  1862. 

Philip  C.  Molliath,  enr.  as  Sergeant  May  18,  1861.  Transferred  to  the 
Brigade  Band  September  1,  1861. 

Edwin  B.  Campbell,  enl.  May  18,  1881 ;  promoted  to  Sergeant  October  1, 
1882.  Was  discharged  and  re-enlisted  in  the  Tenth  Cavalry,  Com- 
pany M,  as  Second  Lieutenant,  July  23,  1863. 

Albeit  Tucker,  enl,  February  21,  1861.  Died  at  Germantown,  Pennsyl- 
vania, October  24,  1881. 

D.  B.  Ainger,  enl.  December  17,  1883.    Mustered  out  July  26, 1865. 

Charles  VV.  Chapman,  enl.  j  anuaty  5,  1884.  Transferred  co  the  Brigade 
Baud  Januaiy  6,  1864. 

John  Brunei',  eiir.  as  Musiciau  December  12,  188.j.  Discharged  for  disa- 
biUty  June  14,  1865. 

William  Pettibone,  enl.  Jan.  11,  1884.    Disch.  tor  disabiUty  June  13,  1865. 

Seth  L  Rhodes,  enl.  December  17,  1861.  Died  at  Fayetteville,  West  Vir- 
ginia, April  26,  1862. 

Lorenzo  D.  Hunt,  enl.  Dec.  11,  1861.    Disch.  tor  disability  June  1,  1863. 

James  Olds,  enl,  Dec.  17, 1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term,  Dec.  17,  1864. 

Asa  Smith,  enl.  Deo.  17, 1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term,  Dec.  17,  1864. 

Edward  W.  Roscoe,  enl.  May  18, 1861.  Transferred  to  Company  H  March 
15,  1864.    Mustered  out  June  30,  1864 

Augustus  Berschig,  enl.  Jan.  5,  1864.    Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  5,  1865. 

COMPAIir    B. 

Charles  H.  Morgan,  enl.  May  18,  1861,  Company  A;  promoted  to  Ser- 
geant; and  to  Second  Lieutenant  August  18,  1863.  Transferred  to 
Company  D,  and  promoted  to  First  Lieutenant  May  1,  1865;  and  to 
Captain  Company  B  May  29,  1865.    Mustered  out  with  regiment. 

Henry  Richardson,  enr.  Second  Lieutenant  Company  D  May  30,  1861 ; 
promoted  to  First  Lieutenant  Company  B  July  24,  1861 ;  to  Captain 
Company  H,  Fifth-Fourth  Infantry,  February  1,  1862. 


Benjamin  Jackson,  traasterred  from  Company  I  and  made  1st  Lieuten- 
ant of  Company  0,  June  1,  1833.      Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment. 

John  F.  Cutler,  enr.  as  Sergeant  May  33,  1861 ;  prom  jted  to  2d  Lieuten- 
ant July  33, 1861.    Resigned  September  22, 1861. 


Howards.  Lovejoy,  enr.  as  Captain,  May  20, 1881;  wounded  at  Antietam, 
Maryland,  September  1862.    Resigned  Feb.  13,  1863. 

Charles  H.  Morgan,  enlisted  in  Company  A  May  18,  1861;  trans- 
ferred to  Company  D  and  made  1st  Lieutenant  May  1,  1865.  Trans- 
ferred to  Company  B  May  39,  1885. 

John  T.  Ogden,  enr.  as  Corporal  May  20,  1861;  promoted  to  Sergeant,  to 
2d  Lieutenant  April  20,  .1864,  and  to  1st  Lieutenant  May  .30,  1865. 
Mustered  out  with  the  Regiment  July  26,  1885. 

Henry  L.  Hood,  enl.  Company  G  as  1st  Lieutenant,  June  7,  1861;  trans- 
ferred to  Company  D  March  31,  1863,  and  September  4th  returned  to 
Company  G. 

Abram  A.  Hunter,  enr.  as  1st  Lieutenant  May  30,  1861 ;  promoted  to 
Captain  Company  K  March  1,  1862. 

Henry  Richardson,  ear.  as  3d  Lieutenant  May  20, 1861 ;  promoted  to  1st 
Lieutenant  Company  B  July  34.  1881. 

Edward  Cameron,  enl.  May  20,  1861;  promoted  to  Sergeant  and  to  1st 
Sergeant  March  4,  1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg.  July  26, 1865. 

John  Gorman,  enl.  May  20,  1861;  promoted  to  Sergeant.  Mustered  out 
with  the  regiment. 

Edwin  Hawes,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

George  W.  Penn,  enl.  May  20,  1861;  promoted  to  Musician  and  mustered 
out  with  the  regiment. 

Corydon  Bassett,  enl.  May  20, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

William  Graeber,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 

Joel  Hance,  enl.  May  30,  1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment . 

Edgar  Leach,  enl.  May  30, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 



Sylvester  Leach,  enl.  May  30,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  regiment. 
Henry  Marmilstein,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
David  E.  Scott,  enl.  May  30, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
James  Wortman,  enl.  May  30, 1861 .    Mustered  outwith  the  Reg. 
John  H.  Lindley,  enr.  as  Corp.  May  20, 1861;  promoted  to  Sergt.    Killed 

at  South  Mt.,  Md.,  Sept.  14,  1863. 
Isaac  W.  Barker,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Killed  at  South  Mt.,  Sept.  14,  1863. 
Hiram  Durkee,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Killed  at  South  Mt.,  Sept.  14,  1863. 
James  Eldridge,  enl.  May  30, 1861.  KUled  at  Antietam,  Md.,  Sept.  17,  1863. 
Frederick  Hooker,  enl.  May  30, 1861.    Killed  at  South  Mt.,  Md.,  Sept.  14, 

Edward  Sims,  enl   May  20,  1861.    Killed  at  South  Mt.,  Md.,  Sept.  14,  1863. 
WilUam  W.  Hardy,  enr.  as  Sergt.  May  20,  1861.    Died  at  FayettevjUe, 

Va.,  Jan.  15,  1862. 
Harvey  K.  Law,  enl.  May  20, 1861 ;  promoted  to  Corp.    Died  at  Camp 

Ewing,  Va.,  Nov.  2,  1861. 
OrinF.  Green,  enr.  as  Corp.  May  20,  1861.    Died  at  Raleigh,  Va.,  April 

5,  1862. 
Samuel  ChfEord,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Died  at  rebel  prison  July  12,  1864. 
Gilbert  G.  Held,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Lost  on  the  steamer  Sultana  April 

25, 1865. 
John  R.  Searl,  enl.  May  20, 1861.    Died  at  Raleigh,  Va.,  March  16.  1862 
Eliphalet  I.  Taylor,  enr.  as  Corp.  May  20,  1861;  promoted  to  Sergt.    Dis- 
charged at  end  of  term  June  11,  1864. 
Dennison  C.  Hanchett,  enr.  as  Corp.  May  30, 1861;  promoted  to  Sergt. 

Disch.  at  end  of  term  June  11,  1864. 
Lucius  F.  Gilson,  enl.  May  20,  1861;  promoted  to  Sergt.     Disch.  at  end 

of  term  June  11,  1864. 
Willis  Chase,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.    Discharged  for 

disability  caused  by  wounds  April  19, 1865 . 
William  E.  Brooks,  enl  May  20,  1861 .    Promoted  to  Corp .     Discharged 

at  end  of  term  June  11, 1864. 
Olifton  A.  Bennett,  enr.  as  Corp.  May  20,  1861.    Promoted  July  28,  1863, 

to  Sergt.    Discharged  at  end  of  term  June  11,  1864. 
James  H.  Goddard,  enr.  as  Coi-p.  May  20,  1861.    Discharged  at  end  of 

term  June  1 1 ,  1864. 
Edgar  A.  Price,  enr.  as  Corp.  May  20,  1861.     Discharged  for  disability 

Dec.  18.  1863. 
Abraham  Tanner,  enl.  May  20,  1861 .    Promoted  to  Corp .    Disch.  at  end 

of  term  June  11,  1864. 
Daniel  Baker,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Feb.  1,  1862. 
William  R,  Boone,  enl.  May  30,  1861.    Disch.  Sept.  20,  1861. 
Jasper  '.  Cooley,  enl.  May  20, 1861.    Disch.  June  14.  1863. 
John  O.  Beirn,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Disch.  June  21,  1865. 
James  Crowder,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Disch.  Nov.  23,  1862 
John  Eaton,  enl.  May  20, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Nov.  29,  1863. 
Milton  H.  Franks,  enl.  May  30, 1861 .    Disch.  for  disability  Sept.  19,  1861 . 
Thomas  Flack,  enl.  May  20, 1861.    Disch.  Jan.  23,  1863. 
John  Goss,  enl.  May  30,  1861.    Disch.  April  1,  1863. 

Williaml.  Holcomb,  enl.  May  20, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  April  17, 186.3. 
Jacob  Hartman,  enl.  May  20,  1861 .    Disch.  for  disability  May  4, 1863. 
Theodore  Harris,  enl.  May  30,  1861.     Disch.  at  end  of  term  June  11, 1864. 
David  Peterman,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Oct.  26,  1862. 
Martin  Ryan,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Sept.  7, 1862. 
Truman  S.  Seaman,  enl.  May  20,  1(!61.    Disch.  for  disability  June  5, 1862. 
Marshall  H.  Sipler,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  March  16 

Ephraim  Stevens,  enl.  May  20,  1861.  Disch.  at  end  of  term  June  11, 1864. 
LawrenceSquire,  enl.  May20,  1861.    Taken  prisoner  July  24, 1664.    Was 

released  and  Disch.  June  8,  1865. 
Harry  Wheeler,  enl .  May  20, 1861 .    Disch .  for  disabihty  Sept .  20, 1861 . 
Sumuel  Ward,  enl.  May  20,  1861      Disch.  for  disability  Oct.  85,  1863. 
Henry  Agar,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf .  to  Co.  K  March  14,  1864      Mus- 
tered out  July  6,  1864. 
-George  Archer,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K  March  14,  1864. 

Mustered  out  July  6.  1864. 
Joseph  Brumley,  enl.  May  30,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  H  March  5,  1864. 

Mustered  out  June  30,  1864. 
George  S.  Bidwell,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  H  March  5,  1S64. 

Mustered  out  June  -30, 1864. 
Frederick  V.  Cogswell,  enl.  as  Musician  May  20,  1861. 
Sampson  C.  Curtiss,  enl.  May  20, 1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  H  March  5, 

Mustered  out  June  30,  1864. 
David  Danby.  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K  March  14,  1864. 

tered  out  July  6,  1864. 
Ransom  Fisher,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  H  March  5,  1864,    Mus- 
tered out  June  30, 1864. 
William  D.  Hanson,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K  March  14,  1864 

Mustered  out  July  6, 1864. 
Joseph  Hower,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K  March  14,  1864.    Mus- 
tered out  July  6, 1864. 
Philip  Holzworth,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K  March  14   1864 

Mustered  out  July  6,  1864.  ' 

Henry  M.  Holzworth.  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K  March  14  1864 

Mustered  out  July  6.  1864.  ' 

Theodore  W.  Ingersoll,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  H  March  5 
1864.    Mustered  out  June  30,  1864 .  ' 



William  Jones,  enl.  May  20, 1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K  March  14, 1864.    Mus- 
tered out  July  6,  1864. 

Allen  H.  Larned,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  H  March  5,  1864. 
Mustered  out  June  30, 1864. 

George  Lowenstein,  enl.  May  20, 1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  H  March  5,  1864. 
Mustered  out  June  30, 1864. 

Anson  K.  Mills,  enl.  May  30, 1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K  March  14, 1864.   Mus- 
tered out  July  6,  1864. 

Charles  E.  Manchester,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K  March  14, 
1864.    Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 

Henry  Montague,  enl.  May  30,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K  March  14,  1864. 
Mustered  out  July  6,.  1864 

Henry  Molter,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K  March  14,  1864.    Mus- 
tered out  July  6,  1864. 

Frederick  Motrey,  enl.  May  20, 1851.    Tiansf.  to  Co.  K  March  14,  1864. 
Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 

Meredith  McKinney,  enl.  May  20, 1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  H  March  B,  1864. 
Mustered  out  June  30,  1864 . 

George  C.  Reannourd,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  H  March  5, 
1864.    Mustered  out  June  30,  1864. 

Addison  A.  Root,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K.  March  14,  18M. 
Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 

Warren  Square,  enl.  May  20,- 1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K,  March  14,  lo64. 
Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 

James  H.  Waldo,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  H,  March  5,  1864.. 
Mustered  out  J  une  30,  1864 . 

Nelson  H.  Wing,  enl    May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  H,  March  5,  1864. 
Mustered  out  June  30, 1864. 

Thomas  J.  Wiley,  enl.  May  20,  1861 .    Transf.  to  Co.  H,  March  5,  1864. 
Mustered  out  June  30,  1864. 

Charles  Morgan,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K,  March  14,  1864. 
Mustered  out  July  6,  1864. 

Leander  H.  Lane,  enr.  as  Corp.  May  20,  1861.     Promoted  to  Sergt.  Nov. 
27,  1868,  to  2nd  Lieut  Co.  A,  July  2, 1864. 

Samuel  McElroy,  enl.  as  Musician  May  20, 1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  K,  March 
14,  1864.    Disch.  with  the  Co.  July  6,  1864. 


Orson  Holly,  enl.  Jan.  5.  186(.     Promoted  to  Corp .  June  28,  1865.    Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Co   July  26.  1865. 
Jared  S.  Chamberlain,  enl.  March  35,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Charles  Featherly,  enl .  March  28,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co . 
Scott  F.  Huntley,  enl.  Feb.  2,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Horace  A.  Little,  enl.  March  23,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
David  C.  Stover,  enl.  Feb.  3,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 


Alonzo  Kingsbury,  enl.  Dec.  29,  1863.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
James  Williams,  enl.  July  14,  1864.    Disch.  July  8,  1865. 


Wallace  J.  Woodward,  First  Lieut.  Co.  A,  May  18, 1861.    Prom.  toCapt. 

Co.  G,  July  34,  1861.    Died  of  fever  at  Camp  Ewing,  Nov.  6,  1861. 
Henry  M.  Haven,  enl.  Sergt.  Co.  A,  May  18, 1861.    Prom,  to  Capt.  Co. 

G,  Dec.  10,  1861.    Resigned  Dec.  1, 1862. 
Henry  G.  Hood,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut.  June  7,  1861.      Assigned  to  Co.  D, 

March  31,  1862      Promoted  to  Capt.  Sept.  4,  1862,  and  returned  to 

Co.  G.    Wounded  at  South  Mt.,  Md  .  Sept.  14, 1862.    Disch.  July9» 

Leander  H    Lane,  enr.  Corp.  Co.  D,  May  20,  1861.    Prom,   to  Sergt. 

Nov.  27,  1863;  to  2d  Lieut.  Co.  A,  July  3,  1864,  to  1st  Lieut.  Co.  G, 

July  21,  1864,  and  to  Capt.  Co.  I,  Jan.  12, 1865. 
Lewis  Barrett,  enl.  Aug.  18,  1862.    Disch.  June  30,  1865. 


Robert  More,  enr.  as  Captain  May  22,  1861.    Res.  March  33,  1862. 
Leander  H.  Lane,  enl.  Corp.  Co.  D,  May  20,  1861.     Made  3nd  Lieut.  Co. 

A,  July  2,   1864,   1st  Lieut.  Co.  G,  July  31,  1864,  and  Capt.  Co.  I, 

Jan .  13, 1865 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Co . 
Eugene  Clark,  enr,  as  Corp.  May  23,  1861.     Promoted  to  Sergt;  to  3nd 

Lieut.  June  11,  1864;  to  1st  Lieut.  July  1,  1864,  and  to  Captain  Co. 

A,  May  1, 1865. 
Charles  P.  Conant,  enl.  May  32,  1861 .      Prom,  to  Sergt.  Nov.  30, 1863;  to 

2d  Lieut.  Oct.  8, 1864,  and  to  1st  Lieut.  April  20,  1865.    Mustered  out 

with  the  Reg.  July  26,  1885. 
Benj    W.  Jackson,  enr.  as  Sergt.  May  33,  1861.    Promoted  to  2d  Lieut. 

March  23, 1862,  and  to  1st  Lieut.  Co.  C,  Jan.  1,  1863. 
Russell  Hastings.    (See  Field  and  Staff.] 
Valcen  Jackson,  enl.  Feb.  22,  1864.     Promoted  to  Corp.   Jan.  8,  1865. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  July  26, 1865. 
Perry  C.  Carroll,  enl.  Jan.  25, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
George  C.  Jones,  enl.  May  22,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Michael  Ryan,  enl.  June  8, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Patrick  Scribner,  enl.  Feb 24,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
James  Walker,  enl.  Feb.  8, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 



John  Hadloek,  enl.  June  8, 1864.    Sick  in  Hosp.  at  Baltimore  since  April 
15,  1865. 

WilliamF.  Greer,  enl.  Jan.  4, 1864.    Killed  at  Cloyd  Mt.,  Va.,  May  9,  1864. 
Charles  Dille,  enl.  Sept.  1,  1863.    Died  in  Andersonville  prison  Aue  1. 

Orin  C.  Johnson,  enl.  Deo.  28, 1863.    Died  in  rebel  prison  at  Salisbury  N 

C,  Dec.  16,  1864. 
Charles  Bliss,  enl.  Feb.  23, 1864.    Disch.  for  disability  May  29, 1865. 
Daniel  B.  Jenks,  enl.  Sept,  1. 1862.    Transf.  to  the  Invalid  Corps  Dec  31 



Abram  A.  Hunter,  enr.  1st  Lieut.  Co.  D,  May  20, 1861.    Prom,  to  Capt. 

Co.  K,  March  1, 1863.     Wounded  at  South  Mt.,  Md.,  Sept.  14, 1862- 

Killed  at  Cloyd  Mt.,  Va.,  May  9,  1864. 
Russell  Hastings,  enr.  Co.  I,  as  3d  Lieut.  May  23, 1861.    Made  Capt.  Co. 

K,  Aug.  8,  1863.     Prom,  to  Lieut.  Col.  March  8,  1865. 



Organization  of  the  Twenty-fourth— Off  to  West  Virginia^The  Rebels 
defeated— To  Kentucky  and  Tennessee— Pittsburg  Landing— It  goes 
north  with  Buell—Perniville— Stone  River— Two  Commanders  Killed 
—Chickamauga— Mission  Ridge— Dalton— Mustered  out— Members 
from  this  County— Twenty-fifth  Infantry— Transferred  Men— The 
List— Twenty-seventh  Infantry— Company  G— Service  in  Missouri— In 
Pope's  Army— Battle  of  luka— Battle  of  Corinth— Parker's  Cross 
Roads— At  Memphis — In  Middle  Tennessee — Re-enlistment -The  At- 
lanta Campaign— Dallas— Kenesaw—Nicojack  Creek— Hard  Fighting 
before  Atlanta— Heavy  Losses— To  the  Sea— Muster  out — Cuyahoga 
Members— Thirtieth  Infantry— Thirty-second  Infantry— Thirty-third 
Infantry — Thirty-seventh  Infantry— The  Number  from  this  Connty 
Ordered  to  West  Virginia— Fight  at  Princeton— At  Fayetteville— On 
the  Mississippi — The  Assault  on  Vicksburg  -  Movement  to  Chatta- 
nooga— Battle  of  Mission  Ridge- Relief  of  Knoxville — Re-enlistment 
— Resaca,  Dallas  and  Kenesaw— Before  Atlanta — Battle  of  Ezra  Chapel 
—Jonesboro— Subsequent  Services — Members  from  Cuyahoga  County. 


This  regiment  was  organized  at  Camp  Chase  in  the 
latter  part  of  June,  1861.  The  records  show  that 
fifty -four  members,  all  Germans,  were  from  Cuyahoga 
county,  headed  by  Lieutenant  (afterwards  Captain) 
Jacob  Diehl. 

The  regiment  went  to  West  Virginia  in  the  latter 
part  of  July,  serving  at  Cheat  Mountain  Summit 
during  August  and  September.  On  the  morning  of 
September  13th  it  was  surrounded  and  attacked  by 
a  brigade  of  rebel  soldiers.  After  a  skirmishing  fight 
of  three  hours  the  assailants  fled,  leaving  some  of 
their  number  dead  on  the  field  besides  a  few  who  were 
taken  prisoners.  The  Twenty-fourth,  being  defended 
by  abatis,  had  only  two  men  wounded.  On  the  3d  of 
October  the  regiment  was  slightly  engaged  at  Green- 
brier, having  five  men  killed  and  wounded. 

In  November  the  Twenty-fourth  moved  to  Ken- 
tucky, joining  the  Tenth  Division,  Army  of  the 
Ohio.  In  February,  1862,  it  proceeded  to  Nashville, 
and  thence  in  March  went  forward  with  Buell's  army 
to  join  Grant.  It  crossed  the  Tennessee  in  the  after- 
noon of  April  6th,  and  immediately  took  part  in  the 
battle  of  Pittsburg  Landing.  The  next  day  it  was 
sharply  engaged,  though  with  comparatively  slight 
loss— four  killed  and  twenty-eight  wounded. 

After  serving  in  northern  Mississippi  and  Alabama 
it  returned  to  Kentucky,  and  was  present  at  the  battle 
of  Perryville.     It  was  with  Rosecrans  in  his  advance 


from  Nashville  in  December,  1863,  and  was  severely 
engaged  at  Stone  River,  having  two  regimental  com- 
manders (Colonel  Jones  and  Major  Terry)  killed  in 
succession  in  that  battle.  The  whole  loss  was  four 
officers  and  ten  men  killed,  and  four  officers  and 
sixty-nine  men  wounded,  out  of  three  hundred  and 
fifty -three  present. 

After  light  duty  during  tlie  spring  and  summer  of 
1863,  the  regiment  moved  forward  with  Roseci'ans 
and  was  warmly  engaged  at  Chickamauga;  in  fact  was 
badly  broken  up,  and  suficred  severely  in  killed  and 
wounded.  The  same  fall  the  Twenty-fourth  took 
part  in  the  great  victory  of  Mission  Ridge.  It  was 
also  in  an  engagement  near  Dalton,  having  ten  men 
killed  and  wounded.  It  saw  some  hard  service  during 
the  winter,  but  no  more  serious  fighting.  It  was 
mustered  out  in  June,  1864. 



Jacob  Diehl,  enr.  as  2nd  Lieut.  May  30,  1861.    Promoted  to  1st  Lieut. 

May  7,  1862,  and  to  Capt.  Aug.  16, 1862.    .Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

June  20,  1864. 
William  Hartraan,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Dec.  3,  1S62, 

and  to  Sergt.  Jan.  10,  1863. 
JohnF.  Weigold,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Feb.  20,  1863, 

and  to  Sergt.  June  34, 1863.  Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  June 20, 1864. 
Henry  Schoder,  enl.  May  10,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  and  to  Sergt. 

April  1,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Pe  er  Hoffman,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  April  1,  1864. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co . 
Louis  Seithard,  enr.  as  Drummer  April  34,  1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the 

William  Dodel,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Franz  Florin,  enl  April  23,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Peter  Goebel,  enl.  April  24, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Thomas  Geist,  enr.  as  Corp.  April  34,  1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Philip  Grames,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Andrew  Hilbrunner,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Benoit  Kling,  enl.  May  1, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Adam  Stahl,  enl .  April  24, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co .  June  20, 1864. 
John  Sommerholder,  enl.  April  24, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Frederick  Thode,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Emanuel  Newman,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Killed  at 

Stone  River,  Tenn  ,  Jan.  2,  1863. 
Christoph  Bergermaister,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Killed  at  Greenbriar,  Va., 

Oct.  31,  1861. 
Sunor  Deggengier,  enl.  May  28,  1861.    Killed  at  Shiloh,  April  7,  1862, 
Jacoph  Kinesel,  enl  May  1, 1861.   Killed  at  Greenbriar,  Va. ,  Oct.  31, 1861. 
John  O'Neill,  enl.  June  13, 1861.   Killed  at  Greenbriar,  Va.,  Oct.  81, 1861. 
Johann  Suter,  enl.  April  24,  1861,  Killed  at  Stone  River,  Tenn.,  Dec.  31, 

Casper  Weiss,  enr.  as  Sergt.  April  24,  1861.   Died  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  Dec. 

31,  1863. 
Joseh  Borlein,  enl.  April  24,  1861.  Killed  at  Stone  River,  Tenn  ,  Dec.  31, 

John  Fry,  enl.  April  24, 1861 ,     Promoted  to  Corp.   Died  at  Cleveland,  O. , 

Feb.  15,  1862. 
Franz  Detombel,  enl.  May  25,  1861.   Died  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  Dec.  2,  1861. 
Charles  Gusching,  enl.  May  10. 1861.    Died  at  Mound  City,  III. ,  June  1, 

John  Henss,  enl.  May  1,  1861.    Died  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  Sept.  10,  1862. 
Jacob  Schott,  enl.  May  6,  1861.     Died  at  Mound  City,  111.,  May  12,  1862. 
Heinrich  C.  Hoyer,  enl,  April  24, 1861.    Transf.  to  Invalid  Corps  Oct.  23, 

Joseph  Lehman,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Transf.  to  Invalid  Corps  Sept.  6, 

Patrick  McNamara,  enl.  May  4,  1861.    Transf.  to  Invalid  Corps  Sept.  6. 

J  acob  Severs,  enr.  as  Corp.  May  30, 1861.    Transf .  to  Invalid  Corps  Oct. 

14,  1863. 
John  Wehnes,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Disch.  on  account  of  wounds,  Nov. 

12,  1862. 
Christian  Kramer,  enl.   April  24,  1861.     Disch.  on  account  of  wounds 

Juiy  17,  1862. 
Theodore  Reilinger,  enl .  June  26,  1861 .    Disch ,  on  account  of  wounds 

Jan.  21,  1862. 



Frederick  Christian,  eur.  as  Corp.  April  24, 1861.    Discli.  for  disabiiity 

Oct.  9,  1862. 
Frederick  Draeger,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Discli.  for  disability  Aug.  15, 

Christopb  Kayler,  enl.  June  12,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Oct.  15,  1862. 
John  Deyle,  enl.  Feb.  20,  1862.    Disch.  for  disability  Nov.  8,  1862. 
William  Frochleich,  enl.  June]2, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Nov.  8, 1861. 
Jacob  Hummel,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  April  2.3, 1862. 
Alexander  Hommel,  enl.  May  18, 1861.    Disch.  for  disabiUty  Aug.  10, 1862. 
JohnHartman,  enl.  June  20, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Aug.,  1861. 
Leonard  Bernhart,  enl.  April  24, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Sept. ,  1862 . 
Jacob  Miller,  enl.  April  24. 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Aug.,  1862. 
John  Morro-y,  enl.  June  26, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  April,  1862. 
Christopher  Passold,  enl.  April   24,   1861.    Disch.  for    disability  Oct., 

George  Roth.  enl.  May  25,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Oct.,  1862. 
John  Stauffer,  enl.  May  20,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Feb..  1863. 
Christian  Weber,  enl.  April  24,  1861.    Disch.  for  disabiUty  Aug..  1861. 
Henry  Wilhams,  enr.  as  Corp.  May  30,  1861.    Appointed  2d  Lieut.,  and 

transf.  to  Co.  I  Jan.  9, 1862.    Resigned  Jan.  29,  1862. 
George  Arnold,  enr.  as  Capt.  April  24,  1861.    Promoted  to  iVIajor  107th 

Reg.  Aug.  26,  1862. 
Augustus  Draeger,  enr.  Sergt.  April  24,  1861.    Resigned  April  20,  1863. 
William  Machey,  enl.  May  1,  1861 .     Promoted  to  Corp. ;  and  to  Sergt. 

Sept.  1,  1861.    Mustered  out  June  20,  1864. 
Jacob  Graef.  enr.  as  Corp.  April  24,  1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

June  20, 1864. 


In  July,  1865,  forty-eight  Cuyahoga  men  of  the 
One  Hundred  and  Seventh  Infantry  were  transferred 
to  the  Twenty-fifth.  Afterwards  the  latter  served  on 
garrison  and  guard  duty  until  June,  1866.  It  was 
then  sent  home,  mustered  out  on  the  eighteenth  of 
that  month,  some  of  the  men  having  served  over  five 



David  G.  Parker,  enl.  Nov.  30, 1864.    Disch.  Nov.  30,  1865. 


William  Bixler,  enl.  Sept.  29,  1864.    Mustered  out  July  15,  1865. 

The  following  were  transferred  to  the  Twenty-fifth,  from  the  One 
Hundred  and  Seventh  Infantry  in  July,  1865:  Joseph  Muller,  John  G. 
McCauley,  JohnW.  Jorvu,  Stephen  Alge,  GustusA.  Augspurger,  Pat- 
rick Calaghan,  Alvis  Daul,  Patrick  Dillon,  Gabriel  Fertig,  Henry  Fight 
James  Goudy,  Andrew  Gauter,  Peter  Hirz,  Anton  Hillerick,  John  H. 
Horst,  WilUam  Lauchley,  Michael  Maloney,  John  McConnick,  George 
Mueller,  Christoph  Mario,  William  Pluss,  Samuel  Pfister,  William  Pen- 
dleton, James  Pendleton,  Frederick  Prasse,  John  Sehaab,  John  Schmehl, 
Gottleib  Schwartz,  JuUus  Schoeneweg,  John  Traxel,  Christian  Wanger, 
John  Wanger,  Hermann  Wehagen,  John  Brown,  Piatt  Benjamin,  John 
Crane,  George  Ellsworth,  George  Hugill,  George  Ody,  Gotfried  Weiden- 
kopf ,  Charles  J  ones,  Edward  Johnson,  Charles  Lyons,  Gottleib  Muntz, 
John  Schorr,  Theodore  Baldinger,  Robert  Dietzold,  John  Ley. 


Forty-nine  men,  of  Company  G,"  were,  according  to 
the  record,  the  contribution  of  Cuyahoga  county  to 
this  regiment.  Frank  Lynch  and  Edward  C.  Gibson, 
of  this  county,  were  respectively  captain  and  second 

The  regiment,  from  all  parts  of  the  State,  was  or- 
ganized at  Camp  Chase  in  August,  1861.  In  the  fall 
it  served  in  Missouri,  and  in  February,  1862,  joined 
the  Army  of  the  Mississippi.  In  Jilarch  it  was  ac- 
tively engaged  in  the  siege  and  capture  of  New  Mad- 
rid and  Island  No.  Ten.  In  May,  with  the  rest  of 
Pope's  Army  it  joined  Halleck,  took  part  in  the  siege 
of  Corinth,  and  remained  near  that  point  with  the 
rest  of  the  "Ohio  brigade,"  as  it  was  especially  desig- 
nated, during  the  summer  months. 

On  the  19th  of  September  the  Ohio  brigade  took  an 
active  part  in  the  battle  of  luka,  driving  the  enemy 
back  on  the  double  quick  as  soon  as  it  reached  the  bat- 
tle field.  On  the  third  of  October  it  was  at  the  battle 
of  Corinth  but  not  severely  engaged.  The  next  day 
it  supported  Battery  Robinett,  the  main  object  of  the 
rebel  attack.  The  enemy  made  a  desperate  assault  on 
this  position  but  were  forced  back  with  terrific  loss. 
The  Twenty-seventh  though  partially  sheltered,  had 
over  sixty  officers  and  men  killed  and  wounded  in  a 
very  brief  time. 

In  December,  1862,  the  Twenty-seventh  was  warmly 
engaged  with  Gen.  Forrest  at  Parker's  Cross  Roads, 
Tenn;  aiding  in  the  capture  of  seven  pieces  of  artillery, 
besides  prisoners  and  horses.  It  remained  at  Corinth 
during  the  winter  of  1862-3  and  in  the  spring  of  1863 
went  to  Memphis  where  it  stayed  throughout  the 
summer.  In  October  the  Ohio  brigade  moved  to  mid- 
dle Tennessee.  There  it  re-enlisted  as  veterans,  and 
after  its  return  from  furlough  it  was  broken  up;  the 
Twenty-seventh  becoming  part  of  the  First  brigade, 
Fourth  division.  Sixteenth  army  corps. 

It  took  part  in  Sherman's  Atlanta  campaign.  At 
Dallas  it  aided  in  driving  the  enemy,  and  was  also 
engaged  at  Big  Shanty.  At  Kenesaw  it  fought 
hard  and  suffered  heavy  loss.  At  Nicojack  creek,  at 
the  head  of  its  division,  it  charged  the  rebel  works 
with  the  bayonet  and  captured  them.  The  regiment 
was  in  its  hardest  battle  on  the  22d  of  July,  1864, 
before  Atlaufa,  when  McPherson  was  killed.  It 
charged  the  enemy  repeatedly,  and  once,  being  at- 
tacked from  the  rear,  changed  front  under  fire,  dressed' 
its  line  accurately,  and  again  rushed  forward  to  the 
charge.  Its  loss  was  heavier  than  in  any  other  battle. 
Capt.  Lynch  v/as  desperately  wounded  and  was  soon 
after  promoted  to  lieutenant  colonel.  During  the 
campaign  from  Chattanooga  to  Atlanta  the  Twenty- 
seventh  had  sixteen  officers  and  a  hundred  and  ninety- 
five  men  killed  and  wounded — more  than  half  its 

After  the  capture  of  Atlanta  the  Twenty-seventh 
went  with  Sherman  to  the  sea;  took  part  in  the  cam- 
paign of  the  Carolinas,  and  was  mustered  out  in  July, 



Frank  Lynch,  enr.  as  Capt.  Co.  G  July  27,  1861.    Promoted  to  Lieut.  Col. 

Nov.  3, 1864.    Wounded  at  Corinth  and  before  Atlanta.    Disch.  May 

20,  1865. 
Charles  H.  Smith,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Co.  G,  July  27,  1861.    Prom,  to  2d  Lieut. 

Nov.  8,  1862;  to  1st  Lieut.  May  9,  1864;  to  Capt.  Nov.  3, 1864;  and  to 

Major  May  31,  1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Regt.  July  11,  1865. 


Gilbert  M.  Jacobs,  enl.  July  27, 1861,  in  Co.  G.  Prom,  to  Sergt,;  and  on 
March  30, 1865,  to  Q.  M.  Sergt.    Mustered  out  with  Regt. 

William  D.  Evans,  ejir.  as  Musician  July  27, 1861.  Prom,  to  Chief  Mu- 
sician May  1, 1862.    Mustered  out  with  Regt.  July  11, 1865. 

Henry  C.  Parmalee,  enl.  July  27,  1861.  Prom,  to  Prin.  Musician,  and 
transf.  to  Non-Com.  Staff  Nov.  1,  1862.    Mustered  out  July  11, 1865. 


Edward  A.  Webb,  promoted  to  1st  Lieut,  from  Co.  G  Aug,  4,  1864;  and 
Capt.  Jan.  28,  1865.     Mustered  out  with  Co. 




K.  Heber  Worth,  enr.  as  Corp.  July  27,  1861 ,  Prom,  to  Sergt.  May  1, 
1862;  to  2d  Lieut.  June  27,-1864;  to  1st  Lieut.  Sept.  26, 1864;  and  te 
Capt.  Jan.  28,  1865.    Resigned  June  16, 1865. 

Edward  Gibson,  enl.  as  2d  Lieut.  July  27, 1861 .  Promoted  to  1st  Lieut- 
March  31, 1862.  Wounded  three  times  at  Corinth.  Resigned  March 
14,  1864. 

Henry  W.  Diebolt,  enl.  as  Sergt.  July  27, 1861 .  Promoted  to  2d  Lieut. 
Feb.  6,  1:62;  and  to  1st  Lieut.  Jan.  1,  1863.  Died  May  28,  1864,  of 
wounds  received  near  Dallas,  Georgia . 

Edward  A.  Webb,  enr.  as  Corporal  July  27,  1861.  Prom,  to  Sergt.  Dec. 
25, 1863;  to  2d  Lieut.  June  27,  1864;  and  to  1st  Lieut,  and  assigned  to 
Co.  E  Aug.  4,  1864. 

Matthew  F.  Madigan,  enl.  July  27, 1861 .  Prom,  to  Sergt.  March  30, 1865, 
and  to  1st  Lieut.  June  6,  1865.    Mustered  cut  with  the  Co. 

George  S.  Spaulding,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Prom,  to  2d  Lieut.  Killed  at  Dal- 
las, Georgia. 

William  B.  Atwell,  enr.  as  Corp.  July  27, 1861.  Promoted  to  Sergt.  Dec. 
25,1863.    Killed  in  action  July  4, 1864. 

George  Small,  enr.  as  Corp.  July  27, 1861 .  Promoted  to  Sergt.  Transf. 
to  Invalid  Corps  Jan.  10,  1863. 

Lucius  B.  Laney,  enr.  as  Musician  July  27,  1861.  Disch.  for  diasability 
Aug.  2, 1862. 

Francis  Gottka,  enl.  July  27, 1861.    Disch.  Aug.  18,  1864. 

JohnBrennis,  enl.  July  27, 1861.  Promoted  to  Corp.  Jan.  1,  1864;  and 
to  Sergt.  June  1, 1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  July  11, 1865. 

John  H.  Beman,  enl.  July  27,  1861. 

Cleanthus  Burnet,  enl .  July  27, 1861 .  Discharged  for  disability  caused 
by  wound  received  Oct.  4, 1862. 

John  B.  Dawson,  enl.  July  27, 1861.  Killed  atCheraw,  S.  C,  Feb.  27, 1865. 

Milton  Davis,  enl.  July  27, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  16, 1863. 

John  Dillon,  enl.  July  27,  1861.  Disch.  for  disability  caused  by  a  fall, 
June  10, 1862. 

Orin  B.  Gould,  enl.  July  27,  1861.  Disch.  April  19, 1864,  for  disability 
caused  by  wounds  received  at  Corinth,  Miss.,  Oct.  2, 1862. 

Samuel  R.  Grunnell.  enl.  July  27, 1861.  Disch.  March  2, 1863,  in  order  to 
enable  him  to  re-enlist  elsewhere. 

Chester  F.  Griffith,  enl.  Jiily  27, 1871.  Prom,  to  Corp.  Jan.  1, 1864;  and 
to  Sergt.  Aug.  1, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

PhiUp  R.  Harple,  enl.  July  27, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

Taylor  D.  Hall,  enl.  July  27, 1861 .    Disch.  for  disability  Dec.  23, 1861 . 

James  M.  Hine,  enl.  July  27,  1861 .    Died  at  Evansville,  Ind.,  Aug.  20, 1862. 

Thomas  Johnson,  enl.  July  27, 1861.   Disch.  at  end  of  term,  Aug.  18, 1864. 

Jacob  Laux,  enl.  July  27, 1861 .    Disch.  for  disabihty  June  3, 1865. 

J[acob  Loeder,  enl.  July  27, 1861 .    Disch.  Oct.  5, 1861. 

James  E.  Ladley,  enl.  July  27, 1861.  Taken  prisoner  Nov.  5,  1861.  Re. 
leased  and  discharged  Dee.  23, 1861 . 

Sebastian  Miller,  enl.  July  27, 1861.    Disch.  at  end  or  term,  Aug.  18, 1864. 

Jeremiah  T.  McPherson,  enl.  July  27,  1861.  Disch.  Deo.  2,  1862,  on  ac- 
count of  wounds  reeeived  at  Corinth  Oct.  4, 1861. 

J  ohn  W.  Mercer,  enl.  July  27,  1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

Elbridge  Myers,  enl.  July  27, 1861 .  Taken  prisoner  Nov.  5, 1861.  Freed 
and  disch.  Dec.  23, 1861. 

WUUam  Neyland,  enl.  July  27, 1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term,  Aug.  18, 1864. 

Thomas  I.  Plummer,  enl.  27,  1861.  Promoted  to  Corp.  Killed  at  Kene- 
saw  Mountain,  Georgia,  June  33, 1864. 

WUUam  Parker,  enl.  July  27, 1861.   Discharged  for  Disability,  Oct.  5, 1861. 

Asa  Radway,  enl.  July  21, 1861 .  Prom,  to  Corp.  July  1,  1865.  Mustered 
out  with  the  Co. 

George  W.  Rathbum,  enl.  July  27, 1861.    Disch.  July  29, 1863. 

John  SchufE,  enl.  July  27,  1861 .    Died  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  June  15, 1864. 

David  Schafer.  enl.  July  27, 1861      Disch.  at  end  of  term  Aug^  18, 1864 

Michael  Snyder,  enl.  July  27,  1861.  Prom,  to  Corp  July  1, 1865.  Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Co.  „.  .oe- 

John  E.  Schuck,  enl.  July  27, 1861.    Disch.  for  disabdity  May  25, 186=. 

John  W.  Scott,  enl.  July  27,  1861.  Taken  prisoner  Nov.  5, 1861.  Freed 
anddisch.  Dec.  ?3,  1861.  ,       ,.j  „  r       ~ 

James  R.  Thomas,  enl.  July  27, 1861.    Transf.  to  Invahd  Corps  Jan.  7, 

George  Brennis,  enl.  Jan.  27, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co 
George  Lemons,  enr.  as  Musician  Feb.  15, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  Co. 
Georee  Myers  enr.  as  Musician  Feb.  15, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
John  R  Cheek,  enr.  as  Corp.  Aug.  19,  1861.    Died  Aug.  38,  1864,  in  hos- 
pital,  at  Marietta,  Ga.,  from  wound. 



Morgan  Lee,  enl.  March  13,  1865.    Mustered  out  Aug.  13, 1865. 


John  R.  Arter,  enr.  as  Surg.  Sept.  13,  1861.  Mustered  out  at  expiration 
of  termof  service,  Sept.  27, 1864.  ,,,...     -.v. 

Royal  W.  Varney,  enr.  as  Asst.  Surg.  April  7, 1863.  Mustered  out  with 
the  Reg.  July  20,  1865. 



John  W.  White,  enl.  Jan.  1,  1863.     Killed  in  action  at  Brush  Mt.,  Ga., 

June  27,  1864. 
Alonzo  Egbert,  enl.  March  16, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg.  July  20, 



Herman  Meyers,  enl.  March  1, 1863.     Mustered  out  20th  July,  1863. 

COMPANY    0. 

George  Quaid,  enl.  Jan.  1, 1863.  Died  from  wounds  near  Atlanta,  Ga., 
July  23, 1864. 


David  Harrington,  enl.  Jan.  16, 1863. 

Michael  MoGue,  enl .  Jan .  16, 1863 .    Mustered  out  July  20, 1865 . 



EUsworth  W.  Libby,  enl.  Aug.  10, 1861.  Promoted  to  Sergt.  Jan.  1, 1864; 
to  1st  Lieut.  Aug.  26,  1864,  and  to  Capt.  March  26,  1865.  Mustered 
out  with  the  Co.  July  12, 1865. 


This,  the  third  German  regiment  raised  in  Ohio, 
contained  forty-nine  men  from  Cuyahoga  county  in 
Company  A,  twenty-two  in  Company  F,  and  forty- 
two  in  Company  H;  besides  a  few  in  other  companies; 
bringing  the  total  up  to  a  hundred  and  thirty-three. 
It  was  mustered  into  service  in  October,  1861. 

It  soon  moved  to  West  Virginia,  where  it  was  in 
service  during  the  winter.  In  March,  1862,  with 
other  regiments,  it  was  engaged  in  a  hard  fight  at 
Princeton,  W.  Va.,  in  which  the  command  had  the 
misfortune  to  be  defeated;  the  Thirty  rseventh  having - 
one  officer  and  thirteen  men  killed,  and  two  officers 
and  forty-six  men  wounded.  The  Thirty-seventh 
was  also  sharply  engaged  near  Fayetteville,  on  the 
10th  of  September,  with  a  heavy  force  under  General 
Loring.  At  this  time  the  whole  command  was  com- 
pelled to  retreat  to  the  Ohio  river. 

In  December,  the  regiment  was  ordered  to  join 
Grant's  army,  and  on  the  21st  of  January,  1863,  ar- 
rived at  Milliken's  Bend,  nearly  opposite  Vicksburg, 
becoming  a  part  of  the  Fifteenth  Army  Corps.  After 
arduous  service  through  the  rest  of  the  winter,  and 
after  taking  part  in  the  feint  against  Haines'  Bluff  in 
April,  the  Thirty-seventh  moved  on  the  13th  of  May 
to  Grand  Gulf,  and  thence  marched  to  the  rear  of 
Vicksburg.  It  took  an  active  and  gallant  part  in  the 
unsuccessful  assaults  on  that  place,  made  on  the  19th 
and  32d  of  May;  having  nineteen  men  killed  and 
seventy  wounded. 

After  the  capture  of  Vicksburg,  the  summer  of  1863 
was  spent  in  active  duty  in  Mississippi.  During  Oc- 
tober and  November  the  Thirty-seventh  made  its  way 
to  Chattanooga.  On  the  morning  of  the  25th  of 
November  it  assaulted  the  rebel  fortifications,  situated 
on  the  lofty  heights  of  Mission  Ridge.  It  was  re- 
pulsed with  the  loss  of  five  men  killed,  and  five  offi- 
cers and  thirty-one  men  wounded,  but  as  the  enemy's 
works  were  captured  at  numerous  points  it  was  soon 
enabled  to  advance  and  join  in  the  pursuit.  Imme- 
diately afterward  the  regiment  was  sent  to  aid  in  the 



relief  of  Knoxville,  which  was  accomplished  by  a  brief 
campaign,  but  one  of  extraordinary  hardships. 

In  March,  1864,  the  Thirty-seventh  re-enlisted  as 
veterans,  and  after  the  usual  furlough  advanced  with 
the  Fifteenth  Army  Corps  on  the  Atlanta  campaign. 
In  its  advance  on  Eesaca  it  had  thirteen  officers  and 
men  killed  and  wounded.  It  also  took  part  in  the 
conflicts  at  Dallas  and  New  Hope  Church,  and  the 
terrible  battle  of  Kenesaw  Mountain.  Before  Atlanta, 
on  the  32d  of  July,  it  was  outflanked  and  compelled 
to  abandon  its  intrenchments,  with  a  loss  of  fourteen 
men  killed  and  wounded,  and  thirty-eight  taken  pris- 
oners, but  immediately  after  joined  in  a  general  at- 
tack and  recaptured  the  position.  On  the  37th  of 
July  the  Thirty-seventh  was  engaged  in  the  battle  of 
Ezra  Chapel,  in  which  the  enemy  was  completely  de- 
feated. On  the  30th  of  August  it  was  in  the  battle 
of  Jonesboro,  which  was  speedily  followed  by  the 
capture  of  Atlanta. 

The  Thirty-seventh  next  took  part  in  the  forced 
marches  in  pni'suit  of  Hood;  then  returnedfto  Atlanta 
and  set  out  for  the  sea  with  Sherman.  With  that 
energetic  leader  it  marched  through  Georgia,  South 
Carolina  and  North  Carolina,  the  army  scattering 
before  it  every  rebel  force  which  attempted  to  obstruct 
its  path.  After  the  collapse  of  the  rebellion,  this 
regiment  was  ordered  to  Arkansas,  where  it  remained 
till  the  13th  of  August,  1865.  It  was  then  mustered 
out,  and  the  men  taken  back  to  Cleveland  and  dis- 



Edward  Siber,  enr.  as  Col.  Sept.  18, 1861.    Resigned  March  33, 1864. 
Charles  Ankele,  enr.  as  Major  Aug  3,  1861.    Wounded  at  Princeton,  W. 

Va.,  May  17,  1862.    Resigned  June  5,  1868. 
Juhus  C.  Schenck,  enr.  as  Asst.  Surg.  Sept  7,  1861.  Promoted  to  Surg. 

July  82,  1862.    Resigned  Nov.  20,  1862. 


Franz  Frey,  enl.  Oct.  16, 1861.    Prom,  to  Sergt.  Jan.  26, 1863,  and  to  Non- 
Com.  Staff  as  Com.  Sergt.  Sept.  16,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  Regt. 


Louis  Quedonfeld,  enr.  as  Capt.  Aug.  3,1861.    Killed  at  Princeton,  W. 

Va.,  May  17,  1862. 
George  Boehm,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut.  Aug.  16,  1861.     Promoted  to  Capt.  Co. 

F.  March  31, 1863. 
Christian  Pfahl,  enr.  as  2nd  Lieut.  Aug.  15, 1861.    Resigned  Dec.  27,  1861. 
Christian  Hambrack,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt.  Aug.  15, 1861.    Promoted  to  3nd 

Lieut.  July  11, 1868.    Resigned  Dee.  20,  1862. 
Louis  Becker,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Sept.  2,  1861.    Wounded  and  captured  at 

Princeton,  W.  Va.,  May  17,  1862. 
John  Otter,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Aug.  12,  1861.    Promoted  to  1st  Sergt.  March 

1,1863.    Disch.  from  Hosp.  June  3,  1865. 
William  Rock,  enr.  as  .Sergt.  Aug.  15,  1861.    Wounded  and  captured  at 

Princeton,  W.  Va.,  May  17, 1863. 
Fred  Ambrosius,  enr.  us  Sergt.  Sept.  16,  1861.    Promoted  to  3nd  Lieut 

Co.  B,  Feb.  8.  1868. 
Florian  Saile,  enr.  as  Corp.  Aug.  15,  1861 .    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term 

Sept.  13,  1864. 
Emil  Blau,  enr.  as  Corp.  Aug.  15,  1861.    Wounded  and  captured  at  Pince- 

ton,  W.  Va.,  May,  17,  1863. 
Jacob  A.  Kleinschmidt,  enr.  as  Corp.  Sept.  6,  1861.    Killed  at  Princeton, 

W.  Va.,May  17,  1862. 
Carl  Eberhard,  enr.  as  Corp.  Aug.  15,  1861.     Wounded  and  captured  at 

Princeton,  W.  Va.,  May  17,  ;863. 
Nicholas  Bellery,  enr.  as  Corp.  Aug.  15,  1861.    Wounded  near  Atlanta, 

Ga.,  Aug.  11, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
George  Obooht,  enr.  as  Corp.  Aug.  1861. 

Asa  Adamsky,  enr.  as  Musician,  Sept.  6, 1861. 

Frederick  Lay,  enr.  as  Musician  Aug.  15, 1861. 

Peter  Voelker,  enl.  Aug.  28,  1861. 

Joseph  Adler,  enl.  /Vug.  15,  1861. 

Christian  Berger,  enl.  Aug.  15,  1861. 

Ludwig  Bauer,  enl.  Aug.  28,  1861. 

Friedrich  Dreger,  enl.  Aug.  28,  1861. 

Joseph  Fruch,  enl.  Aug.  15,  1861.     Mustered  out  at  end  of  term  Sept., 

12,  1864. 
John  H.  Frerichs,  enl.  Aug.  15,  1861.     Promoted  to  1st  Seigt.  Sept.  9, 

1861,  to  8nd  Lieut.  Co.  C,  April  1,  1863. 
Johahn  Haiser,  enl.   Aug.  ,15,  1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.   Feb.  10,1864. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Gustav  Haupt,  enl.  Aug.  15,  1861.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term,  Sept. 

12,  1864. 
Friedrich  Baehrhold,  enl.  Aug.   15,  1861.    Wounded  at  Kenesaw  Mi., 

June  27,  1864.    Disch.  from  Hosp.  June  31,  1865. 
Wilhelm  Haupt.  enl.  Sept.  6,  1861.     Killed  near  Kenesaw  Mt.,  June  27, 

Adolph  Jaeger,  enl.  Aug.  16, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Jean  Pierre  Keener,  enl,  Aug.  15,  1861.     Mustered  out  at  end  of  term 

Sept.  12.  1864. 
Magnus  Kahl,  enl.  Sept.  1, 1861.      Wounded  at  Mill  Creek,  N.  C,  March 

21. 1866.    Lett  in  Hosp.  at  New  York. 
Johann  Loeblein,  enl.  Sept.  4,  1861.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term  Sept. 

12,  1864. 

Franz  Marons,  enl.  Aug.  24,  1861. 

Karl  Meyer,  enl.  Aug.  28, 1861.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term.  Sept,  13, 

Johann  Pitroff,  enl.  Aug.  38,  1861.     Wounded  near  Atlanta,  6a.,  July 

22, 1864. 
Joseph  Stoll,  enl.  Aug.  15,  1^61.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term.  Sept  12^ 

John  Schaefler,  eiil.  Aug.  15,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability,  Sept.  21, 1863. 
Leopold  Serdinsky,  enl.  Aug.  16,  1861. 
Wilhelm   Samsbrug,  enl.  Aug  38,  1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.    Mustered 

out  Sept.  13,  1864. 
Bernhard  Schieffterling,  enl.  Aug.  28, 1861.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term 

Sept.  2:,  1864. 
Adam  Schmidt,  enl.  Aug.  24  1861 . 
Frederick  Schneider,  enl.  Aug.  15,  1861.    Wounded  near  Jonesboro,  Ga., 

Aug.  31  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Frederick  Ungerer,  enl .  Aug.  15, 1861 . 
Henry  J.  Votteler,  enl.  Sept.  6, 1861.    Promoted  to  2d  Lieut.  Dec.  29, 

1868.    Disch   May  18,  1864. 
Christoph  Weber,  enl.  Aug.  15,  1861. 

Theodore  Wendt,  enl.  Aug.  30, 1861.    Died  from  wounds  rec'd  at  Kene- 
saw Mt.  July  14,  1864. 
Daniel  Sherry,  enl.  as  Drummer  March,  28, 1864.  Mustered  out  with  the 

Paul  Hauser,  enl.  Nov.  6, 1863.    Promoted  to  1st  Sergt.  Feb.  12, 1865. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Carl  Knapp,  enl.  March  28, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Adam  Leonhardt,  enl.  March  28,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 


Charles  Moritz,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut.  Co.  H  Sept.  6, 1861.     Prom,  to  Capt. 

Co.  B  Feb.  8.  1862.    Mustered  out  Dec.  31, 1864. 
Fred.  Ambrosius,  enr.   Sergt.  Co.  A  Sept   6,1861.    Prom,  to  3d  Lieut. 

Co.  B  Feb.  8,  1868.    Resigned  July  11,  1863. 
George  Kraus,  enl.  Aug.  36,  1861.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term  Sept. 

13,  1864. 


John  H.  Freriche,  enl.  Aug.  15, 1861,  Co.  A.    Prom,  to  3d  Lieut.  Co.  0 
April  1,  1862,  and  to  1st  Lieut  Co.  E  Oct.  8,  1862. 


Philip  Branat,  enl.  Sept.  3, 1861. 

John  Goetz,  enl.  Sept.  6,  1661. 

Bernhard  Muehlemann,  enl.  Sept.  5,  1861.     Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 

Wendolin  Nickenhauer,  enl.  Sept.  5,  1861. 

Charles  Renold,  enl.  Sept.  5,  1861 . 

Friederiok  H.  Rehwinkel,  enr.  as  Capt.  Sept.  8,  1861.  Resigned  Oct.  10, 

Adblph  C.  Kessinger,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut  Sept.  3, 1861.  Promoted  to  Capt. 
April  19,  1863.     Resigned  Dec.  20,  1862. 

Paul  Wittrich,  enr.  as  3d  Lieut.  Sept.  3,  1861.  Promoted  to  1st  Lieut. 
Co  F  Feb.  28,  1862,  and  to  Capt.  Co.  E  Oct.  8,  1863.  Killed  at  Ken- 
esaw Mt.  July  28,  1864. 

John  H.  Freriche,  enr.  Co.  A  Aug.  15.  Trausf.  to  Co.  E  as  1st  Lieut. 
Oct.  8,  1863,  to  Co.  I  Jan.  1.  1863. 

Julius  Scheldt,  enr.  1st  Sergt.  Sept.  SO,  1861.  Prom,  to  3d  Lieut.  Co.  E 
April  19,  1868.    Resigned  Nov.  29,  1863. 




Anton  Vallendar,  enr.  as  Capt.  Aug.  1 ,  1861.     Resigned  March  81,  1862. 
Enr.  as  Capt.  Co.  H,  lasth  Reg.  Oct.  15, 1862.    Mustered  out  with  the 
Co.  Sept.  25, 1865. 
George  Boehm,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut.  Co.  A,  Aug.  15,  1861.    Prom,  to  Capt. 

Co.  F,  March  31, 1862,    Mustered  out  Jan.  4, 1865. 

Anton  Peterson,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut.  Aug.  22, 1861.    Resigned  Feb.  6, 1862. 

Herman  Burlthardt,  enr.  as  Corp.  Sept.  20, 1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt. 

Jan.  i,  1864,  and  to  1st  Lieut.  Feb.  11,  1865.    Mustered  outwith  Reg. 

Paul  Wittrich,  enr.  2nd  Lieut.  Co.  E,  Sept.  2,  1861.    Prom.  1st  Lieut.  Co. 

F,  Feb. 28, 1862.    Transf.  to  Co.  E,  Oct.  8,  1862. 
Anton  Stoppel,  enr.   2nd  Lieut.   Co.  H,  Sept.  6,  1861.    Promoted  1st 

Lieut.  Co.  F,  May  28,  1862,    Resigned  Oct.  19,  1862. 
Louis  E.  Lambert,  enr,  as  Corp,  Sept.  25, 1861.  Promoted  to  1st  Sergt. 
Co.  D;  to  2nd  Lieut.  Co.  F,  June  22,  1863;  to  1st  Lieut.  Co.  G,  April 
29,  1864;  to  Adjt.  July  25,  1864. 
Albert  Bauer,  enl .  Sept.  23,1861.    Talienprisoner  near  Atlanta,  Ga,,  July 

22, 1864. 
John  Bergsiclcer,  enl.  Sept  19, 1661.    Killed  at  Vicksburg,  Miss.,  May  19, 

Jacob  Dorr,  enl.  Sept.  23, 1861.  Died  July  2, 1863,  from  wounds  received 

in  action  near  Vicksburg  May  22, 1863 . 
Charles  Fehlber,  enl .  Sept .  30, 1861 .    Taken  prisoner  July  22, 1864 .    Ex- 
changed Nov.,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Frederick  Gampellar,  enl.  Sept,  15, 1861,     Disch.  for  disability  Jan .  19, 

David  Granger,  enl.  Sept.  24.  1861.     Died  May  19,  1862  from  wounds  re- 
ceived at  Princeton,  W.  Va.,  May  17. 
Christian  Greb,  enl.  Sept.  16, 1861.     Killed  near  Vicksburg,  Miss.,  May 

22, 186-3. 
Anthony  Junker,  enl.  Sept.  21,  1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.    Disch.  for 

disability  Sept.  30, 1884. 
William  Lohr,  enl.  Sept.  16,  1861.     Promoted  to  Sergt.  Jan.  1,  1864,  and 

to  1st  Sergt,  May  24,  1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Henry Rothman,  enl.  Sept.  13,  1861.    Disch,  tor  disability  Sept,  13,  1862. 
John  Simon,  enl .  Sept.  26, 1861 .    Died  May  25, 1862,  from  wounds  received 

at  Princeton,  W.  Va,,  May  17. 
John  Schmidt,  enl.  Sept.  25,  1861.    Wounded  at  Princeton,  W.  Va.,  May 

17,  1862.    Taken  prisoner  near  Atlanta,  Ga.,  July  22,  1864. 
Anton  Vanholz,  enl.  Sept.  28, 1861 .    Disch .  for  disability  Jan.  24,  1863. 
Adam  Wicker,  enl.  Sept.  16,  1861.    Taken  prisoner  near  Atlanta,  Ga., 

July  22,  1864.    Died  at  Lawton,  Ga. 
Jacob  Zipp,  enl.  Sept.  16,  1861.    Disch,  for  disability  Jan.  24,  1865. 
Philip  Zipp,  enl.  Sept.  29, 1861.    Disch.  for  disabihty  Jan,  18, 1863. 
George  Ganson,  enr,  as  Musician,  April  11, 1864.     Taken  prisoner  near 

Atlanta,  Ga.,  July  22,  1864.    Exchanged  Nov.  — ,  1864. 
Constantine  Armbruster,  enl.  March  28,  1864.    Wounded  near  Dallas, 

Ga.,  June  1,  1864.     Disch.  for  disability  June  22, 1865. 
Gustav  Lambert,  enl.  March  31, 1864.     Detailed  for  special  duty  in  the 
Eng.  Dep.  March  14,  1865.    Mustered  out  July  29,  1865. 


Louis  B.  Lambert,  transf.  to  Co.  G,  April  29,  1864,  to  Adj.  July  24,  1861, 
to  C  ipt.  Co.  G,  Feb.  11,  1865.    Mustered  out  with  Reg.  Aug,  7,  1865. 

August  .Miltman,  enl.  Sept.  23,  1861.  Transf.  to  Invalid  Corps  Dec.  12, 


Charles  Messner,  enr,  as  Capt.  Aug.  26,  1861.    Resigned  Nov.  16,  1862. 
Charles  Moritz,  enr.  aslstLieut.  Sept.  6, 1861.    Promoted  to  Capt.  Co.  B, 

Feb.  8,  1862. 
Anton  Stoppel,  enr.  as  2nd  Lieut.  Sept.  6, 1861.    Promoted  to  1st  Lieut.. 

Co.  F,  May  28,  1862. 
Julius  Scheldt,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt.  Sept.  30, 1861.    Promoted  to  2nd  Lieut. 

Co.  E,  April  19,  1862. 
Jacob  Spickert,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Sept.  12,  1831.    Disch.  Jan.  14,  1863. 
Jtohn  I.  Hoffman,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  16,  1861,   Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 

Aug.  7,  1865. 
John  Dittman,  enl .  Sept.  13,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
John  Christian,  enl.  Sept .  16,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  April  10, 1863. 
Henry  Detgen,  enl.  Sept.  21,  1861.     Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  14,  1863. 
August  Eckert,  enl.  Sept.  25,  1861 .     Disch.  for  disabihty  Oct.  7,  1862. 
Adam  Flury,  enl.  Sept.  17,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Franz  Frey.    (See  Non-commissioned  Staff.) 
PhiUp  Heck,  enl.  Sept.  30, 1861.    Killed  at  Walnut  Hills,  Miss.,  May  19, 

August  Heidter,  enl.  Sept.  24, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
John  Held,  enl.  Sept.  28,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  July  18,  1862. 
Joseph  Kaestle,  enl .  Sept .  8, 1861 ,    Disch .  for  disability  July  21,  1861 . 
Christian  Kanel,  enl.  Sept.  28, 1861.    Disch.  for  disabUlty  Jan.  13,  1863. 
WilBam  Knecht,  enl.  Oct.  16, 1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Oct.  27, 1864. 
Theobald  Laubscher,  enl.  Sept.  23,  1861.    Discharged  at  end  of  term 

Sept.  30, 1864. 
John  Lieber,  enl.  Sept,  24  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Feb.  26, 1868. . 
Paul  Lehrman,  enl.  Sept.  16, 1861 .    Disch.  for  disability  July  26,  1862. 
Philip  Meyer,  enl.  Sept.  7,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  12,  1863. 
Conrad  Oswald,  enlisted  Oct.  8, 1861.    Killed  at  Walnut  Hills,  Miss.,  May 

22, 1863. 


John  Schultz,  enl.  Oct.  16, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Charles  Schlee,  enl.  Sept.  20, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
Gustav  Schulienj  enl,  Sept.  18, 1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  July  25, 1862. 

Discharged  April  5,  1865. 
Matthias  Sohwertle,  enl.  Oct.  3, 1861.  Disch.  at  end  of  term  Oct.  13, 1864. 
Henry  Schelke,  enl .  Sept.  18, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg . 
John  Schelke,  enl.  Sept.  30, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
Edward  Seller,  enl.  Sept .  18,  1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg . 
George  Spickert,  enl.  Sept.  12,1861.    Wounded  and  captured  May  1, 

1862.  Was  released  and  discharged  for  disability  Dec.  22,  1862. 
Philip  Spies,  enl.  Sept.  17,  1861.    Wounded  May  22,1863,    Disch,  for 

disability  caused  by  wound  Deo.  18, 1863 . 
Ernst  Tegto,  enl.  Sept.  30, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Jan   14, 1863. 
Friederich  Zitzelmann,  enl .  Oct.  2,  1851.    Promoted  to  Sergt.  Jan.  1, 

1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
John  Melcher,  enl .  March  26, 1864 .    Detached  for  service  at  Camp  Chase 

Feb.  23,1865. 
Henry  Stegkamper,  enl.  March  26,  1864.    Wounded  at  Kenesaw  Mt., 

Ga.,  June  27,  1864.    Left  sick  in  Hosp.  at  Troy,  N.  Y.,  April  30, 1865. 
Basil  Schwantz,  enl.  Sept.  27,  1861. 

John  Fasnacht,  enl.  Sept.  14, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  14  1868. 
Joseph  Maryne,  enl.  Sept.  24,  1861.    Wounded  and  captured  May  17, 

1863.  Released  and  disch.  for  disability  Jan.  12, 1863. 
John  Spohn,  enl.  Sept.  2, 1861.    Disch.  for  disablity  Oct.  9,  1862. 
John  Rother,  enr.  as  Corp.  Sept.  4, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Andreas  Kolaetzkowski,  enl.  Sept.  9, 1861.    Disch.  Jan.  13, 1863. 


John  H.  Freriche,  enr.  Aug.  15,  1861,  Co.  A.    Transf.  to  Co.  I  as  1st 

Lieut.  Jan.  1, 1863,    Resigned  Sept.  24,  1864. 
Justus  Becker,  enl.  Sept,  23,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Sept    1,1863. 
George  Henkel,  enl.  Sept.  10, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg.  Aug.  7, 

George  Scheelhas,  enl.  Sept.  26,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Aug.  12, 1862. 


George  Eichhom,  enl.  Nov.  7, 1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Jan.  26, 1865. 
Alois  Lieb,  enl.  Nov.  7,  1861.    Killed  near  Vicksburg.  Miss.,  May  19,  1868. 
George  Schneeberger,  enl.  March  21, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Aug.  7,  1865, 



Its  Origin-The  Cuyahoga  Delegation— Service  in  Kentucky--Pittsburg 
Landing— An  Accident-A  Rebel  Charge  and  Repulse-Through  Mid- 
dle Tennessee  to  Kentucky -Back  in  Tennessee- Stone  River— Await- 
ing an  Attack— "Fire"— A  Desperate  Conilict— The  Next  Day— 
Through  the  River  under  Fire— Silencing  a  Battery— Battle  of  Chicka- 
mauga— The  Opening  Fire— Bayonet  Charges— Changing  Front- 
Desperate  Fighting  with  Rifles— Surrounded  and  Driven  Back— The 
Last  Volley— Battle  of  Orchard  Knob— A  Splendid  Dash— Mission 
Ridge— Miles  of  Soldiers— Pushing  up  the  Heights— A  Squad  captures 
a  Battery— Seizing  other  Artillery-'-Old  Pap  Thomas  "—The  Loss  of 
the  Forty-flrst— Off  to  Knoxville— Large  Re-enlistment— Furlough- 
Battle  of  Pickett's  Mills— An  Attack  and  a  Defeat— Pine  Top  Mountain 
—Frequent  Conflicts— After  Hood— Battle  of  Franklin— Battle  of  Nash- 
ville—A  Lively  Charge— Capture  of  Four  Guns— Service  in  Texas- 
Mustered  out. 

When  the  battle  of  Bull  Run  disclosed  the  strength 
and  vigor  of  the  rebellion,  several  prominent  citizens 
of  Cleveland  set  about  raising  a  new  regiment,  in  ad- 
dition to  the  already  large  number  of  men  which  Ohio 
had  placed  in  the  field.  It  was  named  the  Forty-first 
Ohio  Infantry,  and  Captain  William  B.  Hazen,  of 
the  Eio-hth  United  States  Infantry,  was  appointed  its 
coloneh  There  were,  during  the  war,  three  hundred 
and  ninety-six  men  from  Cuyahoga  county  in  its 
ranks.  Every  company  contained  some  of  that  num- 
ber. Companies  E,  F  and  D  had  respectively  ninety- 
three,  ninety  and  eighty-four  members  from  this 
county,  while  the  other  companies  were  represented 
by  various  numbers,  from  thirty-four  in  K,  down  to 
eight  in  H. 



The  regiment  was  formed  at  Cleveland  during  the 
autumn  of  1861.  In  November  it  moved  to  Camp 
Dennison,  and  thence,  in  the  following  month,  to 
Camp  Wickliffe,  sixty  miles  from  Louisville,  Ken- 
tucky, where  it  remained  through  the  winter.  Here 
Colonel  Hazen  was  placed  in  command  of  a  brigade, 
consisting  of  the  Forty-first  Ohio,  the  Forty-sixth  and 
Forty-seventh  Indiana  aod  the  Sixth  Kentucky.  On 
the  first  of  February,  the  brigade  went  down  the  Ohio 
and  up  the  Cumberland  to  Nashville,  and  thence,  on 
the  17th  of  March,  with  the  bands  all  playing  "St. 
Patrick's  Day,"  it  set  out  with  Buell's  army  for  Pitts- 
burg Landing. 

At  six  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  the  sixth  of 
April,  it  reached  a  point  on  the  Tennessee  river, 
opposite  the  landing,  whence  the  thunder  of  battle 
rolled  in  terrific  volume  over  the  water  and  far  away 
among  the  hills.  Having  been  ferried  over  the  stream 
in  a  little  steamer,  the  brigade  proceeded  up  the  bank 
among  a  host  of  stragglers,  so  numerous  that  the  men 
were  obliged  to  make  their  way  through  them  in  sin- 
gle file,  all  apparently  eager  to  excuse  their  own  re- 
treat by, exaggerating  the  strength  of  the  enemy. 

"You'll  catch  it  on  the  hill,"  said  one;  "I  am 
the  only  man  left  of  my  company,"  declared  another; 
"  This  little  squad  is  all  there  are  alive  of  our  regi- 
ment/' said  two  or  three  more  with  united  voices. 
Amid  these  discouraging  greetings  the  Forty-first 
pressed  on,  and  at  nine  o'clock  took  up  the  position 
assigned  it,  where  it  lay  all  night  in  a  driving 
rain.  The  next  day  the  brigade  was  held  in  reserve 
until  a  late  hour  (our  informant,  Capt.  McMahan, 
thinks  it  was  about  two  o'clock),  when  it  was 
ordered  into  an  advanced  position,  and  directed  to 
hold  it. 

The  artillery  was  playing  freely,  and  while  the  men 
were  waiting,  and  as  Colonel  Hazen  was  sitting  on 
his  horse  close  beside  them,  a  spent  six-pound  cannon 
ball  rolled  up  one  of  the  hind  legs  of  the  horse  of  the 
colonel's  bugler,  and  went  six  feet  in  air  over  the  head 
of  the  latter.  The  man  of  music  naturally  dodged 
T?ery  suddenly  to  avoid  the  returning  projectile,  and 
a  shout  of  laughter  went  up  from  the  men  at  the 
oddity  of  the  whole  proceeding. 

Their  merriment,  however  was  soon  stopped  by  the 
advance  of  the  i-ebels,  who  came  on  at  full  speed, 
yelling,  "Bull  Run!"  "Bull  Run!"  The  Union- 
ists received  them  with  a  murderous  volley,  and 
General  Nelson  or  Colonel  Hazen  ordered  a  charge. 
The  men  dashed  forward  through  the  ojDen  woodland, 
firing  as  they  went,  and  soon  gave  the  rebels  a  taste 
of  Bull  Run  reversed.  The  brigade  drove  the  rebels 
back  beyond  their  fortifications  and  captured  their 
guns.  Being,  however,  then  far  beyond  its  support, 
it  was  in  turn  obliged  to  retire  to  its  former  line, 
where  it  re-formed  and  held  the  position. 

It  was  during  this  retreat  that  Colonel  Hazen  was 
separated  from  the  brigade,  a  fact  whicli  has  been 
made  an  excuse  for  malicious  attacks  against  him, 
resulting  in  the  late  court-martial  of  General  Stanley, 

and  in  the  pending  civil  action  against  him,  brought 
by  General  Hazen.  Captain  ilcMahon,  the  officer 
before  referred  to,  declares  that  Colonel  (now  General) 
Hazen  accompanied  his  brigade  in  the  charge  with 
great  gallantry,  and  the  separation  was  so  brief  as  to 
have  escaped  the  notice  of  the  men. 

The  fighting  during  the  charge  was  of  the  most 
desperate  kind,  one  hundred  and  forty-one  out  of 
four  hundred  and  fifty  men  in  the  regiment  hav- 
ing been  killed  or  wounded  in  half  an  hour,  while 
three  officers  and  three  soldiers  who  successively  car- 
ried the  colors  were  disabled  in  the  same  time. 

After  taking  part  in  the  siege  of  Corinth,  Hazen's 
brigade  marched  to  central  Tennessee,  and  thence 
proceeded  under  Buell,  almost  side  by  side  with 
Bragg's  rebel  army,  to  Louisville.  At  Perryville  it 
was  not  heavily  engaged,  but  was  in  the  advance  in 
the  pursuit  of  the  enemy  after  that  battle.  At  Pitt- 
man's  Cross  Roads  General  Hazen  pushed  forward 
the  Forty-first  through  darkness  blacker  than  Egypt 
until  nine  o'clock  at  night,  driving  the  rebels  from 
their  supper,  which  was  very  speedily  dispatched  by 
the  Unionists,  as  they  had  not  eaten  anything  since 
early  in  the  morning. 

After  dri  ving  the  enemy  as  far  as  Wild  Cat  mountain, 
Crittenden's  Corps,  of  which  the  Forty-first  formed  a 
part,  returned  to  Nashville.  On  the  39  th  of  Novem- 
ber Col.  Hazen  was  aj^pointed  a  brigadier  general  of 
volunteers,  and  Lt.  Col.  Wiley  succeeded  him  in  the 
colonelcy.  In  December,  1863,  Gen.  Rosecrans,  who 
had  succeeded  to  the  command  of  the  army,  prepared 
to  advance  against  Bragg,  and  on  the  29th  of  that 
month  the  corps  marched  to  within  two  miles  of 
Murfreesboro.  Some  maneuvers  took  place  on  the 
30th,  and  at  one  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  31st 
the  Forty-first  Ohio  was  stationed  in  an  open  field  a 
short  distance  from  the  enemy.  Before  daylight  Gen. 
Rosecrans'  order  was  i-ead  to  them,  declaring  that  the 
nation  and  the  world  had  its  eyes  upon  them,  and 
adjuring  them  to  use  every  effort  to  win  the  day. 

At  this  time  "  Cowan's  House,"  four  hundred  yards 
in  front  of  them,  was  all  on  fire;  and  as  the  resonant 
voice  of  the  adjutant  repeated  the  order,  while  the 
distant  flames  threw  occasional  flickerings  on  the  grim 
faces  of  the  soldiers,  they  grasped  their  rifles  with  the 
stern  look  of  men  determined  to  win  or  die,  and 
awaited  the  order  to  advance.  At  daylight  it  came, 
and,  preceded  by  a  strong  skirmish  line,  the  brigade 
moved  rapidly  forward,  the  Forty-first  Ohio  and 
Sixth  Kentucky  in  the  first  line,  and  the  Ninth  In- 
diana and  One  Hundred  and  Tenth  Illinois  in  the 
second  one. 

On  reaching  the  line  of  the  burning  house  heavy 
firing  was  heard  at  the  front  and  rear,  indicating  that 
the  enemy  was  outflanking  them.  Col.  Wiley  gave 
the  command,  "Change  half  front  to  the  rear  on 
tenth  company,"  and  it  was  executed  amid  the  fast- 
dropping  bullets  as  coolly  as  if  on  parade.  The  enemy 
advanced  in  two  columns.  His  infantry  was  supported 
by  artillery,  but  the  latter  was  soon  rendered  useless 



by  Cottrell's  battery,  which  killed  all  the  horses  of 
the  rebel  battery  and  blew  up  the  caissons.  Gen. 
Hazen  and  Col.  Wiley  sat  on  their  horses  directly  in 
rear  of  the  colors  of  the  Forty-first.  As  the  enemy 
approached,  Col.  W.  inquired: 

"Shall  I  fire  on  them?" 

"Not  yet,"  replied  the  general. 

When  the  first  rebel  line  reached  the  burning  house, 
General  Hazen  said: 

"  Now,  Colonel,  give  them  a  volley."  The  colonel's 
voice  rang  out  clear  and  calm : 

"Attention,  battalion!  Ready!  Aim!  Fire!"  The 
crash  of  four  hundred  rifles  responded  to  the  last 
word,  when  the  whole  rebel  line  fell  to  the  ground 
"as  if  they  had  been  shot."  The  greater  part  of 
them,  however,  soon  sprang  up  and  opened  a  rapid 
deadly  fire.  The  Forty-first  responded  with  equal 
zeal,  and  continiied  the  conflict  until  they  had  fired 
away  all  of  the  eighty  rounds  of  ammunition  with 
which  they  were  provided.  Gen.  Hazen  then  ordered 
the  regiment  to  the  rear  to  cool  and  clean  the  guns, 
bringing  up  the  One  Hundred  and  Tenth  Illinois  to 
take  its  place. 

Scarcely  had  the  Forty-first  been  supplied  with 
ammunition  and  got  ready  for  action  again,  when 
it  was  announced  that  the  rebels  were  drivmg  every- 
thing on  the  right  and  the  regiment  was  sent  to  stop 
them.  Lying  on  the  ground  the  men  began  firing  at 
the  enemy  two  hundred  yards  distant,  when  a  line  of 
Union  artillery  behind  them  began  to  fire  over  their 
heads  at  the  same  mark.  Burning  wads  and  grains 
of  powder  fell  thick  among  them.  This  was  too 
much  of  a  good  thing,  and  Ool.  Wiley  prevailed  on 
the  artillery  to  cease  firing  until  the  Forty-first 
could  be  stationed  in  rear  of  the  guns.  This  position 
was  firmly  held  in  spite  of  the  most  furious  attacks 
by  the  Confederates.  Later  in  the  day  the  Forty- 
first  was  ordered  to  the  left  to  guard  a  ford  by  Gen. 
Eosecrans  in  person,  where  it  suffered  severely  from 
the  rebel  batteries. 

The  next  day,  New  Year's,  1863,  the  Forty-first 
was  held  in  reserve  during  the  greater  part  of  the 
day.  A  hundred  pieces  of  artillery  were  massed 
by  Gen.  Eosecrans,  and  when  the  rebels  came  in 
front  of  the  line  they  were  mowed  down  by  hundreds 
by  blasts  of  grape,  canister  and  shrapnel.  Mean- 
while, however,  they  were  driving  back  Van  Cleve's 
division  on  the  left.  Gen.  Hazen  came  up  to  this 
regiment  at  a  gallop  a  little  after  four  o'clock  and  or- 
dered the  men  to  double  quick  after  him.  On  reacli- 
ing  Stone  river,  they  found  the  rest  of  the  brigade, 
all  trying  to  get  across  the  stream  first.  The  general 
formed  his  four  regiments  in  line,  pushed  forward  at 
a  double  quick,  and  easily  easily  drove  back  the  foe. 

One  battery  kept  up  its  fire,  when  Gen.  Hazen  ad- 
vanced with  the  Forty-first  alone  to  within  three 
hundred  yards,  and  delivered  a  well  aimed  volley.  It 
was  so  destructive  that  the  battery  immediately  re- 
tired from  its  position.  Night  soon  after  came  on, 
and  the  next  day  Gen.  Bragg  and  his  army  retired  in 

hot  haste  from  the  scene  of  their  defeat.  During 
the  battle  the  regiment  had  a  hundred  and  twelve 
officers  and  men  killed  and  wounded  out  of  four  hun- 
dred and  twelve  with  which  it  went  into  the  fight. 

From  the  10th  of  January  to  the  34th  of  June, 
1863,  the  regiment  was  encamped  most  of  the  time  at 
Eeadyville,  twelve  miles  from  Murfreesboro',  though 
making  occasional  excursions  against  the  enemy.  At 
the  last  mentioned  date  it  removed  from  Eeadyville, 
and  on  the  15th  of  August  advanced  with  the  army 
toward  Chattanooga.  After  taking  part  in  the  labori- 
ous marches  incident  to  the  movement,  the  Forty- 
first  found  itself  on  the  night  of  the  18th  of  Septem- 
ber on  the  bank  of  Chickamauga  creek,  near  Gordon's 

Lt.  McMahan  was  in  command  of  the  picket  of  the 
Forty-first,  and  late  in  the  morning  of  the  19th  he 
was  ordered  to  form  his  picket  as  skirmishers  and 
move  forward.  He  did  so  and  was  followed  by  the 
regiment;  the  rest  of  the  brigade  being  aligned  on 
either  side  of  the  Forty-fli-st.  About  11  o'clock  the 
skirmishers  came  out  into  an  open  field,  at  the  farther 
edge  of  which  was  a  line  of  rebels  who  opened  fire  on 
them.  The  lieutenant  ordered  his  men  to  double 
quick  across  the  field,  but  when  about  half  way  across 
heard  the  stentorian  voice  of  Col.  Wiley  thunder 
"Halt!"  Looking  around  he  saw  the  regiment  at 
the  edge  of  the  field  with  their  rifles  at  an  aim. 

"Lie  down!"  shouted  the  lieutenant,  and  the 
men  were  glad  enough  to  obey,  when  a  volley  of 
bullets  swept  over  them  into  the  ranks  of  the  foe. 
The  skirmishers  were  obliged  to  make  their  way  back 
to  the  lines  on  their  hands  and  knees.  The  regiment 
held  this  position  until  near  four  o'clock  in  the  after- 
noon, firing  all  its  ammunition.  Twice  the  rebels 
charged  it  with  the  bayonet;  both  times  the  gal- 
lant Forty-first  met  them  with  a  counter  charge  and 
both  times  the  assailants  broke  and  fled  within  thirty 
feet  of  the  Union  bayonets. 

At  the  time  last  mentioned  the  regiment  was  re- 
lieved and  marched  to  a  piece  of  timber,  where  it 
was  supplied  with  ammunition.  The  men  were  as 
hungry  for  it  as  so  many  wolves.  They  filled  not 
only  their  cartridge  boxes,  but  all  their  pockets  and 
the  waists  of  their  blouses  above  the  belts;  every  man 
providing  himself  with  at  least  one  hundred  rounds. 
Scarcely  had  they  done  so  when  heavy  firing  was 
heard  on  the  right,  and  the  Forty-first  was  ordered 
thither  on  the  double  quick  by  General  Hazen,  to 
support  General  Van  Oleve. 

The  man  were  placed  on  the  right  of  the  second  line 
and  when  the  first  gave  way  were  vigorously  assailed 
by  a  heavy  force  of  the  enemy.  They  delivered  a 
rapid  succession  of  well-aimed  volleys,  while  General 
Hazen  handled  a  battery  in  person,  and  thus  their 
front  was  kept  clear.  Ere  long,  however,  the  rebels 
made  their  way  around  the  unprotected  right  flank  of 
the  Forty-first,  and  soon  the  gallant  regiment  was 
almost  surrounded  by  the  foe.  The  bullets  came  on 
every  side,  and  for  the  only  time  in  their  military 



experience  the  men  of  the  Forty-first  ran  at  the  top 
of  their  speed  to  escape  from  the  enemy.  They  were 
not,  however,  entirely  broken  up;  they  loaded  as  they 
ran,  and  on  reaching  a  convenient  hill  a  stand  was 
made,  and  by  the  help  of  artillery  the  rebel  advance 
was  checked. 

The  men  worked  hard  a  large  part  of  the  night, 
rolling  Tip  logs  to  form  a  barricade.  At  nine  o'clock, 
the  morning  of  the  20th,  the  rebels  charged  them, 
but  their  log  defense  was  found  impregnable,  and  the 
assailants  were  repulsed  with  great  loss.  Other  at- 
tempts of  the  same  kind  were  made  during  the  day, 
but  always  with  the  sanie  result,  and  late  in  the 
afternoon  Hazen's  brigade  still  held  its  position.  But 
its  ammunition  was  nearly  all  expended,  its  com- 
rades of  the  center  and  left  had  all  been  driven 
back,  and  it  was  separated  by  an  interval  of  a 
mile,  swarming  with  rebel  sharpshooters,  from  the 
right  under  General  Thomas,  which  still  held  its 
ground.  General  Hazen  led  his  brigade  safely  across 
the  dangerous  gap,  and  formed  it  on  the  left  of 
Thomas'  line.  When  the  rebels  made  their  last 
assault  Hazen's  regiments,  one  after  the  other,  deliv- 
ered their  withering  volleys,  aiding  in  the  complete 
repulse  of  the  enemy,  which  enabled  the  veterans  of 
Thomas  to  retire  from  the  position  they  had  so  des- 
perately defended.  After  dark  the  remnant  of  the 
army  retreated  a  short  distance,  and  the  next  night 
retired  to  Chattanooga.  Of  all  who  took  part  in  this 
disastrous  conflict,  none  did  better  and  many  did 
worse  than  Hazen's  brigade  and  the  Forty-first  Ohio 

On  the  arrival  of  General  Grant  the  army  was  re- 
organized, and  the  Forty-first  became  part  of  a  brig- 
ade, still  commanded  by  General  Hazen,  consisting 
besides  itself  of  the  First  and  Ninety-third  Ohio, 
the  Fifth  Kentucky  and  the  Sixth  Indiana,  being  as- 
signed to  the  Fourth  Corps,  under  General  Granger. 
When  Grant  was  ready  to  begin  operations,  the  deli- 
cate and  hazardous  task  of  leading  the  advance  was  as- 
signed to  Hazen's  brigade.  Long  before  light  on  the 
morning  of  the  27th  of  October,  the  brigade  em- 
barked on  pontoons  at  Chattanooga,  and  glided  silent- 
ly down  the  river.  Unseen  and  unheard  the  men 
passed  beneath  the  enemy's  pickets  stationed  far  above 
them  on  the  river  bluffs,and,  though  discovered  at  the 
moment  of  landing,  succeeded  in  gaining  a  foothold 
on  the  shore,  and  establishing  themselves  on  hights 
from  which  they  could  not  be  driven. 

They  remained  in  this  vicinity  nearly  a  month, 
while  the  final  preparations  were  made  for  a  grand 
advance.  On  the  23d  of  November  the  brigade 
moved  forward  on  a  reconnoisance.  On  a  small  ridge 
known  as  Orchard  Knob,  between  Chattanooga  and 
Mission  Ridge  it  was  received  with  a  heavy  fire, 
and  perceived  a  line  of  intrenchments  on  the  top  of 
the  hill.  The  Forty-first  dashed  forward  in  the  ad- 
vance, and  gained  the  top  of  the  hill.  About  fifty 
paces  in  front  of  the  enemy's  works,  the  fight  was 
fierce  beyond  description.     More  than  half  the  men 

were  killed  and  wounded.  The  horses  of  Colonel 
Wiley  and  Lieut.  Col.  Kimberly  were  killed  under 
them,  but  those  gallant  officers  dashed  forward  on 
foot,  and  the  little  battalion  charged  into  the  rebel 
works,  and  took  them  at  the  point  of  the  bayonet, 
capturing  the  colors  of  the  Twenty-eighth  Alabama 
Infantry  and  more  men  than  the  Forty-first  had  at 
the  end  of  the  conflict. 

Owing  to  the  small  number  engaged  this  battle 
makes  little  show  in  history,  yet  it  is  remembered  by 
the  survivors  of  the  Forty-first  as  the  hardest  fight 
in  which  they  were  engaged  throughout  their  long 
and  arduous  service.  Soon  after  it  was  over.  General 
Thomas,  passing  that  way  and  viewing  the  ground, 
expressed  his  thanks  to  the  regiment  through  Colonel 
Wiley,  in  the  warmest  manner.  "It  was  a  gallant 
thing,  Colonel,  a  very  gallant  thing,"  said  the  veteran, 
known  to  be  as  chary  of  his  praise  as  any  chieftan 
that  ever  bore  command. 

On  the  24th  of  November  the  Forty-first,  from  its 
hardly-earned  position  watched  the  "Battle  above 
the  Clouds,"  on  Lookout  Mountain.  On  the  25th 
came  the  great- bat  tie  of  Mission  Ridge,  probably,  con- 
sidering the  strength  of  the  enemy's  position,  the 
numbers  engaged  and  the  completeness  of  the  Union 
victory,  the  most  remarkable  ever  fought  in  America, 
and  one  of  the  most  remarkable  to  be  found  in  the 
annals  of  war,  in  either  ancient  or  modern  times. 

At  four  o'clock  the  expectant  army  heard  the  con- 
certed signal,  six  shots  fired  in  rapid  succession  from 
a  battery  of  twelve-pound  Parrots  guns.  "Forward! " 
shouted  Hazen;  "forward!"  repeated  the  field  and 
line  officers;  and  forward  went  the  men,  few  in 
numbers,  but  stronger  in  warlike  enthusiasm  with 
each  succeeding  battle.  As  they  reached  the  farther 
crest  of  Orchard  Knob  they  saw  the  valley  between 
that  and  Mission  Ridge,  from  a  half  to  three-quarters 
of  a  mile  wide-spread  out  before  them,  while  beyond 
frowned  the  Gibraltar-like  hights  they  were  ordered 
to  capture.  Extending  for  miles  on  either  side  were 
to  be  seen  the  lines  of  blue-coated  soldiers,  all  press- 
ing forward  in  the  same  direction. 

Descending  into  the  valley  they  came  under  the 
rebel  artillery  fire,  many  of  the  men  falling  at  every 
step,  but  still  the  line  swept  forward,  urged  on  by  the 
officers,  and  at  the  foot  of  the  ridge  they  captured 
the  first  line  of  the  enemy's  works  with  scarcely  an 
effort.  They  could  not  remain  there  long,  however, 
under  the  murderous  fire  to  which  they  were  subjected. 
Here  Col.  Wiley  received  a  wound  which  I'esulted  in 
the  loss  of  his  leg,  and  Lt.  Col.  Kimberly  took  com- 
mand of  the  regiment.  Then  came  the  tug  of  war. 
Hazen  ordered  his  brigade  up  the  mountain;  and  on 
either  side  brigades,  divisions  and  corps  pressed  for- 
ward up  the  same  rugged  pathway  to  glory  or  the 

The  Forty-first,  as  ever,  was  well  to  the  front  in 
this  herculean  task.  Col.  Kimberly  gallantly  led  on 
his  men.  Lts.  James  McMahan  and  George  C.  Dodge, 
Jr.,  both  of  Cleveland,  were  together  as  the  regiment 



started  up  the  hill.  On  went  the  broken  but  invinci- 
ble line  up  the  rocky  steep,  through  an  awful  storm  of 
grape,  canister  and  musketry  the  men  climbing  and 
shooting  as  best  they  could.  In  twenty  minutes  they 
gained  the  top  of  the  ridge,  when  their  fire  was  prin- 
cipally directed  against  the  batteries  of  the  enemy, 
which  were  soon  compelled  to  retire  before  the  deadly 
flre  of  the  northern  riflemen.  Lt.  McMahan  came 
out  nearly  in  front  of  a  rebel  battery,  which  was  pour- 
ing death  into  the  ranks  of  the  Unionists.  The  men 
were  of  course  much  broken  by  the  rugged  steeps 
over  which  they  had  passed.  Seeing  a  long  log,  how- 
ever, lying  near  the  stump  from  which  it  had  been 
cut,  and  which  he  thought  might  serve  as  a  rallying 
point,  he  gathered  the  men  as  fast  as  they  came  up, 
and  made  them  lie  down  behind  the  log  until  he  had 
twelve  or  fifteen  packed  as  close  as  they  could  lie 
conveniently,  while  he  himself  took  post  behind  the 
stump.  Then  he  ordered  them  to  load  and  fire  as 
fast  as  possible  at  the  a)-tillerists  of  the  battery  before 
mentioned.  In  a  sliort  time  nearly  all  of  them  were 
killed  or  wounded.  Then  the  lieutenant  rushed  out 
with  his  squad  captured  the  battery  and  turned  its  fire 
on  the  enemy.  Other  batteries  were  seized  at  various 
points  along  the  line  and  used  in  the  same  manner. 
Mr.  Pratt,  now  of  the  Eighteenth  ward  of  Cleveland, 
was  one  of  those  engaged  in  this  novel  logging-bee, 
and  corroborates  the  statement  above  made.  It  was 
this  or  a  very  similar  exploit  which  was  thus  described 
in  Eeid's  History  of  "Ohio  in  the  War:" 

"A  squad  of  the  Forty-first  seized  a  battery,  almost 
before  the  rebels  were  away  from  it,  turned  it  to  the 
right  and  discharged  it  directly  along  the  summit  of 
the  ridge,  where  the  enemy  in  front  of  Newton's 
division  still  stubbornly  held  out;  and,  as  the  shells 
went  skimming  along  in  front  of  and  among  them, 
the  rebels  turned  and  fled." 

Yet  not  without  many  a  desperate  effort  to  recover 
the  ground.  About  a  hundred  of  them  suddenly 
came  charging  upon  the  right  of  the  Forty-first. 
The  men  were  much  scattered,  but  Major  Williston 
got  together  about  a  hundred  and  drove  the  assail- 
ants down  the  hill,  where  they  were  soon  "gobbled 
up"  by  the  swarming  Unionists. 

The  soldiers,  having  now  got  complete  possession 
of  the  rebel  works,  began  shooting  the  artillery  teams 
as  the  unlucky  Confederates  endeavored  to  remove 
their  cannon  to  the  rear.  The  horses  dropped  rapidly 
and  the  artillerists  took  to  their  heels,  leaving  the  guns 
as  a  prize  to  the  victors.  The  men  of  Hazen's  brigade 
captured  no  less  than  twenty-seven  guns  and  dragged 
them  to  the  general's  headquarters,  though  that 
officer  good-naturedly  allowed  nine  of  them  to  be 
claimed  and  taken  away  by  other  commands. 

G-en.  Wood,  the  division  commander,  was  highly 
elated,  and  came  riding  among  the  men,  saying: 
"Boys,  you  shall  have  an  extra  cracker  apiece  for 
this;"  an  extra  cracker,  in  those  days  of  short  rations, 
being  no  unworthy  emblem  of  gratitude.  Then  came 
Thomas,  "Old  Pap  Thomas,"  as  the  men  afEection- 

14  a 

ately  called  him,  and  they  gathered  in  delighted 
crowds  to  cheer  their  favorite  commander.  The  vic- 
tory was  won  at  a  loss  to  the  Forty-first  of  a  hundred 
and  fifteen  men  killed  and  wounded.  This  was  a 
very  heavy  loss  in  the  already  depleted  condition  of 
the  regiment,  and  there  were  but  few  of  the  men  who 
remained  entirely  unhurt  after  the  two  battles  of  the 
23d  and  25Lh  of  November,  1863. 

Scarcely  was  the  great  victory  of  Mission  Eidge 
gained  than  the  Forty-first,  with  the  rest  of  the 
Fourth  corps,  was  ordered  to  Knoxville.  Communi- 
cations had  been  much  interrupted,  and  the  command 
suffered  especially  for  lack  of  shoes.  Long  before 
reaching  Knoxville  half  of  the  men  of  the  Forty- 
first  would  have  been  barefooted,  had  it  not  been  for 
the  improvised  coverings  of  cowskin  and  sheepskin  in 
which  they  wrapped  their  feet,  and  in  which  they 
strove  bravely  on  over  the  frozen  ground  to  Clinch 
mountain,  twenty  miles  northeast  of  Knoxville,  which 
they  reached  in  the  latter  part  of  December. 

Here  the  proposition  reached  them  from  Washing- 
ton to  re-enlist  as  veterans,  and  never  was  the  extra- 
ordinary heroism,  fortitude  and  patriotism  of  the 
American  volunteer  more  proudly  shown  than  on 
this  occasion.  Out  of  more  than  a  thousand  gallant 
men  who  had  gone  forth  from  pleasant  homes  to 
battle  for  their  county,  disease  and  the  bullet  had 
spared  but  a  hundred  and  eighty-eight,  and  even  of 
these  probably  a  majority  had  been  wounded  one  or 
more  times.  Their  suSerings  on  the  march  to  Clinch 
mountain  have  just  been  mentioned,  yet  when,  amid 
the  cold  and  rain  and  sleet  of  a  Tennessee  winter, 
they  were  asked  to  re-enlist,  a  hundred  and  eighty  out 
of  a  hundred  and  eighty-eight  bound  themselves  to 
three  years  more  of  service — and  such  service — in 
their  country's  cause. 

The  regiment  reaehed  Cleveland  on  veteran  furlough 
on  the  2d  of  February,  1864,  obtained  about  a  hun- 
dred recruits,  and  in  the  latter  part  of  March  returned 
to  East  Tennessee.  The  two  hundred  and  eighty 
men  of  which  the  regiment  was  composed  were  now 
united  with  the  few  remaining  men  of  the  First  Ohio, 
and  consolidated  into  a  battalion,  commanded  by 
Lieut.  Col.  Kimberly. 

In  April  the  Forty-first  entered  on  Sherman's  great 
Atlanta  campaign;  being  warmly  engaged  at  Eocky 
Face  Eidge  and  at  Eesaca. 

On  the  27th  of  May  the  battalion  was  hotly  en- 
gaged in  the  conflict  called  variously  the  battle  of 
Pickett's  Mill,  the  battle  of  Pumpkin  Vine  Creek, 
and  the  battle  near  Dallas.  At  9  a.m.,  the  command 
was  halted,  and  three  companies,  commanded  respec- 
tively by  Lieutenants  Dodge,  McMahan  and  Cobb, 
moved  forward  as  skirmishers  under  charge  of  Major 
Williston.  They  had  gone  scarcely  a  hundred  yards 
into  the  woods  when  one  of  the  men  was  killed.  As 
Lieut.  McMahan,  standing  on  a  small  limb,  was  feel- 
ing his  pulse  to  see  if  he  was  really  dead,  a  bullet 
broke  the  limb  between  the  officer's  feet.  Immedi- 
ately afterwards  the  skirmishers  were  ordered  to  move 



by  the  right  flank  at  a  double  quick,  but  after  a  brief 
excursion  in  the  vicinity  of  the  rebel  works,  they  were 
ordered  back  to  the  brigade. 

About  four  o'clock  p.m.,  the  Forty-first,  the 
Ninety-third  and  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  Ohio  moved  forward  to  attack  the  enemy's 
right;  the  Forty-first  in  the  center.  After  receiving 
a  murderous  volley  from  the  intrenched  foe,  they 
charged  through  a  ravine,  and  endeavored  to  capture 
the  works  on  the  opposite  side.  They  were  only  able 
to  get  within  about  twenty  yards  of  the  foe,  where 
they  halted,  obtained  such  cover  as  they  could  and  kept 
up  a  hot  fire  on  the  enemy.  Six  or  eight  lines  came 
to  their  relief,  but  only  two  got  as  far  forward  as 
the  men  of  the  Forty-first,  and  none  could  go  any 
farther.  Lieut.  McMahau  with  two  companies, 
Lieut.  Dodge  with  one  company,  and  Oapt.  Hazard 
with  two  companies,  remained  there  until  half  past 
eight  when  the  battalion  was  withdrawn.  In  this 
affair  the  Forty-first  had  a  hundred  and  eight  men 
killed  and  wounded  out  of  two  hundred  and  sixty. 

At  Pine  Top  mountain,  near  Kenesaw,  the  bat- 
talion was  ordered  to  dislodge  a  detachment  of  the 
enemy,  strongly  fortified  in  a  log  farm-house  and  out- 
buildings. With  that  vim  which  no  losses  could  ever 
subdue,  the  Forty-first  went  forward  on  the  double- 
quick  and  drove  out  the  rebels  at  the  point  of  the 

About  this  time  the  Forty-first  ceased  to  be  what  it 
had  so  long  been,  a  part  of  "  Hazen's  brigade;"  that 
general  being  made  the  commander  of  a  division. 
The  new  brigade  commander  was  Colonel  0.  H. 
Payne,  of  Cleveland,  colonel  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  Ohio  Infantry. 

It  would  be  impracticable  to  relate  all  the  conflicts 
in  which  the  battalion  was  engaged  in  this  remarka- 
ble campaign,  for  the  ground  was  contested  inch  by 
inch,  and  the  whole  route  from  Chattanooga  to  At- 
lanta was  scarcely  less  than  one  long  battle-field. 

On  the  28th  of  July  the  battalion,  being  deployed 
as  skirmishers  in  front  of  the  rebel  lines  at  Atlanta, 
and  seeing  what  they  thought  a  good  chance,  made  a 
dash  through  a  ravine,  across  an  open  field  and  into 
the  rebel  breastworks,  where  they  captured  a  number 
of  prisoners  and  drove  out  the  rest  in  a  perfect 

A  day  or  two  later  the  brigade  was  sent  around  to 
the  east  of  Atlanta  at  night.  The  next  morning  it 
tore  up  some  ten  miles  of  the  Montgomery  railroad, 
and  then  proceeded  to  the  southern  road,  about  fif- 
teen or  twenty  miles  from  Atlanta.  At  midnight  a 
tremendous  noise  was  heard,  and  the  whole  command 
sprang  to  arms,  thinking  that  General  Hood  or  an 
earthquake  was  upon  them.  After  waiting  a  consider- 
able time  and  finding  that  nothing  farther  happened, 
the  men  at  length  somewhat  doubtingly  returned 
to  their  beds,  or  rather  to  their  blankets,  for  these 
were  generally  the  soldier's  only  couch.  It  was  soon 
learned  that  the  sound  came  fi'om  the  explosion  of 
some  eighty  car  loads  of  ammunition,  blown  up  by 

Hood  when  he  evacuated  Atlanta,  to  keep  it  from  fall- 
ing into  the  hands  of  the  "  Yankees." 

As  Hood  moved  north,  a  heavy  force,  of  which  the 
Fourth  corps  formed  a  part,  followed  fast  in  his  rear. 
Far  across  an  intervening  valley  the  men  watched  the 
desperate  fight  of  Corse  at  Allatoona,  when  with  his 
little  force  he  obeyed  the  signal  "  Hold  the  fort," 
and  repulsed  the  legions  of  Hood.  Then  they  pro- 
ceeded to  Galesville,  whence  a  portion  of  the  pursuing 
force  returned  to  take  part  in  the  "March  to  the 
Sea,"  while  the  Fourth  corps  continued  its  north- 
ward course.  It  proceeded  by  way  of  Chattanooga  to 
Athens,  Alabama,  where  a  hundred  and  sixty-four 
conscripts  and  substitutes  Joined  the  battalion.  The 
command  went  on  to  Pulaski,  and  thence  to  Colum- 

Near  here  Hood's  army  approached  so  near  that  the 
Fourth  and  Twenty-third  corps  were  obliged  to  go 
into  line  of  battle.  They  went  on  at  night  to  Spring 
Hill;  the  Forty-first  marching  past  a  long  line  of 
camp  fires,  a  few  hundred  yards  distant,  which  were 
supposed  to  belong  to  the  Unionists  but  which  in 
reality  were  those  of  a  rebel  corps.  Some  of  the  men, 
approaching  these  fires  too  closely,  were  captured  by 
the  Confederates  bivouacked  around  them.  From 
Spring  Hill  to  Franklin  the  Forty-first  was  the  train- 
guard  of  the  army.  It  skirmished  with  the  enemy 
nearly  all  the  way,  and  being  very  much  exhausted 
was  not  required  to  take  part  in  the  battle  of 

Then  they  went  to  Nashville,  and  after  two  weeks 
spent  in  building  fortifications  'and  making  prepara- 
tions, Gen.  Thomas  took  the  offensive  against  Hood. 
At  daylight  on  the  15th  of  December,  1864,  the 
Forty-first  was  deployed  as  a  double  line  of  skir- 
mishers and  placed  behind  a  stone  wall  in  front  of 
the  enemy's  rifle  pits,  on  the  "Granny  White"  turn- 
pike. Skirmish  firing  was  kept  up  till  about  eight 
o'clock,  when  the  fiery  valor  of  the  Forty-first  could 
no  longer  be  restrained.  The  men  jumped  over  the 
wall,  dashed  across  an  open  field  three  hundred 
yards  wide  under  a  heavy  fire  of  musketry,  captured 
the  rifie  pits  of  the  enemy,  pushed  on  over  a  knoll 
and  drove  the  rebels  from  their  breastworks  at  the 
point  of  the  bayonet,  capturing  two  pieces  of  ar- 
tillery. The  battalion  fortified  its  position  and 
remained  until  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  when  it 
was  relieved;  the  main  line  moving  forward  and  the 
rebels  retreating. 

The  next  day  the  Forty-first  was  again  sent  forward 
as  skirmishers,  to  cover  the  advance  of  the  right  of 
the  troops.  Coming  to  a  large  rebel  fortification, 
covered  in  front  by  an  abatis,  they  endeavored  as 
usual  to  capture  it,  but  were  checked  by  a  murder- 
ous fire  from  a  large  rebel  force.  Some  of  the 
skirmishers  penetrated  the  abatis,  and  Private  Klein- 
haus  leaped  alone  into  the  rebel  breastworks.  The 
information  we  have  received  from  Captain  McMahan 
ceases  at  this  point,  for,  while  he  was  endeavoring  to 
lead  forward  a  detachment  of  colored  troops  whom 



he  found  without  a  commander,  the  good  fortune 
which  had  attended  him  through  a  score  of  battles 
deserted  him,  and  he  was  twice  severely  wounded. 

Colonel  Kimberly,  who  commanded  the  battalion, 
finding  that  the  line  of  battle  could  not  be  advanced, 
ordered  his  skirmishers  to  withdraw.  Several  of 
them,  however,  being  inside  of  the  abatis,  covered 
themselves  as  well  as  they  could  and  waited  till  the 
enemy  was  broken  on  the  right,  when  he  withdrew 
from  the  works  in  front.  They  then  sprang  forward, 
capturing  a  few  prisoners,  two  battle-flags,  and  no 
less  than  four  pieces  of  artillery.  The  captured  can- 
non were  marked  with  the  name  of  the  Forty-first 
Ohio  by  order  of  the  chief  of  artillery,  and  the  men 
who  took  the  flags.  Sergeant  Garnett,  of  Company  G, 
and  Private  Holcomb,  of  Company  A,  were  sent  with 
them  to  Washington  by  General  Thomas. 

After  the  victory  of  Nashville  the  battalion  partici- 
pated in  the  pursuit  of  Hood,  but  was  not  called  on 
to  do  any  more  hard  fighting.  In  June,  1865,  it 
started  from  Nashville  for  Texas  by  steamer.  Near 
Cairo  the  vessel  was  accidentally  sunk  by  a  gunboat, 
with  nearly  all  the  personal  property  of  oflacers  and 
men,  but  without  loss  of  life.  After  a  few  months 
service  near  San  Antonio,  the  battalion  returned  to 
Columbus,  Ohio,  where  it  was  discharged  on  the  26th 
of  November,  1865,  after  a  service  of  over  four  years, 
unsurpassed  in  hardships,  in  dangers  and  in  triumphs 
by  that  of  any  other  organization  in  the  United  States 



John  J.  Wiseman,  enr.  as  Lieut.  Col.  Aug.  7, 1861.    Resigned  March  1, 

George  S.  Mygatt,  enr.  as  Major  Aug.  7, 1861.    Promoted  to  Lieut.  Col. 

March  1, 1862.    Resigned  Nov.  20, 1862. 
Robert  L.  Kimberly,  enr.  as  2nd  Lieut.  Sept.  27,  1861.    Promoted  to  1st 

Lieut.  Jan.  21, 1862,  to  Capt.  March  17,  1862,  to  Major  Nov.  20, 1862,  to 

Lieut.  Col.  Jan.  1, 1863,  to  Col.  191  Inf.  and  Brig.  Gen.  by  brevet, 
Ephraim  S.  HoUoway,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut.  Co.F.Oct.  10,  1861.    Promoted 

to  Capt.  Sept.  8, 1862,  to  Major  Dec.  6, 1864,  to  Lieut.  Col.  March  18, 

1865,  and  to  Col.  May  31, 1865.    Mustered  out  with  Reg. 
Junius  R.  Sanford,  enr.  as  Adj't.  Aug.  23, 1861.    Made  1st  Lieut.  Aug. 

25  1861.    Resigned  Jan.  13,  1862.    Afterwards  in  128th  Reg. 
George  J.  A.  Thompson,  enl.  Sept.  18, 1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Jan.  8, 

1862,  to  Sergt.  Jan.  12,  1863,  to  1st  Lieut.  Dec.  6, 1864,  and  to  Adj't. 

May  1,  1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Wilham  S.  Chamberlain,  enr.  as  Q.  M.  Aug.  34, 1861.    Made  1st  Lieut. 

Aug.  25, 1861 .    Resigned  Dec.  10, 1861 . 
Thomas  G.  Cleveland,  enl.  as  Surg.  Aug.  29,  1861.    Resigned  May  17, 

Albert  G.  Hart,  enr.  as  Asst.  Surg.  Sept.  5,  1861,    Promoted  to  Surg, 

Aug.  30,  1862.    Resigned  Nov.  5,  1864. 
Osman  A.  Lyman,  enr.  as  Chaplain  Dec.  16, 1861.  Resigned  May  17, 1862. 


Charles  Colvin,  enr.  as  Hosp.  Steward,  Sept.  23, 1861.    Disch.  at  end  of 
term.  Sept.  2-3, 1864. 


Edwin  B.  Atwood,  enr.  Sergt,  Maj.  Sept,  19,  1861.    Promoted  to  2nd 

Lieut.  Jan.  21, 1862,  to  1st  Lieut.  Sept.  8, 1863,  to  Capt.  April  13, 1864.  ■ 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Walter  Blythe,  enr.  as  Q.  M,  Sergt,  Aug.  25,  1861,    Promoted  to  2nd 

Lieut,  April  13,  1862,  to  1st  Lieut,  Oct,  1, 1862,    Mustered  out  July 

9,  1865. 
William  E.  Booth,  enr.  as  Com.  Sergt,  Sept,  21,  1861,    Promoted  to  2nd 

Lieut,  Sept,  9,  1862  and  to  1st  Lieut,  May  29,  1863.    Resigned  Sept, 

22,  1864,  . 


Charles  W.  Hills,  enr,  as  Corp.  Aug.  24, 1861,    Promoted  to  2nd  Lieut. 

Jan,  1863,  to  1st  Lieut,  April  13,  1864,    Resigned  Oct,  28, 1864. 
Franlc  McDonald,  enl,  Oct,  1, 186;3.    Disch.  May  16.  1865. 
Archibald  Slcinner,  enl.  Aug.  30,  1862.    Disch.  May  19,  1865. 
Daniel  Bennett,  enl.  Aug.  23, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  July  1, 1862. 
Joseph  M.  Bennett,  enl.  Aug.  24, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  May  15, 1862 
Morgan  Hale,  enl.  Aug.  24,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Sept.  15,  1862. 
Augustus  F.  Hills,  enl.  Aug.  24, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  May  11, 1863. 
Hiram  Keesler,  enl.  Aug.  24,  1861.     Disch.  for  disability,  1863. 
Richard  Worts,  Jr,,  enl.  Aug.  24,  1861.  Disch.  for  disability  Aug.  29, 1865. 
Julius  A.  Cutler,  enr.  Aug.  24,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability,  1864. 
W.  J.  Richmond,  enl.  Aug.  24,  1S61.    Died  at  Mouud  City  April  13,  1862 

frcm  wounds  received  at  Shiloh. 
Christopher  W.  Gee,  enl.  Aug.  24, 1861.  Disch.  for  disability  Aug.  15, 1865. 


Luther  Ballart,  enl.  Aug.  30,  1862.     Died  Nov.  30, 1863, 
Lyman  Harrington,  enl,  Aug.  16, 1862.    Died  Nov,  22,  1862, 
Louis  R,  Bartlett,  enl,  Aug.  16,  1862.    Mustered  out  June  13,  1865. 
Charles  W.  Blakeslee,  enl.  Aug.  16, 1862.    Disch,  for  disability  June  1, 

Lewis  A.  Chamberlain,  enl,  Aug,  16, 1863.    Disch.  for  disability  May  18, 

Henry  Devoioe,  enl.  Sept.  8, 1862.    Disch.  for  disability  March  22,  1863. 
John  Goole,  enl.  Aug.  16,  1862.    Disch.  for  disability  Feb.  8,  1865. 
Leonard  P.  Hammond,  enl.  Aug.  16,  1863,    Mustered  out  June  13, 1865, 
Christopher  Kubbar,  enl,  Aug,  80,  1862,    Mustered  out  June  13, 1865, 
Charles  P,  Bail,  enl,  Aug,  30,  1863,    Promoted  to  Corp,  Nov,  6,  1862, 

Mustered  out  June  13,  1865, 
Orange  Fisher,  enl.  Aug.  30,  1862.     Disch,  April  18,  1863. 
James  M.  Foster,  enl.  Aug.  30,  1863.     Mustsred  out  June  12,  1865. 
L,  Goult,  enl,  Aug,  30,  1863,    Disch,  for  disability, 
Shubal  Nease,  enl,  Aug,  30,  lh62.     Mustered  out  June  13,  1865, 
Addison  Smith,  enl,  Aug,  30, 1863,     Mustered  out  June  13,  1865, 
E,  M,  Sanborn,  enl,  Aug,  37,  1862,    Mustered  out  June  13,  1865. 


H,  S,  Caswell,  enl,  Aug,  30,  1862,    Died  at  Nashville  Dec,  1,  1862. 

William  Weiker,  enl.  Aug.  30,  1862.     Disch.  Jan,  17,  1863. 

Edward  Hillman,  enl.  Dec.  19,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corporal  Dec.  15,  1862. 

Died  July  37,  1863,  from  wounds  received  at  Fort  Wagner,  July  18th. 
Abraham  Bennett,  enl.  Nov.  8,  1861.  Disch.  for  disability  Oct.  24,  1862. 
Saunders  Cornwell,  enr.  as  Musician  Dec.  19, 1861.  Disch.  Oct.  8, 1862. 
Charles  Jenks,  enl.  Dec.  19, 1861.     Transf.  to  1st  Penn.  Battery  Jan.  23, 

Hiram  L.  Rounds,  enl.  Nov.  8.  4861.    Disch.  for  disability  May  8,  1862. 
Sanford  Russell,  enl.  Nov.  26,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Oct,  35,  1862. 
Andrew  Sherman,  enl.  Nov.  26, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  Dec.  7, 

Albert  Russell,  enl.  Dec.  26,  1861,    Promoted  to  Corporal  Jan,  1,  1864. 

Wounded  Oct.  13,  1864.    Disch.  Oct.  31,  1865. 


James  H.  Cole,  enr.  as  Capt.  Sept.  27,  1861.    Resigned  March  17, 1862. 
Harvey  E,  Proctor,  enr,  as  1st  Lieut,  Sept.  37, 1861.    Promoted  to  Capt. 

Sept.  9,  1862.     Made  Chaplain  March  1,  1862.     Became,  Major  in  a 

Colored  Reg, 
Robert  L.  Kimberly.    (See  Field  and  Staff.) 
George  C.  Dodge,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Oct.  2,  1861     Promoted  to  2nd  Lieut. 

Jan.  1,  1863,  to  1st  Lieut,  Oct,  12,  1864,  and  to  Captain  Nov.  28, 1864. 

Resigned  Dec.  27, 1864. 
Lloyd  A.  Fisher,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt.  Sept.  27,  1861.    Prom,  to  2nd  Lieut. 

Nov.  20, 1862,  and  to  1st  Lieut.  April  13,  1864.    Hon.  disch.  May  27, 

Charles  Hammond,  enr,  as  Corp,  Oct  27,  1861.     Prom,  to  Sergt.  July  1, 

1862;  to  1st  Sergt.  March  2",  1864,  and  to  1st  Lieut.  March  28,  1865 

Mustered  out  with  Regt.  26th  Nov.  1865. 
Peter Herriff, enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.     Prom.  Corp.   April  28,  1863;  to  Sergt. 

March  25, 1864;  to  2nd  Lieut.  April  28,  1865;  and  to  1st  Lieut.  June  1, 

1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Anson  B.  Ward,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.   Sept.  27,  1861. 

Wounded  Oct.  3o,  1863,    Disch.  Nov.  5, 1864,  at  end  of  service. 
Daniel  Trowbridge,  enl.  Sept,  3, 1861,    Promoted  to  Corp,  Sept.  27, 1861. 

Died  May  19, 1862,  from  wounds  received  at  Shiloh  April  7th. 
James  W.  Ashborn,  enl.  Sept  3,  1861.      Promoted  to  Corp.  Sept.  27,  1861. 

Disch.  near  Mt.  Pleasant,  Tenn. 
Abel  P.  Roscoe,  enr.  as  Drummer  Oct.  22, 1861.    Disch.  Aug.  4,  1865. 
EnosPease,  enr.  asFifer,  Oct.  27,  1881.     Disch.  April  30,  1863. 
Edward  Clifford   enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.     Promoted  to  Sergt.  Sept.  27, 1881. 

Disch.  near  Springhill,  Tenn 
Elisha  C.  Woods,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Oct.  28,  1861.     Disch.  Oct.  22,  1862. 
Henry  M.  BilUngs.  enl.  Sept,  2, 1861,  Promoted  to  Sergt.  Sept.  27, 1861. 

Disch.  July  11, 1863. 
Burr  Fisher,  enr.  as  Corp.  Sept.  27,  1861.     Promoted  to  Sergt.  Feb.  12^ 

1862.     Disch.  Jan.  12,  1863, 



William  H.  H.  Flick,  enl.  Sept.  2, 1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Sept.  27, 

1861.    Wounded  at  Shiloh,  April  7,  1863.    Disch.  Dec.  11,  1862. 
Emory  Davis,  enl.  Sept.  2, 1861 .  Promoted  to  Corp.  Sept.  27, 1861.  Disch. 

Oct.  22.  1862. 
Allen  Atherton,  enl,  Sept.  18th,  1861.    Killed  at  Resaca,  Ga.,  May  15, 

Elon  G.  Bnughton,  enl.  Sept.  10, 1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.  May  19, 1862. 

Wounded  at  Mission  Ridge,  Nov.  25,  1863.    Mustered  out  June  13, 

John  D.  Butler,  enl.  Sept.  21,  1861 .    Trinsf .  to  1st  Engineers,  1864. 
Thomas  Butler,  enl.  Sept.  31.  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp .  Deo.  13,  1862; 

and  to  Sergt.  March  27,  1864.     Wounded  at  Mission  Ridge,  Nov.  85, 

1863  and  Piclcett's  Mills,  May  87,  1864.    Disch.  June  17,  1865. 
Asa  P.  Carr,  enl.  Sept .  14,  1861 .    Disch .  at  end  of  term  Nov.  5,  1864. 
George  H.  Claskey,  enl.  Sept.  17,  1861.    Wounded  Sept.  19,  1863.    Mus- 
tered out  June  13,  1865. 
Edward  F.  Corkell,  enl.  Sept.  17,  1861.    Died  at  luka.  Miss.,  May  18, 1862. 
John  F.  Cowan,  enl.  Sept.  10. 1861.    Disch.  Feb.  14,  1863. 
Jesse  Davidson,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.     Died  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  April  22, 

Joseph  Davidson,  enl.  Sept.  2.  1861.     Wounded  at  Mission  Ridge,  Nov, 

25,  1863. 
William  Deisman,  enl.  Oct.  11,  1861.    Wounded  Dec.  31,  1862,  at  Stone 

River;  Sept.  19,  1863  at  Chickamauga,  and  May  87,  1864,  at  Pickett's 

Mills,  6a.    Promoted  to  Corp.  April  1,  1865.    Disch    Aug.  12  1865. 
William  Dunkee,  enl.  Sept,  18,  1861,    Promoted  to  Corp.  July  1,  1862. 

Killed  at  Mission  Ridge,  Nov,  25,  1868. 
Arthur  Emerson,  enl.  Oct.  8,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Dec.  13,  1862,  to 

Sergt.  Dec.  9  1864.  to  1st  Sergt.  April  1,  1865.     Wounded  at  Shiloh 

April  7,  1862,  and  Mission  Ridge  Nov.  33,  1863.    Mustered  out  with  the 

S.  F.  Fancher,  enl.  Sept.  2, 1861,    Promoted  to  Corp.  March  24,  1864,  and 

to  Sergt.  July  1, 1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Josiah  Flich.  enl.  Sept.  27,  1861.    Disch.  Dec.  6,  1863, 
Thomas  B.  Fitzpatrick,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.    Died  at  Chattanooga,  Tenn., 

Dec.  8,  1863.  of  wounds  rec'd  at  Orchard  Knob  Nov.  33. 
John  Gardner,  enl.  Sept,  17.  18-31 ,    Killed  at  Mission  Ridge,  Tenn,,  Nov. 

2.5,  1863. 
Francis  Gibbons,  enl.  Sept,  17,  1861.    Disch.  July  14,  1862. 
Theodore  Gregorj-,  enl.  Sept.  2d,  1861.    Wounded  at  Pickett's  Mills,  6a., 

May  27,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
William  Glasgow,  enl.  Sept.  10,  1861.     Wounded  at  Shiloh  April  7,  1862. 

Disch.  Nov.  3,  1863. 
Francis  Harris,  enl.  Sept,  2, 1861.  Died  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  March 35, 1863. 
Martin  Harris,  enl.  Sept.  2, 1881.    Disch.  July  29,  1862. 
Albert  Herriman,  enl.  Sept.  25,  1S61.     Promoted  to  Corp.  July  1,  1865 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Johnson  0.  Hewitt,  enl.  Sept.  14,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Feb.  8,  1862. 

Wounded  Sept.  19,  1863,    Mustered  out  at  Nashville. 
Alexander  Hornig,  enl.  Sept.  37,  1861.   Disch.  at  end  of  term  Nov.  5, 1864. 
Hugh  Hart,  enl.  Sept.   17,   1861.     Wounded  April  7,  1862,   at  Shiloh. 

Disch.  Oct.  11, 1862. 
Joseph  Hirst,  enl .  Oct.  3,  1861.  Died  Jan.  28, 1863,  at  Nashville  of  wounds 

rec'd  at  Stone  River  Dec.  3,  1863. 
Erastus  P.  Ives,  enl.  Sept.  21, 1861.    Died  at  Louisville,  Ky, ,  Feb.  20, 1863. 
David  M.  Jones,  enl.  Sept.  27,  1861.    Died  at  Bedford,  O.,  Feb.  6, 1863. 
Julius  Jones,  enl.  Sept.  10, 1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Dec.  9,  1864.     Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Reg. 
Edward  M   Kelley,  enl.  Sept.  3,  1861.     Wounded  at  Chickamauga  Sept. 

19, 1863,  and  taken  prisoner.     Died  in  Andersonville  prison  Aug.  15, 

Jason  Lockwood,  enl.  Sept,  27,  1861,    Promoted  to  i.'orp,  March  24,  1864, 

and  to  Sergt.  April  1, 1865,    Wounded  at  Chattahochie  River  July  5, 

1864,    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
Levi  Mead,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.    Died  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  April  7,  1862. 
William  H.  Marshall,  enl.  October  5,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Dec.  9, 

1864,  and  to  Sergt.  July  1,  1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Orson  C.  Mathews,  enl.  Oct.  9,  1861.     Taken  prisoner  Oct.  83, 1864.    Disch 

June  22,  1865. 
Benjamin  Needham,  enl.  Sept.  18,  1861 ,    Wounded  April  7,  1863,  at  Shi- 
loh, and  at  Orchard  Knob  Nov,  33.  1833     Disch.  for  disability  July 

6,  1864, 
James  F.  Newcomb,  enl.  Sept.  21,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg 
Michael  O'Bryan,  enl.  Sept.  35,  1.961.    Disch.  Jan.  30,  1863. 
Orwin  Osborne,  enl.  Sept.  37,  1861.     Pro.iioted  to  Corp.   Feb.  8,  1863. 

Disch,  Aug.  15,  1862. 
Thomas  Pearce,  enl.  Sept.  30,  1861.    Disch.  Jan.  30,  1863. 
William  Powers,  enl.  Sept.  2, 1861.    Transf  to  Vet.  Reserve  Corps. 
James  Pease,  enl.  Sept.  17,  1861.     Wounded  at  Orchard  Knob  Nov.  83, 

1863.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term  Nov.  6,  1864. 
Julius  Raue,  enl.  Sept.  14,  1861.    Disch.  July  12,  1862. 
Luther  Richardson,  enl.  Sept,  8,  1861.    Killed  at  Pieketts'  Mills    Ga 

May  27,  1864. 
Virgil  Richmond,  enl.  Sept.  81,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Dec.  9,  1864. 

Wounded  at  Chickamauga,  Sept.  19,  1863.     Mustered  out  with  Reg. 
William  H,  Rattles,  enl.  Sept.  14,  1861.    Killed  at  Pickett's  Mills  Ga 

May  37,  1864, 

waiiam  Simpson,  enl.  Sept.  18, 1861.    Disch.  June  12,  1868. 

Oliver Slocum,  enl.  Sept.  2, 1861.    Disch.  Nov.  29, 1862. 

Emerson  W.  Smellie,  enl.   Sept.  2,  1861.    Promoted  to  Qjrp.  Feb.  11 

1863.    Died  Nov.  26, 1863,  of  wounds  ree'd  at  Mission  Ridge  the  day 

Spencer  A.  Sawyer,  enl.  Oct.  5, 1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  March  24, 1864, 

and  Sergt.  Dec.  9, 1864.    Wounded  at  Stone  River  Dec.  31, 1862,  and 

at  Pickett's  Mills  May  27,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Samuel  Sampson,  enl.  Sept.  14, 1861. 

Thomas  Studer,  enl.  Oct.  5,  1861.    Died  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  Feb.  16, 1882. 
William  E.  Smith,  enl.   Oct.   15,1861.    Wounded  De.-.  .31,  1863.    Mus- 
tered out  June  13,  1865. 
John  S.  Tennis,  enl.  Sept,  14, 1861.    Disch.  Feb.  14, 1863. 
George  J.  A.  Thompson.    (See  Field  and  Staff.) 
Andrew  Trump,  enl.  Sept  14, 1861.    Killed  at  Pickett's  Mills,  Ga.,  May  87, 

Daniel  E.  Underhill,  enl.  Sept.  10,  1861.    Died  at  Camp  Wickliffe,  Ky, 

Jan.  15,  1862. 
Charles  Venoah,  enl.  Sept.  18, 1861.   Wounded  at  Eeadyville,  Tenn.,  Feb. 

19, 1863,  and  at  Mission  Ridge  Nov.  23,  1863.    Disch.  at  end  of  term 

Nov.  29,  1864 
John  Wakefield,  enl.  Sept.  27,  1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.  Nov.  24,  1861, 

and  to  1st  Sergt.  April  27, 1863.    Wounded  at  Chickamauga  Sept.  19, 

1863,  and  Pickett's  Mills  May  27,  1864.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term 
Nov.  4,  1864. 

Zenas  Wheeler,  enl.  Sept.  27,  1861.    Disch.  Nov.  19,  1862. 
William  Wick,  enl.  Sept.  27,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Nehemiah  Flick,  enl,  March  1,1864,     Promoted  to  Corp,  July  1, 1865. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Rear. 
Verneuel  Button,  enl,  Feb.  29,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Benoah  Kellogg,  enl.  March  2,  1864.     Wounded  at  Pickett's  Mills,  Ga., 

May  27,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Jonathan  Minor,  enl. 1864.    Wounded  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  Deo. 

16,  1864.    Disch.  with  the  Reg. 
William  Woods,  ent.  Feb.  33, 1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Royal  Dunham,  enl.  Feb.  29,  18)4.    Killed  at  Pieketts'  Mills,  Ga.,  May  27, 

Moses  Tompkins,  enl.  Feb.  12,  1864,    Died  June  21,  1864,  at  Chattanooga, 

Tenn.,  of  wounds  received  at  Pieketts'  Mills,  May  27. 
William  Cowan,  enl.  Oct.  8.  1862,    Disch.  March  6.  1863. 
John  Mier,  enl.  Sept.  22, 1864.    Disch.  June  13.  1865, 
Leonard  Presing,  enl.  Sept.  23,  1864.     Wounded  at  Bull's  Gap.  Tenn., 

April  1,  1865.    Disch.  June  13,  1865. 


Frank  D.  Stone,  enr  as  Capt.  Sept.  30,  1861.    Resigned  Jan.  23,  1862. 
William  J.  Morgan,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Promoted  Jan.  30, 

1862,  to  Capt.    Resigned  March  24,  1863. 
Ferdmand  D.  Cobb,  enl.  as  1st  Sergt,  Co.  F,  Sept.  2, 1861.    Promoted  to 

2d  Lieut.  March  17, 1862,  to  1st  Lieut.  May  21, 1862,  and  transf.  to  Co. 

E.   Wounded  at  Nashville,  Dec .  16,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Harry  W.  Jones,  enr.  as  2d  Lieut.  Sept.  30,  1861.    Promoted  to  1st  Lieut. 

Feb.  8,  1862.    Disch.  Oct,  1, 1862. 
Frederick  A.  McKay,  enl.  asSergt.  Sept.  30,  1861.    Promoted  to  3d  Lieut. 

Nov.  24, 1862.    Resigned  Nov.  88.  1864. 
Albert  E.  Virgil,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt.  Sept.  12, 1861.    Died  from  wounds  re. 

ceived  at  Shiloh  April  7, 1862. 
Arthur  Ecfcert,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Nov. 

2. 1864. 
Henry  Simons,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Killed  at  Stone  River  Deo 

31,  1862. 
William  Lynch,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Disch.  at  Columbus,  O. 
William  Edwards,  enr.  as  Corp.  Sept.  18,  1861.    Disch.  Feb.  81, 1863. 
Cyrus  Williams,  enr.  as  Corp.  Aug.  27, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
William  Drum,  enr.  as  Corp.  Sept.  13, 1861 .    Promoted  to  Sergt.  Jan  80, 

1864.  Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 

Samuel  Colby,  enrolled  as  Corp.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term, 

Nov.  2, 1864, 
John  CuUen,  enr.  as  Corp.  bept.  12. 1861.    Killed  at  Shiloh,  April 7, 1862. 
Thomas  Powers,  enr.  as  Corp.  Aug.  27,  1861.     Disch.  Sept.  16, 1862. 
WilHam  Langell,  enr.  as  Corp.  Aug,  27, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
John  Neville,  enr.  as  Corp.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Discharged  at  end  of  term, 

Nov.  2,  1854. 
Sylvester  W.Winchester,  enr.  as  Fifer  Oct.  4,  1861.    Killed  at  Stone 

River  Dec.  31, 1862, 
James  Arnott,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Transf.  to  the  Veteran  Reserve  Corps. 

Seaman  Annis.  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861.     Disch. 

Alexander  Beard,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861.     Disch.  Nov.  8,  1862. 

•Jervis  Barber,  enl,  Sept.  2,  1861.    Disch.  May  12,  1862. 

Caswell  Barber,  enl.  Oct.  27,  1861.     Disch.  May  18,  1868, 

Henry  S.  Coykindall,  enl.  Aug.  37,  1861 .     Disch.  at  end  of  term,  Nov.  2, 

Jacob  Cressinger,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.  April  1, 1865. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Thomas  Conway,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861 .    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Nov.  2, 1864. 
Henry  Conway,  enl,  Aug.  27,  1861.    Disch.  at  Nashville,  Tenn. 



Timothy  Corbit,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Died  of  wounds  received  at  Stone 

River  Dec.  31, 1862. 
Dennis  Corbit,  enl.  Sept.  4, 186r.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Nov.  2,  1864, 
John  Caldwell,  enl.  Sept.  12, 1861.    Disch.  at  Lovisville,  Ky. 
David  Cochran,  enl.  Sept.  14, 1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Nov.  3, 1864. 
Michael  Chalk,  enl.  Oct.  6, 1861.    Died  June  18,  1862,  from  wounds  ree'd 

at  Shiloh  Arril  7. 
Robert  Davidson ,  enl.  Sept.  30.  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Nov.  2, 1864. 
James  Evans,  enl.  Sept.  8, 1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Jan.  30, 1865. 
Patrick  Flannagan,  enl.  Sept.  14, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Ensign  FuUweller,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Disch.  Nov.  16, 1862,  for  disability 

caused  by  wounds  rec'd  at  Shiloh  April  7. 
Edward  Fitzpatrick,  enl.  Sept.  12, 1861.    Disch.  Aug.  22,  1862,  for  disa- 
bility caused  by  wounds  rec'd  at  Shiloh  April  7. 
Patrick  Farrell,  enl.  Sept.  6, 1861.    Disoh.  at  end  of  term  Feb.  28, 1865. 
John  Gordon,  enl.  Sept.  12, 1861.    Disch.  at  Columbus,  O. 
Michael  Griffin,  enl.  Oct.  3, 1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Feb.  21, 1865. 
John  Halpin,  enl.  Sept.  l',  1861.    Disch.  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  Jan.  20, 

Fiederick  Hodge,  enl.  Aug.  27, 1861.    Disch.  Nov.  6, 1862. 
Oliver  Hobart.  enl.  Aug.  37, 1861.    Disch.  March  31, 1863. 
Daniel  Hogan,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861.     Disch.  Aug.  5, 1862. 
WUIiamHiland,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Died  of  wounds  rec'd  at  Mission 

Ridge  Nov.  28,  1863. 
Abram  Hubbell,  enl.  Aug.  27,  186] .    Disch.  at  Camp  WicklifEe,  Ky. 
Urson  Harvey,  enl.  Oct.  9,  1861,    Disch.  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  Jan.  20, 

John  Hayes,  enl.  Sept  12, 1861.     Died  June  15,  1862,  at  Cincinnati,  from 

wounds  received  at  Shiloh  April  7. 
Charles  Herling,  enl.  Oct.  9,  1861.     Killed  at  Pickett's  Mills,  Ga.,  Nov. 

27,  1864. 
Edward  Johnson,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Nov.  12, 1864. 
John  Kepler,  enl.  Sept.  10,  1861.     Died  at  Nashville,  Jan.  18,  1863. 
James  Labier,  enl.  Sept.  1, 1861.    Killed  at  Shiloh  April  7,  1862. 
John  Lobdell,  enl.  Aug,  27, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Robert  Lamb,  enl.  Sept.  1,  1861.     Disch.  Jan.  22,  1863. 
Andrew  Mattison,  enl   Sept    12,1861.    Disoh.  for  disability  Jan.  15, 1862, 
Anthony  Montreal,  enl .  Sept.  4,  1861 .    Killed  at  Shiloh  April  7,  1862. 
James  Murray,  enl.  Oct.  2,  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Nov.  2,  1864. 
Joseph  Moses,  enl.  Sept.  15, 1861.     Disch.  May  18,  1862. 
Richard  Neville,  enl.  Oct.  2,  1861.     Disoh.  at  enl  of  term  Nov.  2.  1864. 
William  Naly,  enl.  Sept.  12, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Richard  O'Eleilly,  enl.  Aug.  27, 1861.    Disoh.  .Ian.  20,  1863. 
William  Oviatt,  enl.  Oct.  8,  1861.    Disch.  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  Jan.  20, 

David  Phillips,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861.     Disch.  Jan.  2,  1863. 
George  Partridge,  enl.  Aug.  27. 1861 .    Left  at  Chattanooga,  sick,  March 

1, 1864. 
John  Palmer,  enl.  Sept.  8,  1861,    Disch.  June  13,  1865. 
William  Partridge,  enl.  Oct.  2, 1861.    Promoted  [to  Serg.    Disch.  at  end 

of  term  Nov.  2,  1864, 
John  Price,  enl.  Sept.  37,  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Nov,  10, 1864, 
Jesse  Quack,  enl.  Aug.  27, 1861 ,    Killed  at  Stone  River  Dec,  31, 1863. 
John  Ryan,  enl.  Sept,  12, 1861.    Transf.  to  the  Vet.  Reserve  Corps. 
John  Rawlings,  enl.  Aug.  27, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
Alva  Smith,  enl,  Oct,  9,  1861,    Died  at  Nelson's  Furnace   Ky, 
Cornelius  Striker,  enl.  Sept,  12, 1861,    Disch,  at  Chattanooga,  Tenn, 
Nelson  Stebbins,  enl.  Sept,  1, 1861.    Disch,  at  end  of  term  Nov,  2, 1864, 
Abram  Strock,  enl,  Aug,  27,  1861,    Died  June  20, 1864,  at  Chattanooga 

from  wounds  rec'd  at  Resaca,  Ga.,  May  14, 
Samuel  Sponseller,  enl.  Aug,  27, 1861,    Honorably  discharged  to  date 

July  2,  1865, 
William  Such,  enl,  Oct,  9, 1861 ,    Disch,  for  disability  caused  by  wounds, 

rec'd  at  Mission  Ridge,  Nov,  33, 1863. 
Cyrus  Singletary,  enl.  Sept.  1, 1861.    Died  at  Louisville,  Ky. 
Lyman  Treat,  enl.  Aug.  27, 1861.    Killed  in  skirmish  at  Chattahooohie 

River  July  5,  1864. 
James  Tompkins,  enl.  Auj.  27,  1861.    Disch.   at;Camp  Dennison,  O., 

Jan.  20,  1863. 
Benjamin  Wood,  enl.  Sept,  27, 1861,     Promoted  to  Serg.  Jan,  20,  1864, 

and  to  1st  Serg,  June  8, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
Clyde  Waussen,  enl.  Sept,  16, 1862.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Charles  Chesley,  enl.  Aug,  27, 1862.  Killed  at  Mission  Ridge  Nov,  23, 1863, 
John  Canfield,  enl.  Dec.  10, 1861.    Disch,  at  end  of  term  Jan,  15, 1865,; 
George  Van  Tassell,  enl,  Feb.  29,  1864.    Disoh,  May  20, 1865. 
Daniel  Sullivan,  enl,  Aug.  27, 1S63,    Transf,  to  the  Vet,  Reserve  Corps, 
William  Ferrell,  enl,  Aug.  27, 1862.  Transf,  to  Vet,  Reserve  Corps.  April 

1,  1865, 
Charles  Randall,  enl,  Oct.  2, 1862,    Promoted  to  Corp, ,    Deserted  June 

9,  1865, 
Michael  Howard,  enl,  Aug.  23,  1862.    Disch.  at  Nashville,  Tenn. 
Michael  Kane,  enl ,  Aug.  26,  1862.    Disch,  June  13, 1865, 
James  Maroney,  enl,  Sept.  2,  1862.    Disch,  at  Cleveland,  O, 
Mitchell  Miller,  enl,  Dec,  10, 1861,    Disch,  at  end  of  term  Jan,  14, 1865, 
Henry  Ritlicker,  enl,  Aug,  18, 1862.    Disch.  July  31, 1863, 
Matthew  B,  Chapman,  enl,  Feb.  29, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
George  Fluett,  enl,  Jan,  1, 1864,    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 


Thomas  Nay,  enl,  Aug,  35, 1862,    Musteredout  with  the  Reg. 
Delos  Treat,  enl,  Feb.  29, 1864,    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 


Daniel  S.  Leslie,  enr.  asCapt,  Sent,  2, 1861.  Wounded  at  battle  of  Shiloh 

April  7,  1862,    Resigned  Sept,  9,  1863. 
Ephraim  S .  Holloway ,    (See  Field  and  Staff . ) 
John  D,  Kirkendall,  enr.  as  3nd  Lieut,  Sept,  2, 1861,    Promoted  to  1st 

Lieut,  Jan,  9, 1862, 
Philo  A.  Beardsley,  enl.  Oct,  10, 1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt,  Jan.  20,  1864; 

to  1st  Sergt.  Dec.  9, 1864,  and  to  1st  Lieut,  March  28, 1865,    Mustered 

out  with  the  Reg. 
Ferdinand  D,  Cobb,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt.  Sept.  2, 1861,    Promoted  to  3nd 

Lieut,  March  17,  1862;  to  1st  Lieut,  May  21, 1863, 
Charles  Cooper,  enr,  as  Sergt.  Sept,  2, 1861,  Disch,  for  disability  March 

35.  1863, 
Jacob  Renner,  enr,  as  Sergt,  Sept,  3,  1861,    Killed  at  Chickamauga 

Sept,  19,  1863. 

Job  Burnham,  enl.  Oct,  1, 1861,    Promoted  to  Sergt,  Jan,  30, 1864,    Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Reg. 
Warren  L,  Ripley,  enl.  Oct,  10, 1861,    Promoted  to  Sergt,  Jan,  30,  1864, 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
John  Pennell,  enl,  Oct.  10, 1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Jan,  20, 1664,  and  to 

Sergt,  Dec,  12, 1864,    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Orestes  T,  Engle,  enl.  Sept,  2,  1861,     Promoted  to  Corp,  JJan,  20,  1864, 

and  to  Sergt,  July  1, 1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Eeg. 
Iram  Kilgore,  enl,  Oct.  29,  1861,     Promoted  to  Sergeant  Sept,   1,  1862. 

Wounded  at  Chickamauga,  Sept,  19, 1863,    Was  taken  prisoner  and 

Charles  Shoemaker,  enr,  as  Corp,  Sept,  2, 1861 ,   Killed  at  Mission  llidge, 

Nov,  25,  1863, 
Thomas  P.  Baker,  enl.  Sept,  2, 1861,      Killed  at  Chickamauga,  Sept,  19> 

Joseph  Bouvia,  enl,  Sept.  2, 1861.    Killed  at  Mission  Ridge,  Nov,  35,  1863, 
John  M,  Blanden,  enl,  Feb.  39,  1861,     Killed  at  Pickett's  Mills,  May  27, 

James  Davis,  enl,  Sept.  3,  1861,    Killed  at  Stone  River,  Dec,  31,  1862, 
Andrew  Edney,  enl,  Oct,  10. 1861.    Killed  at  Mission  Ridge,  Nov.  25, 1863. 
Frank  Gomia,  enl.  Sept.  2.  1861,     Killed  at  Pickett's  Mills,;Ga,,  May  27 

S,  B,  Kidwell,  enl,  Sept,'.2, 1861,    Killed  at  Stone  River,  Dec,  31,  1862, 
Joseph  Parish,  enl.  Oct.  10, 1861.    Killed  at  Stone  River,  Deo,  31, 1862, 
Abraham  J ,  Rice,  enl,  Sept.  18,  1861.    Killed  at  Shiloh,  April  7,  1863. 
Andrew  Gault,  enl.  Oct,  10, 1861,    Promoted  to  Sergt  Jan,  20, 1864.    Died 

from  wounds  received  at  Pickett's  Mills,  Ga,,  May  27,  1864. 
Orlando  P.  Kilmer,  enr.  as  Corp,  Sept,  2, 1861 ,    Promoted  to  Sergt,    Died 

from  wounds  received  at  Shiloh,  April  7, 1862, 
Walter  Smith,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Oct.  10, 1861.     Died  at  New  Haven,  Ky., 

Feb.  2,  1863. 
Augustus  Nieding,  enl.  Sept,  2,  1861,    Promoted  to  Corp.  July  9,  1864. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Charles  Edney,  enl.  Oct,  10, 1861,     Promoted  to  Corporal  July  9,  1864, 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
Henry  Older,  enl,  Oct,  10,  1861,    Promoted  to  Corp.  Dec,  12, 1864,    Mus 

tered  out  with  the  Reg, 
George  A,  Webb,  enl.  Oct.  21,  1851,    Promoted  to  Corp,  Dee,  12,  1864 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
WilUam  T.  Hazel,  enl.  Sept,  2,  1861,    Promoted  to  Corp,  April  1,  1865. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Alexander  Gault,  enl,   Nov,  4,  1862.    Promoted  to  Corp,  April  1,  1865. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
Edgar  Atkinson,  enl,  Feb,  26,  1864,     Wounded  at  Pickett's  Mills,  Ga., 

May  27, 1864,    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
George  W.  Bridge,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Frederick  Brucker,  enl,  Sept.  2, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg . 
Benjamin  Darby,  enl.  Sept,  2, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
Dillon  P,  Duer,  enl.  Oct,  10, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
Julius  F,  Goff,  enl.  Sept,  2, 18S1 ,     Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
William  Keck,  enl,  Oct,  10,  1861,    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Joseph  Lee,  enl.  March  22, 1855.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Ward  Ripley,  enl.  Oct.  10, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
William  Ryan,  enl.  Sept  2, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Jacob  Shirley,  enl.  Sept,  2, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg, 
Reuben  H,  Aylesworth,  enl,  Sept.  2, 1861 ,    Promoted  to  Corp,  Aug.  1 

1862,     Died  from  wounds  reo'd  at  Chickamauga  Sept.  19,  1863, 
Frank  Maser,  enr,  as  Corp,  Oct,  10,  1861,     Died  at  Nashville,  Tenn, 

March  33,  1862. 
Isaac  Flaugher,  enr.  as  Corp,  Oct,  10, 1861,    Died  at  Nelson's  Barracks, 

Ky,,  Feb,  13,  1862. 
James  S.  Clary,  enl.  Sept,  2, 1861,    Lost  on  the  steamer  Sultana, 
Thomas  Duer,  enl,  Oct.  10, 1861 ,    Died  at  Cincinnati  May  4,  1863. 
Mathias  Hageman,  enl.  Sept  2,  1861 ,    Died  May  13,  1863,  from  wounds 

ree'd  at  Shiloh,  April  7, 
Marshall  La  Fountain,  enl.  Sept,  3, 1861.    Died  at  Nashville,  Jan.  27, 1863. 
Alexander  Lehman,  enl.  Oct.  10, 1861 .    Died  of  wounds  rec'd  at  Shiloh, 

April  7,  1862. 
Adam  Miller,  enl.  Sept,  2, 1861 ,    Disch.  for  disability. 




George  Butsou,  enl.  Feb.  6, 1864.    Killed  at  Pickett's  Mills,  Ga.,  May  37, 

John  Clark,  enl.  Feb.  6,  1864.    Killed  at  Pickett's  Mills,  Ga.,  May  27, 1864. 
James  McXahoQ,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Sept.  16,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  I. 


James  McMahan,  enr.  S  rgt.  Co.  H,  Sept.  16,  1861.  Transf.  to  Co.  I  and 
made  2nd  Lieut.  Dec.  21. 1863.  Prom,  to  1st  Lieut.  April  13,  1864,  and 
to  Capt.  Nov.  36,  1864.    Res,  Feb.  34,  1865. 

JobnD.  Kirkeudall  enr.  2nd  Lieut.  Co.  F,  Sept.  2,  1861.  Prom,  to  1st 
Lieut.  Jan.  9,  1862,  and  transf.  to  Co.  B,  and  to  Capt.  Co.  I,  Jan.  1, 

1863.  Dis.  Nov.  10,  1864. 

George  D.  Parker,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  2, 1861.    Died  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  Dee. 

26,  1861. 
Shepard  Scott,  eni',  as  Drummer  Oct.  2, 1861.    Missing  after  battle  of 

Chickamauga  Sept.  20,  1862. 
Josephus  Ackley,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1S61.     Mustered  out  March  29,  1865. 
John  Clark,  enl.  Sept.  5,  1861 .     Disch.  for  disability,  July  25,  1864. 
John  Kennedy,  enl.  Sept.  8,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Dec.  11, 1862. 
Louis  Duvoo,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term,  Nov.  14, 

1864.  . 

Charles  Ellsworth,  enl.  Sept  14. 1861 .    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term,  Nov, 

4,  1864. 
James  Fitzgerald,  enl.  Aug.  3rth,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Feb.  20,  1865 

Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
Frederick  Gouch,  enl.  Oct.  2,  1861.     Died  at  Readyville.  Tenn.,  April  21, 

William  Goddard,  enl.  Oct.  16, 1861 .    Died  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  Feb.  1, 1863. 
Uriah  Haddock,  enl.  Sept.  22,  1861.     Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  31, 1862. 
Henry  Holmes,  enl. Oct.  2,  1S61.  Mustered  out  at  end  of  term  Nov.1,1864. 
John  W.  Hall,  enl.  Oct.  2,  1861.    Died  at  Poe's  Tavern,  Tenn.,  Sept.  12, 

Charles  Wells,  enl   Sept.  14,  186!.     Mustered  out  June  17,  1865. 
George  Warren,  en',  Oct  22,  1861.  Discharged  for  disability  Jan  26, 1865. 
Adam  Z^aley,  enl.  Oct.  5,  ISil.     Died  at  Belmont  Furnace,  Ky.,  Feb. 20, 

William  Chapman,  enl.  Feb.  29,  1864.     Mustered  ojt  with  the  Reg. 
James  E.  Chapman,  enl.  Feb.  2D,  1884.     Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
George  E.  Lauger,  enl.    Nov.  1,  1861.     Promoted  to  Corp.  Feb.  4,  1863. 

Disch.  for  disability  July  3,  1863. 


Henry  Coon  enr.  as  Corp.  Co.  G  Oct.  17,  1831.     Promoted  to  2d  Lieut. 
Feb.  14,  1863,  and  transf.  to  Co.  K.     Res.  April  17, 1862.    Re-enlisted 
in  6ih  Regt.  Aug.  30,  1S62.     Mustered  out  June  8,  1865. 
Albert  L.  Bliss,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Oct.  16,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Dec 

John  OiT,  enr.  as  Corp  Oct.  3,  1861.     Promoted  to  1st  Serg.    Died  Jan 

3,  1863,  of  wounds  rec'dat  Stone  River. 
Newton  Battles,  enl.  Aug.  21,  1861.     Died  at  Camp  WicklifEe,  Ky    Dec 

James  M  O'Brien,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  .3,  1861.     Promoted  to  Serg.    De- 
serted Oct.  1,  1862. 

William  Babcock,  enr.  as  Fiter  Oct.  8, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 

James  Miller,  enl.  Oct.  24,  1801.     Disch.  for  disability  Dec.  19, 1862. 

James  Alpin.  enl.  Oct.  35,  1861.     Disch.  at  end  of  term  Nov.  2,  1864. 

Lafayette  Brown,  enl.  Oct.  4,  18il.     Disch.  for  disabUity  Jan.  21,  1862. 

Edward  Dalton,  enl.  Oct.  7,  1861.     Prom,  to  Corp.    Deserted  Oct.  1, 1863. 

John  Donaldson,  enl.  Oct.  10,  1861.     Disch.  at  end  of  term,  Oct.  10,  1864. 

Darwin  Henry,  enl.  Oct.  6,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Aug.  8,  1862. 

John  F.  Kelley,  enl.  Oct.  11,  1861.     Disch.  at  end  of  term,  Oct.  11,  1864. 

William  McEacharn,  enl.  Oct.  14,  1861.     Disch.  for  disability  caused  by 
wounds  rec'd  in  battle. 

Milton  Miller,  enl.  Oct.  16,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability. 

William  Price,  enl.  Oct.  21,  1861.     Promoted  to  Corp.    Died  at  Chatta- 
nooga of  wounds  rec'd  in  battle 

John  Pendleton,  enl.  Sept.  1,  1861.     Disch.  for  disability  Sept.  2,  1862. 

Arthur  Quinn,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1861.     Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  18,  1862. 

Daniel  Regan,  enl,  Oct.  7,  1861.    Transf.  to  Vet.  Reserve  Corps. 

Jacob  Rusher,  enl.  Oct.  21,  1861.     Killed  at  Shiloh  April  7,  1862. 

William  P.  Rodick,  enl.  Oct.  9,  1861.     Disch.  March  20,  1865. 

Benjamin  F.  Rand,  enl.  Sept.  14, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Aug.  14, 1862. 

William  Reeve,  enl.  Oct.  17,  1861.     Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  21,  1863. 

John  Stuart,  enl.  Oct.  16,  1861.    i  led  in  Hos.  at  Chattanooga ,  1863. 

Conrad  Schock,  enl.  Oct.  16, 1861.    Deserted  April  11, 1863. 

Dennis  Sexton,  enl.  Aug.  27,  1S61.    Disch. 

Asahel  Thayer,  enl.  Sept.  14,  1861.    Died  in  Hosp.  at  Bowling  Green,  Ky., 
Oct.  18,  1862. 

Nicholas  Wagner,  enl.  Oct.  8, 1861.     Died  at  Athens,  Ala.,  July  16,  1862. 

Henry  Wagner,  enl.  Oct.  9,  1861 ,     Disch. 

Matthew  White,  enl.  Oct.  12, 1861.     Disch.  fpr  disability  March  16. 1862. 

LeanderM.  Lovelace,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Oct.  18,  1861.    Died  at  Cincinnati, 
April  24,  1882,  from  wounds. 

Marcus  Synod,  enl.  Oct.  15,  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term,  Oct.  15,  1864. 

Henry  Arnold,  enl.  Oct.  14, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  caused  by  wounds 
rec'd.  at  Chickamauga,  Sept.  19,  1863. 

RawsoaH.  Bradley,  enl.  Oct.  14,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability,  1365. 

Charles  Newton,  enl.  Oct.  10,  1861     Disch.  Aug.  5,  1862,  for  disability 

caused  by  wounds  rec'd  at  Shiloh,  A.pril  7. 
John  Peter,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.     Disch.  for  disability  .\Iay  23,  1363. 
Joseph  R.  Remley,  enl.  Oct.  21,  1861 .    Disch.  for  disability  Oct.  17, 1862. 
Henry  Sanderson,  enl.  Sept.  2.  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  June  3,  1862. 
John  A.  Standen,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.     Disch.  for  disability  caused  by 

wounds  rec'd  at  Shiloh,  April  7,  :832. 
David  ShaefEer,  enl.  Oct.  13. 1861.    Disch.  as  being  under  age. 
Benj.  F.  Willbur,  enr.  as  Drummer  Sept.  2,  1861.     Disch    for  disability 

May  21, 1862. 
John  T.  Wait,  enl.  Oct.  1,  1861,     Disch.  for  disability  .\ug    5,1863. 
Joseph  ^Vordeu.  enl.  Sept.  2,  1881.    Disch.  June 21,  1865. 
Matthias  Frederick,  enl.  Sept.  3,   1861.    Transf.  to  the  Vet.  Reserve 

Corps . 
James  Sharkey,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.    Transf.  to  the  Vet.  Reserve  Corps. 
Henry  Braunstetter,  ear.  as  Corp.  Oct.  10,  1861.    Disch.    for  disability 

Nov.  19,  1862. 
Charles  Newburg,  enl.  Feb.  24, 1864.    Killed  at  Pickett's  Mills,  Ga     May 

27,  1864. 
Thomas  H.  Bellard,  enl.  Oct.  10, 1861.   Disch.  for  disabihty  Dec.  20,  1862. 
Alexander  Santeur,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861 .    Died  at  Hosp.  at  St.  Louis  '  Jan 

15,  1862. 
Lyman  C.  BilUngs,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.     Disch.  for  disability  Dec.  3, 1862 
EliShisler,  enl.  Oct.  10,  1861,     Lost  on  Steamer  Echo  June  19,  1865. 
Charles  Smith,  enl.  Oct.  31,  1861.     Died  at  Covington,  Ky. ,  May  10, 1862. 
Benjamin  N.  Snyder,  enl.  Sept.  18,  1831.     Died  at  Nelson's  Barracks 

Ky.,  March  15,  1862. 
Homer  Spaulding,  enl.  Oct.  10,  1861.    Died  Dec.  2,  1863,  from  wounds 

rec'd  at  Shiloh,  April  7. 
Phmpton  Stewart,  enl.  Oct.  10, 1831.    Died  in  Hosp,  near  Corinth  Miss 

.lune  31, 1862.  '  " 

Frank  B.  Shirley,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.     Died  April  24,  1863,  from  wounds 

rec'd  at  Shiloh  April  7. 
William  Weitzell,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.     Died  at  Cincinnati  May  10,  1862 
from  wounds  rec'd  at  Shiloh  April  7.  '        "' 

AlexanderBushong,  enr.  asCorp.  Oct    10,1861.     Disch.  for  disability 

Nov.  4,  1862. 
WiUiam  M.  Guthrie,  enl.  Oct.   10,1861.    Promoted  to  Corp .  March  17, 

1863.    Disch.  for  disability  Dec.  13,  1862. 
James  W.  Perkins,  enl.  Oct.  10, 1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  March  17, 1862. 

Disch  for  disability  Aug.  29,  1862. 
John  Eckenroad,  enl .  Oct  22,  1S61 .    Disch .  f on  disability  Jan.  18,  1864. 
Daniel  Eckenroad,  enl.  Oct.  32,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Nov.'  25,  '862 
Albert  Faber,  enl.   Sept.  3,  1861.    Disch.  Sept.  3,   1862,  for  disability 

caused  by  wounds  rec'd  at  Shiloh  April  7. 
Peter  Frederick,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Oct.  29,  1864. 
James  B.  Gibson,  enl.  Feb.  29, 1864.    Disch.  June  21,  1865. 
Charles  Green,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.     Disch  for  disability  March  10,  1863. 
Henry  Herriff,  enr.  as  Fifer,  Oct.  10,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  July  34 
1862.  ' 

James  Hughes,  enl.  Feb.  29,  1864.     Disch.  June  7,  1865. 
William  Iry,  enl.  Oct.  10,  1861.    Disch.  March  30,  1363,  for  disibility 

caused  by  wounds  rec'd  at  Stone  River  Dec.  31,  1862. 
Anthony  Kreckle,  enl.  Sept.  2,  1861.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Oct.  29, 1864. 
John  C.  Chapin,  enl.  Oct.  15,  1881.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Jan.  20,  1864  to 
Sergt.  Dec,  13. 1864,  and  to  1st  Sergt.  March  23,  1865.    Mustered  out 
Nov.  27,  1865. 
Robert  A.  Gault,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  10,  1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.  Dec 

8,  1862,  to  Sergt.  Maj.  May  1,  1883,  and  transf.  to  Co.  G. 
Henry  G.  Delker,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Sept.  2,  1861.     Promoted  to  1st  Lieut 
and  transf.  to  Co .  H  Dec ,  5,  1864. 


Robert  A.  Gault,  enr.  as  Corp.  Co.  F,  Oct.  10, 1861.  Prom,  to  Sergt.  Dec 
8,  1862;  to  Sergt.  Maj.  May  1,  1863;  to  1st  Lient.  Co.  G  Nov.  26,  1864- 
and  to  Capt.  March  28,  1865.    Mustered  out  Nov.  27,  186.3. 

Henry  Coon,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  17,  1861.  Promoted  to'  2nd  Lieut.  Feb. 
14,  1862,  and  transf.  to  Co.  K.    Resigned  April  17,  1862. 

George  Hill,  enl.  Aug.  23, 1862.    Mustered  out  June  13,  1863, 

Albert  W.  .Miller,  enl.  March  1,  1864.    Mustered  out  Nov.  27,  1865. 

John  Snethen,  enl.  Feb.  12, 1864.    Mustered  out  Nov.  27,  1865. 

Bridgeman  Snethen,  enl.  March  1, 1864.    Died  from  wounds  July  23,  1864. 

Allison  Varney,  enl.  Oct.  13,  1863.    Mustered  out  May  16,  1865. 

William  Alexander,  enl.  Oct.  1.  1863.  Killed  at  Pickett'sMills  Ga  Mav 
27,  1864.  '       ''       • 


Henry  G.  Delker,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Co.  F,  Sept.  2,  1861.  Prom,  to  1st  Lieut 
and  transferred  to  Co.  H,  Dec.  5,  1864,  and  to  Captain  March  18, 1860' 
Wounded  in  left  arm  and  side  Dec.  16,  1864.  Mustered  out  Nov  27 
1863.  ■      ' 

Albert  Whittlesey,  enl.  Oct.  10, 1864..  Promoted  to  2nd  Lieut  Nov  7 
1862,  and  to  1st  Lieut.  April  13,  1864.    Resigned  Nov.  20,  1864  ' 

William  J.  Holcomb,  enl.  Feb.  1,  1864.    Mustered  out  Nov.'27  1865 

Levi  Turner,  enl.  Feb.  6, 1,364.    Mustered  out  Nov.  27,  1865. 

William  Tooze,  enl.  Feb.  6,  1864. 

Norton  T.  Worcester,  eul.  Feb.  24,  1884.    Mustered  out  Nov.  27  1865 

Richard  Hudson,  enl.  Oct.  14,  1861.  ' 





Company  G,  Forty-second  Infantry— The  First  Colonel— Whipping 
Humphrey  Marshall— Driven  from  Cumberland  Gap— Storming  Chick- 
asaw Bluffs- Defeated-Capture  of  Arkansas  Post— Battle  of  Port 
Gibson— Champion  Hills  and  Big  Black— Assaults  on  Vicksburg— Siege 
and  Capture— In  Louisiana— Mustered  out— Its  Losses— Its  Members 
from  Cuyahoga  County- Forty-third  Infantiy— In  the  '  Ohio  Brigade" 
—Its  Subsequent  Services— Its  Members  from  This  County— One  Mem- 
ber of  the  Forty-fifth  Infantry— Fiity-second  Infantry— Its  Gallantry 
at  Perryville— Saving  the  Ammunition  at  Stone  Elver— The  Battle  of 
Chickamauga— Severe  Duty  before  Lookout— Mission  Eidge— Relief  of 
Knoxville— Resaoa  and  Kenesaw— Subsequent  Services— Mustered  out 
—Members  from  this  County. 


Company  G  of  this  regiment  was  principally  from 
Cuyahoga  county;  the  records  showing  sixty-four 
men  from  that  county  on  its  rolls,  and  seven  more  on 
those  of  Companies  H  and  K.  The  various  compa- 
nies were  mustered  at  Camp  Chase  during  the  autumn 
of  1861;  the  regiment  being  completed  by  the  muster 
of  Companies  G,  H,  I  and  K,  on  the  26th  of  Novem- 
ber. The  first  colonel  was  the  now  celebrated  states- 
man, James  A.  Garfield. 

The  Forty-second  moved  to  Kentucky  in  December, 
and  on  the  10th  of  January,  1863,  with  other  troops, 
was  engaged  in  a  sharp  fight  with  several  thousand 
rebels  under  General  Humphrey  Marshall.  During 
the  following  night  Marshall  burned  his  baggage  and 
fled,  leaving  his  dead  on  the  ground.  After  consid- 
erable other  duty  against  guerrillas,  the  Forty-second 
was  made  a  part  of  General  G.  W.  Morgan's  command, 
with  which  it  marched  to  Cumberland  Gap,  taking 
possession  of  that  renowned  stronghold  on  the  18th  of 
June.  On  the  6th  of  July  the  brigade  to  which  it 
belonged  was  attacked  by  a  heavy  body  of  Confederates 
a  short  distance  south  of  tlie  Gap,  and  forced  back  to 
that  point.  General  Morgan  finally  withdrew  his 
whole  command  through  Kentucky;  the  Forty-second 
acting  as  rear-guard  in  a  very  exhaustive  march. 

After  a  short  excursion  into  Western  Virginia,  the 
regiment  went  down  to  Memphis,  in  November,  1863. 
In  December  it  proceeded  to  the  vicinity  of  Vicks- 
burg, and  on  the  29th  of  that  month  was  one  of  the 
regiments  which  stormed  the  rebel  intrenchments  at 
Chickasaw  Bluffs.  It  rushed  forward  in  the  face  of  a 
terrific  fire  with  the  utmost  gallantry,  but  the  storm 
of  shot  and  shell  and  musketry  was  so  murderous  that 
it  was  obliged  to  retire,  as  was  the  rest  of  the  assailing 


Early  in  January,  1863,  the  troops  before  Vicks- 
burg went  up  the  Arkansas  river  and  attacked  Arkan- 
sas Post.  After  four  hours'  cannonading  and  several 
unsuccessful  charges,,  another  charge  was  made  in 
which  the  Forty-second  led  the  advance,  but  soon 
after  it  got  under  fire  the  enemy  surrendered.  Seven 
thousand  prisoners  were  captured. 

Returning  to  the  vicinity  of  Vicksburg  the  regiment, 
in  the  latter  part  of  April,  took  a  prominent  part  in 
the  movement  against  the  rear  of  that  city.  In  the 
battle  of  Port  Gibson  it  twice  charged  the  intrench- 

ments of  the  enemy  and  was  compelled  to  fall  back 
with  heavy  loss,  but  its  courage  was  still  unbroken 
and,  being  moved  to  another  position,  it  again  made 
a  charge  and  carried  the  rebel  works.  The  enemy 
then  abandoned  the  field.  This  regiment  lost  more 
heavily  than  any  other  in  the  corps. 

The  Forty-second  was  slightly  engaged  at  Cham- 
pion Hills  and  Big  Black  river,  and  suffered  severely 
in  the  unsuccessful  attacks  on  Vicksburg  on  the  19th 
and  33d  of  May.  It  participated  in  the  hardships  and 
glories  of  the  siege  and  capture  of  Vicksburg,  and 
soon  afterward  was  ordered  to  the  department  of  the 
Gulf.  During  the  winter  of  1863-4,  it  was  stationed 
at  Plaquemine,  Louisiana.  It  was  engaged  through 
the  spring  and  summer  of  1864  in  arduous  service, 
(though  without  much  fighting),  in  Louisiana  and 
Arkansas,  and  was  mustered  out  in  the  fall,  as  the 
terms  of  the  various  companies  expired. 

During  its  three  years'  service  the  Forty-second  had 
one  officer  and  twenty  men  killed,  and  eighteen  offi- 
cers and  three  hundred  and  twenty-five  men  wounded. 



Charles  P.  Jewetc,  enr.  as  Capt.  Sept.  19,  1831.    Res.  July  11,  1863. 
Calvin  Pierce,  enl.  Oct.  4,  1861.    Pro.  to  3d  Lieut.  May  28,  1863;  to  1st 

Lieut.  May  25,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  Co.  Deo.  2,  1864. 
Edward  B.  Campbell,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt.  Sept.  19,  1861,    Pro.  to  2d  Lieut. 

March  20,  1862;  to  1st  Lieut.  June  5, 1862;  to  Capt.  May  27,  1863. 

Transf.  to  96th  Reg.  as  Capt.  Co.  E  Oct.  33,  1863.     Must,  out  July  7, 

Andrew  J.  Stone,  enr.  as  2d  Lieut.  Sept.  19, 1861 .    Died  March  9, 1862. 
Noble  B.  Wiggins,  enl.  Sept.  19,  1861      Pro.  to  1st  Sergt.  July  5,  1864. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
John  Hull,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
D.  J.  Wilder,  enr.  as  Corp.   Sept.  19,  1861.    Pro.  to  Sergt.    Mustered 

out  with  Co . 
John  W.  Hofste,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.    Mustered  out 

with  the  Co . 
Daniel  Mulverhill,  enl.  Sept.  19,  1861.     Promoted  to  Sergt.  July  B,  1864. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Alfred  D.  Stryker,  enl.  Oct.  32,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.     Mustered 

out  with  the  Co. 
Henry  Collins,  enlisted  Sept.  19,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Nov.  1, 1864. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Charles S.  Anderson,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Peter  Carlin,  enl.  Oct.  4, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Charles  Corcoran,  enl.  Oct.  4, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
AmasaS.  Garfield,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1831.    Mastered  out  with  the  Co. 
George  M.  Kelley,  enl.  Sept.  19, 18^1.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
James  McGregor,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
John  McGregor,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
James  McGuire,  enl .  Sept   19,  1861 .     Mustered  out  with  the  Co . 
Patrick  Murphy,  enl.  Nov.  5, 1861.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
George  M.  Phelps,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Seymour  Euggles,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Frederick  J.  Switz,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Michael  Shevlin,  enl.  Oct.  4, 1861 ,    Mustered  oat  with  the  Co . 
Harrold  Shattuck,  enl.  Got.  4,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Wilson  Shepard,  enl.  Oct.  4,  1831.    Mustered  out  with  the  Uo. 
James  Williamson,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Patrick  Hays.  enl.  Sapt.  19,  1861.    Killed  near  Vicksburg,  Miss.  Dec. 

29,  1862, 

Alfred  Faulkner,  enl.  Sept.  19,  1861.    Killed  at  sie^e  of  Vicksburg,  May 

30,  186.3. 

Henry  C.  Morgan,  enl.  Sept.  19,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Died  at 

Vicksburg,  Miss,,  July  27,  1863. 
William  Gardner,  enl.  as  Corp.  Sept.  19,  1861.   Died  from  wounds  reo'd 

in  battle,  Jan.  12,1863, 
John  J,  Quiggin,  enl,  Sept.  19, 1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.    DiedinHosp. 

at  New  Orleans,  .-i-ug,  31,  1863, 
Junior  E,  Cox,  enr.  as  Corp.  Sept,  19,  1861,    Died  at  Cumberland  Gap, 

Sept.  18,  1863, 
BelaW,  Porter,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1S61,    Died  at  St.  Loais,  Mo.,  Jan. 

Frank  Williams,  enl.  Sept.  19,  1831.    Died  at  Vicksburg,  July  26,  1863. 



Promoted  to  1st  Lieut,  in  XT.  S.  Col. 

Disoh.  for  disability  Sept.  15, 1862. 
Disch.  Jan.  12,  1863, 

Promoted  to  2nd  Lieut.  U.  S. 

Calvin  A.  Marble,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Promoted  to  1st  Sergt. 

Disch.  for  disability  March  25,  1863. 
John  Brown,  enl.  Sept.  19,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Disch.  for  disa- 
bility May  3,  1863. 
John  Brayton,  enl.  Sept.  19,  1861. 

Inf.,May,  1?64. 
James  Gazelly,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861. 
Jacob  James  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861. 
Rufus  C.  Huntoon,  enl.  Sept.  19,  1861. 

Col.  Inf.  June  11,  1864. 
John  McMahon,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Aug.  19,  1862. 
Michael  O'Brien,  enl.  Sept.  19,  1861 .    Disch.  for  disability  Oct.  15,  1863. 
Warren  Kathburn,  enl.  Oct.  4, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Dec.  10, 1863. 
(Jeorge  G.  Striker,  enl.  Oct.  23.  1861.     Disch.  Oct.  15.  1863,  for  disability 

caused  by  wounds  rec'd  in  action  May  1 . 
William  Simloe,  enl.  Oct.  28, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  May  35, 1863. 
William  P.  Williams,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  15, 

Thomas  Mapes,  enl.  Oct.  4. 1861.    Disch.  Dec.  4, 1863. 
James  Deharty,  enl.  Oct.  13,  1861.    Transf .  to  Vet.  Reserve  Corps. 
Nicholas  Moore,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Transf.  to  the  Invalid  Corps. 
John  Perry,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Promoted  to  Principal  Musician  Sept. 

14,  1864.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term  Oct.,  1864. 
John  R.  Bailey,  enl.  Sept.  19,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Mustered  out 

with  the  Co.  Dec.  2,  1864. 
Edward  Caine,  enl.  Oct.  13,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Mustered  out 

with  the  Co. 
Robert  Corlett,  enl.  Oct.  13,  1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Thomas  Corlett,  enl.  Oct.  13, 1861.    Died  at  home  Feb.,  1862. 
John  G.  Warren,  enl.  Sept.  19,  1861.    Died  at  Ashland.  Ky.,Feb.  1862. 
Norman  F.  Dean,  enl .  Oct.  13,  1861 .    Promoted  to  Corp . 
George  D.  Farr,  enl. "as  Corp.  Sept.  19,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Oct 

7,  1863. 
Willard  M.  Farr,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861.    Promoted  to  1st  Lieut.  118th  Reg. 

U.  S.  Col.  Inf.  May  —  1864. 
George  Haycox,  enl.  Sept.  19, 1861,    Disch.  fordisabiUty  July  15,  1863. 
John  M.  Hays,  enl.  Oct.  8,  1863.     Disch.  at  end  of  term  (9  mos  )  July 

6,  1863. 
Edward  A.  Williams,  enl.  Sept.   19,  1861,    Promoted  to  Corp.  July  5, 

1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  Dec.  2,  1864. 
Lorenzo  D.  Cox,  enl.  Oct.  18, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
David  B.  Clark,  enl.  Nov.  13,  1861.    Died  at  Vicksburg,  Miss.,  July  27, 


Mustered  out  with  the 

Hiram  J.  Bowman,  enr.  as  Corp.  Nov.  6,  1861 . 

Co.  Dec.  3,  1864. 

Alvin  J.  Stanley,  enr.  as  Corp.  Nov.  3, 1861 .    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Luther  M.  Fast,  enl.  Nov.  8,  1861 .     Mustered  out  with  the  Co 
John  Warren,  enl.  Nov.  5,  1861 .    Disch.  for  disability  April  6,  1862. 
Philip  Youngblood,  enl.  Nov.  8,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  15,  1863. 


Augustus  B.  Hubbell,  enr.  Nov.  15,  1861.    Promoted  to  2d  Lieut.  Jan.  28, 
1863;  and  to  1st  Lieut.  Feb.  36,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co  Deo' 
.    3.  1864. 
Joseph  S.  Osgood,  enl.  Oct.  33,  1861.     Disch.  Got.  6,  1862. 


This  regiment  had  but  twelve  men  from  Cuyahoga 
county.  It  was  assigned  to  the  celebrated  "Ohio 
Brigade,"  the  services  of  which  are  outlined  in  the 
sketch  of  the  Twenty-seventh  Infantry.  After  the 
discontinuance  of  that  brigade,  in  the  spring  of  1864 
the  regiment  was  actively  and  gallantly  engaged 
throughout  the  Atlanta  campaign;  taking  a  promi- 
nent part  in  the  conflicts  at  Resaca,  Oostenaula,  Ken- 
esaw,  Decatur,  etc.  It  participated  in  the  "March 
to  the  Sea,"  and  the  campaign  through  the  Carolinas, 
and  was  mustered  out  in  July,  1865. 



George  Dill,  enl.  Deo.  23,  1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co    July  13  1865 
Albert  A.  Lawrence,  enl.  Feb.  33,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  C(5 
S.  S.  Piper,  enl.  Feb.  10,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co 
John  Wheelan,  enl.  Jan.  12,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co 
Alexander  P.  Akins,  enl.  Jan.  30,  1864.    Transf.  to  the  navy  Sent  10  1864 
WilliamBurch,  enl.  March  10,  1864.  i- . '",  looj. 

Charles  Campbell,  enl.  Feb.  10, 1864.    Transf.  to  the  navy  Sept.  10, 1864. 
John  Mahony,  enl.  Feb.  27, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Giles  H.  Russ,  enl.  Dec.  21, 1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
John  Schnabel,  enl.  March  31, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 


James  MoMannis,  enl.  Jan.  10, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  Co.  July  13, 1865 . 


John  Moran,  enl.  Jan.  12, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  July  13, 1866. 


JuUus  J.  Sheldon,  enr.  as  Asst.  Surg.  Aug.  15,1862.    Resigned  Nov.  6 

:fifty-second  infantry. 

Twenty-three  men  of  Company  I  comprised  the 
representation  of  Cuyahoga  county  in  the  Fifty-third 
Ohio  Infantry.  The  regiment  was  raised  by  Colonel 
Dan.  McCook  in  the  summer  of  186?.  Its  first  battle 
was  that  of  Perryville,  where  the  raw  soldiers  stood 
to  their  work  like  veterans,  capturing  Peter's  Hill 
after  a  sharp  conflict,  and  repelling  with  heavy  loss, 
the  rebel  force  sent  to  retake  it.  It  was  not  in  the 
battle  of  Stone  River,  but  its  left  wing,  while  escort- 
ing an  ammunition  train  to  the  -scene  of  conflict,  was. 
attacked  by  a  large  force  of  rebel  cavalry,  which  was 
completely  defeated. 

After  serving  in  middle  Tennessee  through  the 
spring  and  summer  of  1863,  the  Fifty-second  advanced 
with  Rosecrans,  and  on  the  19th,  20th  and  21st  of 
September  took  part  in  the  disastrous  battle  of  Chick- 
amauga.  Most  of  the  time  it  was  held  in  reserve,  and 
consequently  it  did  not  suffer  a  very  serious  loss. 
Soon  afterwards  it  was  on  very  severe  duty  for  a  week, 
without  relief,  in  the  worst  of  weather,  holding  a 
position  under  the  constant  fire  of  the  rebels  on  Look- 
out mountain.  The  Fifty-second  supported  the 
storming  columns  at  Mission  Ridge,  and  was  active 
in  the  pursuit  of  the  defeated  enemy.  It  soon  after 
marched  to  the  relief  of  Knoxville,  suffering  severely 
from  the  inclemency  of  the  weather  and  the  scant- 
iness of  supplies. 

The  next  spring,  1864,  the  regiment  went  into  the 
Atlanta  campaign.  At  Resaca  it  made  a  charge  and 
defeated  the  enemy,  but  with  heavy  loss  to  itself. 
At  Kenesaw  mountain  the  brigade  to  which  it  be- 
longed attacked  the  rebel  intrenchments  with  the 
most  desperate  gallantry,  but  was  defeated  with  very 
heavy  loss;  the  gallant  Colonel  McCook  being  mortally 
wounded.  The  regiment  continued  in  active  service 
until  the  capture  of  Atlanta;  marched  with  Sherman 
to  the  sea  and  through  the  Carolinas,  and  was  mus- 
tered out  in  June,  1865. 



Joel  Morse,  enr.  as  Surgeon  July  22, 1863.    Resigned  Sept.  6, 1864. 


Ira  H.  Pool,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt,  July  19,  1862.  Proro.  to  1st  Lieut.  Nov.  26, 
1862,  and  to  Capt.  April  24,  1864.  Died  July  30,  1864,  of  wounds  rec'd 
at  Kenesaw  Mt.,  Ga. 

William  Freeman,  enr.  as  Sergt.  June  3,  1863.  Promoted  to  1st  Sergt. 
Nov.  1,  1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 

William  Buckire,  enl.  June  30, 1863.    Disch.  June  9, 1863. 

Joseph  H.  Garrison,  enl.  Aug.  11, 1862.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 



John  Lanaghan,  enl .  July  3, 186^.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg . 

William  Lockard,  enl.  July  4,  1862.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 

William  Myers,  enl.  June  3,  1862.    Disch.  Deo.  26, 1862. 

James  Moneysmith,  enl.  June  21, 1862.  Died  Oct.  23, 1862,  from  wounds 
received  in  action. 

James  McKutchen,  enl.  July  26. 1862.    Mustered  out  with  ihe  Reg. 

Thomas  Olds,  enl.  June  25, 1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 

George  Simmons,  enl.  July  24, 1862.    Deserted  Aug.  23, 1863. 

Frederick  SeiTert,  enl.  July  26, 1862.    Disch.  Dec.  18, 1862. 

Howard  F.  Thompson,  enl.  June  4, 1868.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 

Justin  Weisgerber,  enl.  June  1,  1862 

Charles  Wittern,  enl.  July  31, 1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 

Thomas  Waddock,  enl.  June  28,  1862.    Transf .  to  the  Marine  Corps. 

Sandall  Zopher,  enr.  as  Drummer  June  11, 1863.  Died  at  Bowling  Green, 
Ky.,Nov,  4.1862. 

Peter  Kisser,  enl.  June  16, 1863,    Detailed  as  baker  Jan.  30, 1864. 

John  N.  Uhlsenheimer,  enl .  June  15,  1863.  Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 
June  3,  1865. 

Henry  Lotz,  enr.  as  Corp.  June  16,  1863,  Promoted  toSergt.  Jan.  16, 
1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg,  June  3, 1865. 

Augustus  Lotz,  enl.  Feb.  30,  1864.  Transt.  to  «9th  Reg.,  Co.  I.  Mus- 
tered out  July  17,  1865. 

George  W.  Cogswell,  enr.  as  Corp.  Aug.  5, 1862,  Mustered  out  with  the 

Doming  B.  Fish,  enl.  July  24,  1802.    Muste.ed  out  with  the  Reg. 



Company  H  of  the  Fifty-fourth— The  Regiment  at  Pittsburgh  Landing— 
Chickasaw  Bluffs— Arkansas  Post— Operations  around  Vieksburg— 
ilission  Ridge— Relief  of  Knoxville  Resaca,  Kenesaw  and  Atl  nta— 
Down  to  the  Sea— Through  the  Carolinas— In  Arkansa.s— Mustered 
Out--Menfrom  this  County— A  Man  in  the  Fifty-flfth— The  Germans 
of  the  Fifty-eighth— Shaking  off  the  Snow  to  attack  Fort  Donelson— 
Pittsburg  Landing— Chickasaw  Bluffs— On  the  Iron-clads— Running 
the  Gauntlet— Other  Services- Mustered  Out— Cuyahoga  Members— 
The  Sixtieth  Infantry— An  Incomplete  Regimen1^-In  the  Wilderness— 
Spottsylvania  and  Cold  Harbor— Petersburg,  Etc.— Losses— List  of 
Cuyahoga  County  Men. 


A  MAJORITY  of  Company  H  (fifty-four  men)  was 
the  contribution  of  Cuyahoga  county  to  tJie  Fifty- 
fonrth  Infantry.  The  regiment  was  raised  during 
the  autumn  of  1861  and  the  following  winter.  It 
went  to  Kentucky  in  February,  1862,  and  the  follow- 
ing month  ascended  the  Tennessee  to  Pittsburg 
Landing,  and,  being  in  General  Sherman's  division, 
encamped  near  Shiloh  Church.  It  was  hotly  engaged 
on  both  the  6th  and  7th  of  April;  a  hundred  and 
ninety-eight  men  being  reported  as  killed,  wounded 
and  missing. 

After  taking  joart  in  the  capture  of  Corinth,  and 
after  numerous  marches  in  southwestern  Tennessee 
and  northern  Mississippi,  the  Fifty-fourth  went  down 
the  Mississippi  river  in  December,  1862,  and  partici- 
pated in  the  assault  on  Chickasaw  Bluffs;  being 
repulsed  with  a  loss  of  twenty  men  killed  and 
wounded.  It  was  also  a  part  of  the  command  which 
captured  Arkansas  Post. 

The  Fifty-fourth  was  active  in  all  the  arduous 
marches  and  hard  fighting  which  resulted  in  the  cap- 
ture of  Vieksburg;  having  forty-seven  killed  and 
wounded  in  the  assaults  made  on  the  rebel  works  on 
the  19th  and  32d  of  June.  It  remained  mostly  at 
Vieksburg   ur.til   October,  1863,  when   it  moved  to 

15  a 

Chattanooga.  It  helped  to  achieve  the  great  victory 
of  Mission  Ridge,  and  was  a  part  of  the  devoted  band 
which,  with  half  rations  of  food  and  less  than  half 
supplied  with  clothing,  by  means  of  forced  marches 
in  inclement  weather  succeeded  in  raising  the  siege  of 

After  re-enlisting  as  a  veteran  regiment  and  taking 
the  usual  furlough,  the  Fifty-fourth  engaged  in  the 
Atlanta  campaign.  It  was  in  the  conflicts  at  Resaca 
and  Dallas,  and  lost  twenty-eight  killed  and  wounded 
in  the  assault  on  Kenesaw  Mountain.  In  the  battle 
before  Atlanta,  on  tlie  21st  and  22d  of  July,  1864,  the 
regiment  lost  ninety-four,  killed,  wounded  and 

After  the  fall  of  Atlanta  the  Fifty-fourth  marched 
down  to  the  sea,  and  took  part  in  the  capture  of  Fort 
McAllister,  near  Savannah.  It  marched  through  the 
Carolinas  with  Sherman,  fighting  whenever  necessary. 
In  June,  1865,  the  regiment  was  sent  to  Arkansas, 
but  in  August  was  mustered  out,  brought  home  to 
Ohio  and  disbanded. 



John  F.  Cutler,  enr.  as  Sergt.  May  30,  1861,  Co.  C,  33d  Regt.  Promoted 
to  3d  Lieut.  July  33,  1861.  Res.  Sept.  22, 1861,  Re-enl,  as  priv,  Co, 
H,  54th  Regt,  Jan,  4,  1862.  App,  1st  Sergt.  Feb.  8,  1862.  Prom,  to 
2d  Lieut.  Aug.  19, 1863,  to  1st  Lieut.  Nov.  27,  1863,  and  to  Adjt.  Oct. 

I,  1864.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term  Jan.  4,  1865. 


Henry  Richardson,  enr.  8d  Lieut.  Co.  D,  28d  Inf.  May  30,  1861.  Transf. 
to  Co.  B.    Made  Capt.  Co.  H,  54th  Inf.  Feb.  1,  1862.    Resigned  Dec. 

II,  1862. 

Silas  W.  Potter,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut.  Dec.  19,  1861.    Disch.  Aug.  19,  1862. 
George  W.  Browning,  enl.  Dec.  20,  1861.    Promoted  to  2d  Lieut.  Feb.  5, 

1862,  and  to  1st  Lieut  Aug.  19,  1863.    Resigned  Feb.  13,  1863. 
Seaman  M.Bauder,  enl.  Dec.  28,  1861,    Appointed  Sergt,  Feb.  8,  1863. 

Promoted  to  8d  Lieut.  July  15,  1862.    Resigned  March  30,  1863. 
Isaac  B.  Seeley,  enl.  Jan.  7,  1862.    Appointed  Sergt.  Feb.  8, 1863. 
Oscar  Pearsons,  enl.  Jan.  1,  1862.    Appointed  Sergt.  Feb.  8,  1862. 
Lyman  McGath,  enl.  Jan.  85, 1662.    Appointed  Corp.  Feb.  8,  1862. 
Hugh  Moncrief,  enl.  Dec.  28,  1861.    Appointed  Corp.  Feb.  8, 1862. 
William  Stevens,  enl.  Dec.  28, 1861.    Appointed  Corp.  Feb.  8,  1863, 
Felix  Monroe,  enl,  Jan,  6,  1862.    Appomted  Corp,  Feb.  8,  1863. 
Isaac  Travis,  enr.  as  Musician  Dec.  22,  1861. 
Joseph  Richardson,  enl,  Dec.  20,  1861. 
Richard  Allen,  enl.  Dec.  31,  1861. 
William  Alexander,  enl.  Jan.  6,  1862, 
Charles  Ambrose,  enl.  Jan,  17,  1863, 
Charles  Bennett,  enl,  Jan,  4,  1863, 
Andrew  J.  Brewer,  enl,  Jan,  9,  1862, 
Jacob  Berschimer,  enl,  Jan,  15, 1863, 
Charles  Dalley,  enl.  Jan.  7,  1863. 
John  Devine,  enl.  Jan.  20, 1862.   Promoted  to  Sergt.  Jan.  20,  1864.  Taken 

prisoner  July  22,  1864.    Disch.  June  19,  1865. 
George  F.  Gale,  enl.  Jan.  8, 1862. 
Isaac  Guinter,  enl.  Dec.  28,  1861. 
Thomas  Gahan,  enl.  Jan.  23,  1862. 
James  Hudson,  enl.  Dec.  28, 1B61, 
George  W,  Hoag,  enl,  Dec,  24,  1861.   Mustered  out  at  end  of  term  March 

82,  1865. 
Patrick  Hart,  enl.  Jan.  10,  1863, 
Alfred  L,  Jago,  enl,  Jan.  4,  1862. 
Horace  Knapp,  enl.  Jan.  8,.  1863, 
James  Kinkaid,  enl.  Dec.  34,  1861. 
JohnKenney,  enl.  Jan.  12,  1862. 
James  Lytle,  enl.  Jan.  10,  1863. 
Hoxie  Lamphear,  enl.  Feb,  3,  1863, 
Reuben  Mitchell,  enl,  Jan.  10,  1862. 
William  Maloy,  enl.  Jan.  6,  1662. 
John  Maples,  enl.  Jan.  4,  1863. 
John  Mead,  enl.  Jan.  16, 1863, 
John  Nelson,  enl,  Jan,  6,  1868, 
Hugh  Nelson,  enl,  Jan.  6, 1863, 
Frederic  Nicola,  enl.  Jan.  33,  1862. 



Charles  Olmsted,  enl.  Dec.  27, 1861. 
Albert  Parmenter,  enl.  Feb.  1, 1862. 
Josepb  Rixinger,  enl.  Jan.  30, 1868. 
Lawrence  Eixinger,  enl.  Jan.  7, 1863. 
Roger  Ryan,  enl.  Jan.  7,  1862. 
Jackson  Smith,  enl.  Jan.  4, 1862. 
John  Skeene,  enl.  Jan.  12, 1862. 
John  Sandy,  enl.  Jan.  7,  1863. 
John  Tieman,  enl.  Jan.  4,  1862. 
William  H.  Vaughn,  enl.  Jan.  6,  1862. 
Wallace  Wass,  enl.  Dec.  21, 1861. 
Jonathan  Wlnslow,  enl.  Jan.  7,  1862. 



Charles  Stillman,  enl.  Sept.  18,  1861.    Promoted  to  1st  Sergeant  Oct.  20 
1861 ;  to  2d  Lieut.  Oct.  2, 1862.    Resigned  March  10,  1864. 


This  was  a  German  regiment,  raised  in  the  autumn 
of  1861  and  the  following  winter,  and  containing 
eighty-three  men  from  Cuyahoga  county,  scattered 
through  six  companies,  from  E,  with  twenty-five 
men,  down  to  P,  with  five.  It  was  sent  to  the  front 
early  in  February,  1862,  and  had  the  distinction  of 
being  the  only  regiment  with  a  Cuyahoga  representa- 
tion which  took  part  in  the  capture  of  Fort  Donelson. 
Arriving  at  the  scene  of  conflict  on  the  13th  of  Feb- 
ruary, after  a  fatiguing  march,  the  soldiers  bivouacked 
in  sight  of  the  fort,  slept  soundly,  and  the  next  morn- 
ing found  themselves  covered  with  three  inches  of 

Shaking  oflE  the  snow,  the  men  moved  forward. 
The  enemy  came  out  of  his  works  and  attacked 
them,  but  was  driven  back  into  his  intrench  men  ts 
with  heavy  loss.  The  Fifty-eighth  then  held  its 
position  till  night.     On  the  16th  the  fort  surrendered. 

Proceeding  up  the  Tennessee,  the  regiment  went 
into  the  battle  of  Pittsburg  Landing  on  the  7th  of 
April,  and  was  warmly  engaged  until  the  en«my- 
retreated;  its  loss  being  nine  killed  and  forty-three 

After  serving  principally  on  the  Mississippi  during 
the  summer  and  autumn  of  1862,  the  Fifty-eighth 
went  with  Sherman's  army  to  Chickasaw  Bluffs,  where 
it  charged  the  rebel  works  most  gallantly;  being  the 
first  to  reach  the  line  of  rifle  pits.  Like  the  rest 
of  the  command,  it  was  driven  back,  however;  having 
nearly  half  its  number  killed  and  wounded.  This 
defeat  was  partially  compensated  by  the  capture  of 
Arkansas  Post,  in  which  the  Fifty-eighth  took  part. 

It  was  then  placed  by  detachments  on  various  iron- 
clad steamers,  where  it  did  good  service  along  the 
rivers;  being  on  the  fleet  which  achieved  the  exciting 
feat  of  running  past  the  blazing  batteries  of  Vicks- 
hurg  on  the  occasion  of  Grant's  movement  to  the  rear 
of  that  stronghold.  The  regiment  landed  at  Grand 
Gulf,  and  lost  heavily  in  the  battle  which  was  fought 
there;  afterwards  taking  part  in  the  various  expedi- 
tions in  Louisiana.  From  September,  1863,  till  De- 
cember, 1864,  it  was  on  provost  duty  at  Vicksburg, 
and  was  then  sent  home  and  mustered  out. 



Jacob  Eggiman,  enl.  April  30,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co.,  Sept. 

16,  1865. 
William  Sohwandt,  enl .  May  2,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 


John  Spaeth,  enl.  Feb.  12, 1864.  Promoted  to  Corporal  March  1, 1864. 
Promoted  to  Sergt.  Dec .  34, 1864,  and  to  1st  Sergt .  June  1, 1855 .  Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Co.  Sept.  16, 1865. 

Thomas  Abel,  enl.  March  30, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

John  G.  Hammerly,  enl.  March  4, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

George  Kens,  enl,  March  30,  1861.  Lost  on  the  steamer  Sultana  April 
27,  1865. 

August  Matthews,  enl.  Feb.  2, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

David  Schwinghatner,  enl.  March  27,  1861     Mustered  out  wirh  the  Co. 

John  Schneider,  enl.  March  1,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

John  Suhmidt,  enl.  March  30,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

Fred  Schwinghatner,  enl.  March  23, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 


John  W.  Hughes  enl.  March  19,  1864.  Promoted  to  Asst.  Surg.  48th 
Reg.  U.S.  A.,  Aug.  5,1864. 

George  Butler,  enl.  March  19,  1864.  Promoted  to  Sergt.  June  1, 1865. 
Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  Sept.  16, 1865. 

Jacob  Weber,  enl,  Feb.  27,  1864.  Promoted  to  Sergt.  Aug.  1, 1865.  Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Co. 

Charles  E.  McMahon,  enl.  Jan.  29,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

Thomas  Berrick,  enl .  Feb.  22,  1864.    Mustered  with  with  the  Co. 

Israel  Beck,  enl.  Feb.  33,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

Patrick  Cummings,  enl.  Feb.  29, 1364.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

George  P.  Dahash,  enl.  Feb.  19,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

Julius  Haines,  enl.  March  13, 1864.    Muste:ed  out  with  the  Co. 

George  Haislet,  enl.  Feb.  23,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

Jacob  Klein,  enl.  Feb.  6, 1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

John  Keaver,  enl.  Feb.  5,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

Matthew  Lawless,  enl.  Feb.  11,  1864.     Mustered  outwith  the  Co. 

Charles  Lutz,  enl.  garch  1, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

John  Sander,  enl.  Feb.  29,  1864,    Mustered  outwith  the  Co. 

Henry  Schlattmeyer,  enl.  Feb.  17,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

John  Wolfkammer,  enl.  Feb.  5,  1864.    Mustered  with  the  Co. 

Walter  Heffron,  enl.  March  28, 1864.  Died  at  Vicksburg.  Miss.,  July  7, 

John  Wurster,  enl.  Feb.  3,  1864.     Died  at  Cairo,  111.,  L'ec.  1,  1864. 


Jacob  Elmer,  enr.  as  Musician  Deo.  26, 1861.    Mustered  out  Jan.  14, 1865. 

Andrew  Walter,  enl.  Dec.  31,  1861.    Disch.  Nov.  28,  1863. 

John  C.  Bauer,  enl.  March  31,  1864.     Lost  on  the  steamer  Sultana,  Aprij 

27,  1865. 
Henry  Cornell,  enl.  March  16,  1S64.    Mustered  out  with  Co.  Sept.  16, 1865. 
George  J.  Kohner,  enl.  March  4,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
John  Mohr,  enl.  March  16, 1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Edward  Peck,  enl,  Feb.  26, 1864.    Mustered  out  Sept.  16, 1865. 
William  Sheehan,  enl.  March  24, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Thomas  Palmer,  enl.  March  5,  1864.    Died  at  Vicksburg,  Miss.,  July  30, 



Robert  Specht,  enl.  Oct.  9,  1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.  Jan.  8,  1862;  and 

to  2d  Lieut.  Sept.  21,  1862,     Resigned  Deo,  26th,  1863. 
Charles  Stoppel,  enl.  Dec.  9.  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Sept.  7, 1863;  to 

2d  Lieut.  Nov.  14,  1863;  and  to  1st  Lieut.  May  35,  1864.    Mustered 

out  with  the  Co.  Jan.  14th,  1865. 
Henry  Manzelman,  enl .  Oct .  39, 1861 .    Promoted  to  1st  Sergt .    Mustered 

out  with  the  Co. 
Adolph  Manzelman,  enl.  Oct.  9,  1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.    Mustered 

outwith  the  Co. 
William  Holtz,  enl.  Oct.  38, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Emanuel  Schadler,  enl.  Nov.  16,  1861,.    Wounded  at  Shiloh  April 7, 1863 

and  sent  to  the  Gen,  Hosp . 
Henry  Wurtinghauser,  enr.  as  Musician  Oct.  36,  1861.    Mustered  out 

with  the  Co. 
Thomas  Dill,  enl.  Dec.  7, 1861.    Disch.  for  disability  Sept.  19, 1862. 
Philip  Boade,  enl.  Jan.  27,  1864.     Lost  on  the  steamer  Sultana,  April  27, 

Charles  A.  Bolin,  enl.  Dec,  26,  1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Frederick  Chandler,  enl.  Jan.  14, 1864.    Transferred  to  the  Invalid  Corps 

March  15,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Conrad  Frodrith,  enl.  Jan  15,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Hugh  Hart,  enl .  Nov.  30,  1803.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Michael  Hugo,  enl.  Jan.  6, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Benjamin  Lewis,  enl.  Jan  36, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Edward  Mullen,  enl.  Nov.  24, 1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Michael  O'Morrow,  enl.  Dec.  30,  1863.      Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 



Friedrioli  Rentz,  enl.  Feb.  1, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

John  Euth,  enl.  Feb.  1, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

Alfred  Symes,  eul.  Jan.  14, 1861.    Promoted  Corp.  March  1, 1865.     Mus. 

tered  out  with  the  Co . 
Henry  Stockinger,  enl.  Oct.  21,  1861.     Promoted  to  Corp.  Jan.  8, 1862. 

Killed  in  action  on  board  gunboat  near  Liverpool,  Miss.,  May  23, 186-1 
Joseph  Faad,  enl.  Oct.  12, 1861.  Died  at  Vicksburg,  Miss.,  Aug.  10, 1863. 
John  Fathschild,  enl.  Nov.  4, 1861.  Died  at  Cleveland,  O  ,  Aug.  17, 1863. 
Gottlieb  Meyer,  enl.  Oct   11,  1861.     Died  at  Vickstuig,  Miss.,  Aug.  13, 

John  Spatholtz,  enl.  Oct.  27. 1861       Died  at  Camp  Dennison,  O.,  July  3, 



John  Burk,  enl.  March  15,  1864.  Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  Sept.  16, 1865. 
Solomon  Bachmann,  enl.  Feb.  23, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
John  W.  Simmons,  enl.  March  5, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
WiUiam  H.  Shepard,  enl.  Feb.  15, 1864.    Disch.  Sept.  15, 1865. 
James  Thomas,  enl.  March  12, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

COMPANY    li. 

Caspar  Jung,  enl.  Oct.  5, 1861.  ,  Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  Jan.  14, 1865. 
Frederick  Kramer,  enl.  Deo.  4, 1861 . 

August  Wagner,  enl.  Oct.  25, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
JuUus  Bauerle,  enl.  Feb.  1, 1862.    Disoh.  for  disability  May  3, 1862. 
John  Lee,  enl.  Nov.  19,  1861.    .Disch.  for  disability  Feb.  24, 1862. 
Peter  Lehmann,  enl.  Oct.  17,  1861.  Disch.  for  disability  Nov.  34, 1862. 
John  Prell,  enl.  Feb.  5, 1862.    Disch.  for  disability  caused  by  wounds. 
George  Eisenhart,  enl.  Dec.  13, 1861.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  Sept.  16, 

Emil  Von  LangendorS,  enl.  Feb.  1, 1862.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
John  Eakowski,  enl.  Feb.  1, 1863.    Disch.  at  end  of  term  Feb.  15, 1865. 
Frederick  Buehler,  enl.  Nov.  4, 1861.    Died  in  Hosp.  near  St.  Louis,  Mc 

June  2, 1862. 
Philip  Leidich,  enr.  as  Musician  Oct.  14, 1861 .    Died  Jan.  31, 1863. 
Philip  Lorch,  enl.  Feb.  1,  1862.    Died  March  6, 1863. 
Charles  Wesche,  enl.  Oct.  15,  1861.    Killed  near  Vicksburg  Dec.  29, 1862. 


There  was  a  one-year  regiment  bearing  this  number, 
raised  in  1861,  but  no  part  of  it  was  from  Cuyahoga 
county.  In  the  spring  of  1864  a  new  regiment  of 
three-year  men  was  raised  to  which  the  vacant  num- 
ber was  assigned."  When  six  companies  were  full 
they  were  sent  to  the  front  under  a  lieutenant-colonel. 
Two  independent  companies  of  sharpshooters  were 
assigned. to  it  for  duty,  and  two  more  companies  of 
infantry  joined  it  during  the  summer,  but  it  was 
never  full.  One  of  the  sharpshooter  companies  was 
raised  principally  in  Berea  and  vicinity,  under  Captain 
W.  L.  Stearns.  It  finally  became  Company  G-  of  the 
Sixtieth.  In  all  there  were  one  hundred  and  eighty- 
six  men  in  the  regiment  from  Cuyahoga  county; 
sixty-seven  in  Company  H,  fifty-six  in  Company  G, 
and  forty-nine  in  Company  E;  besides  a  few  each  in 
A,  D  and  I. 

The  regiment  reported  to  General  Burnside,  at 
Alexandria,  Virginia,  on  the  24th  of  April,  1864, 
joined  the  army  of  the  Potomac  with  him,  and  on  the 
5th  of  May  first  came  under  fire  in  the  terrible  battle 
of  the  Wilderness.  The  new  soldiers  bore  themselves 
with  distinguished  courage  in  this  awful  ordeal,  and 
were  especially  complimented  for  their  gallantry  in 
leading  tlie  advance  at  Mary's  Bridge  on  the  9th  of 
May;  crossing  the  Ny  river  under  a  severe  fire  and 
driving  the  enemy  from  his  position.  The  Sixtieth 
was  also  hotly  engaged  at  Spottsylvania  and  North 
Anna,  and  when  the  deadly  assault  was  made  on  the 
fortifications  of  Cold  Harbor,  the  young  regiment  was 
there  to  take  part.  It  did  faithful  service  in  the 
trenches  before  Petersburg,  and  suffered  severely  at 

Salem  Mills  and  on  the  Weldon  Railroad.  During 
its  year  of  service,  eleven  of  the  men  from  Cuyahoga 
county  were  killed  in  action;  indicating  that  about 
seventy  of  those  from  that  county  were  killed  or 
wounded.  A  considerable  number  were  also  taken 
prisoners,  of  whom  a  large  proportion  died  in  the 
rebel  prison  at  Salisbury.  The  Sixtieth  was  close  up 
to  the  rebel  works  at  Petersburg,  and  was  the  second 
regiment  to  enter  that  city  on  its  evacuation  by  the 
rebels.     It  was  mustered  put  in  July,  1865. 



Henry  R.  Stevens,  enl.  Capt.  Co.  H  March  23, 1864.    Promoted  to  Maj. 

June  86,  1865.     Mustered  out  with  the  Reg.  July  28.  1865. 
William  L.  Stearns,  enl.  as  1st  Sergt.  5th  Co.  Sharpshooters  Oct.  21,  1862. 

Promoted  March  15, 1864,  to  Capt.  Co.  G,  60th  Inf.,  and  to  Maj.  Aug. 

16, 1864.    Resigned  April  18,  1865. 
Charles  E.  Ames,  enl.  as  Sergt.  April  18, 1864,    Mustered  out  with  the 

Reg.  July  38,  1865. 


John  D.  Sohoonmaker,  enl.  March  31, 1864.  App.  Hosp.  Steward  May 
16,  1864.    Killed  in  action  before  Petersburg,  Va. ,  March  29,  1865. 

Daniel  Lechleittr.  enl.  Co.  I  May  3,  1864.  Promoted  to  Com.  Sergt. 
Deo.  1, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  Reg. 


John  Jamison,  enl.  Jan.  19, 1866.    Mustered  out  July  24, 1865. 
James  McGloan,  enl.  Jan.  6, 1865.    Mustered  out  July  24,  1865. 


Edwin  Cress,  enl.  Feb.  17, 1864,  Co.  G.    Promoted  to  Q.  M.  Sergt.  June 

1,  1864,  and  to  2qc1  Lieut.  Co.  D  March  25,  1865.     Resigned  June  30, 

Christopher  C.  Gray,  enl.  Jan.  20,  1865.    Mustered  out  July  24,  1865. 
Dosson  Pinch,  enl.  March  25, 1864.    Died  at  Fairfax  Seminary  Hosp. 

May  15,  1864. 
John  Hutchins,  enl.  March  23,  1864.    Missing  since  action  of  June  17, 

1864,  in  front  of  Petersburg,  Va. 


A.  Q.  Quintrell,  enr.  as  2nd  Lieut.  March  9,  1864.    Promoted  to  Capt, 

April  18,  1864.'   Missing  since  action  of  June  17,  1864,  and  thought  to 

have  been  killed. 
Franklin  Paine,  Jr.,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt.  Co.  H  March  16, 1864.    Promoted 

Deo.  31, 1864,  to  1st  Lieut.  Co.  E,  and  to  Capt.  July  26,  1865.    Mus- 
tered out  with  Reg. 
Benj.  F.  Taylor,  enr.  as  Sergt.  March  18, 1864.    Promoted  to  1st  Sergt. 

Sick  in  Hosp.  at  Muster  out. 
James  A.  Wilson,  enr.  as  Sergt.  March  28, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  Co. 

July  28,  1865. 
Robert  Gillmore,  enl.  March  19,  1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Mustered 

out  with  Co. 
Joseph  Wilson,  enl.  March  28, 1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Mustered  out 

with  Co. 
William  J.  Beatty,  enl.  March  30, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  Co. 
Timothy  Bacon,  enl.  March  31, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  Co. 
James  W.  Brouse,  enl.  April  12,  1864. 

Harvey  Brouse,  enl.  March  28, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Henry  O.  Brouse,  enr.  as  Corp.  March  33, 1864. 
William  G.  Carpenter,  enl.  Feb.  10,  1865. 
Martin  V.  Fay,  enl.  April  8, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
William  G.  Gillmore,  enl.  March  30, 1864. 
Peter  McCabe,  enl.  March  26,  1864. 

Robert  G.  McElhaney,  enl.  March  30, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
James  S.  Morrow,  enl.  Feb.  10, 1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Francis  A.  Priest,  enl.  March  21,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
William  W.  Root,  enl.  Feb.  10, 1865.    Mustered  out  wit  the  Co. 
Horace  C.  Treat,  enl.  MarA  .31, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Charles  A.  White,  enl.  March  38, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Edward  N.  White,  enl.  March  31, 1864.    Absent  sick  since  May  9,  1864. 
Henry  B.  Farrar,  enr.  as  Corp.  March  18,  1864.    Disch,  May  26, 1865. 
Thomas  H.  Rex,  enl.  March  26, 1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Disch.  June 

6,  1865. 
George  W.  Jarvis,  enl.  March  31,  1864.    Disch.  for  disability  May  18, 

William  S.  Rogers, enl.  March  28, 1864.    Disch.  Feb.  21, 1865. 
John  R.  Shaw,  enl.  March  28, 1864.    Disoh.  tor  disability  Deo.  12,  1864. 
Henry  R.  PefEers,  enl.  March  28.  1864.    Disch.  June  22,  1864. 



Ephraim  W.  Moss,  enl.  March  31, 1864,    Disch.  May  30, 1865. 

Jam33  Johnston,  enl.  March  28,  1864.    Disoh.  July  9, 1865. 

William  H.  Farrand,  enl.  March  24, 1864.    Promoted  to  Sergt.  Maj.  July 

15  1864,  and  to  2nd  Lieut.  Co.  I,  March  25, 1863. 
Edward  C.  Stevens,  enl.  March  30, 1864.    Transf .  to  Vet.  Res.  Corps 

Sept.  16,  1864. 
JohnD   Schoonmaker.    (See  Non-commissioned  Staff.) 
Gordon  H.  Better,  enr.  as  Musician  March  16, 1864.    Died  in  Hosp.  Sept. 

26,  1864.  „   .  ,.  , 

Philip  Ruclile,  enl.  March  20,  1864.    Promoted  to  Sergt.    Killed  before 

Petersburg,  Ta.,  June  17, 1864. 
Frank  R.  Beardsley,  enl.  March  21,  1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Died  of 

wounds  at  City  Point,  Va.,  Aug.  12,  1864. 
Arthur  J.  Parkis,  enr.  as  Corp.  March  15,  1864,    Died  in  Hosp.  Aug.  1, 

George  B.  Pritchard,  enl.  March  28, 1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Died  Jan. 

19  1865,  in  rebel  prison  at  Salisbury,  N.  C. 
Samuel  Marks,  enl  April  12, 1864.    Missing  since  action  of  June  17, 1864 

and  supposed  killed. 
Nelson  R.  Stevens,  enl.  March  28,  1864.    Killed  before  Petersburg,  Va., 

Aug.  8,  1864. 


Norman  D.  Meaeham,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut.  Feb.  26,  1864.     Prom,  to  Capt. 

Nov.  6,  1864.    Mustered  out  .July  3,  1865. 
Orlando  W.  Haynes,  enr.  as  Corp.  Feb.  22,  1864.    Promoted  to  2d  Lieut. 
March  18,  1865,  and  to  1st  Lieut.  July  25, 1865.      Mustered  out  with 
the  Co.  July  28.  1865. 
Ira  W.  Wallace,  enr.  as  Corp.  Feb.  17,  1864.    Promoted  to  1st  Sergeant. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co . 
Henry  M.  Klrkpatrick.  enr.  as  Corp.  Feb.  17, 1864.    Promoted  to  Sergt. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Lewis  S.  Thompson,  enr.  as  Corp.  Feb.  16,  1864.     Promoted  to  Sergt. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co . 
Porter  M.  Weylie,  enr.  as  Corp  Jan.  29,  1864.      Mustered  out  with  the 

John  Ames,  enl .  March  31,  1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Mustered  out  with 

the  Co. 
Solomon  H.  Lee,  enl.  Feb.  22,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.     Mustered  out 

w,th  the  Co. 
William  Sums,  enl.  March  31,  1864.      Promoted  to  Corp.    Mustered  out 

with  the  Co. 
Edgar  M.  Reublin,  enl.  Jan.  26,  1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.   Mustered  out 

with  the  Co . 
John  Albers,  enl .  Jan.  28,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co . 
John  Davis,  enl.  Feb.  29, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
James  R.  Estminger,  enl.  Jan.  27,  1864.      Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Ely  Fry,  enl.  Feb.  3,  1861. 

William  H.  Judkins,  enl.  Feb.  4,  1864.    Sent  to  Hosp.  Aug.  6,  1864. 
Walter  Lewis,  enl.  March  9,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
William  H.  Lacy,  enl.  Feb.  29  1864.      Accidentally  wounded. 
Ferdinand  Lord,  enl.  March  3,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Lyman  H.  Luke,  enl.  Jan.  2,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
John  Wagoner,  enl.  Feb.  13.  1864.    Wounded  May  2,  1864. 
Henry  Wagner,  enl.  Feb.  iS,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Philip  Warner,  enl.  Feb.  29.  1864. 

George  H .  Walberry,  enl .  Feb .  15,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co . 
Sidney  E.  Wright,  enl.  Feb.  24,  1864.    Mustered  outwith  the  Co. 
William  Ames,  enl.  March  31,  1864.    Disch   for  disability  May  33,  1865. 
Stephen  W.  Harrington,  enl.  Feb,  29,  1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Dlsch. 

for  disability  May  24,  1865. 
John  H.  Curtiss,  enl.  Feb.  29,  1864.    Mustered  out  June  10,  1865. 
William  C,  Curtiss,  enl.  March  9,  1864.    Mustered  out  June  22,  1865. 
Edward  Gray,  enl.  Feb.  23,  1864.    Disoh.  for  disability  June  13, 1865. 
Alfred  Herold,  enl.  Feb.  15,  1864.    Mustered  out  June  6,  1865. 
Wilbur  F.  Hildreth,  enl.  Feb.  12, 1864.    Mustered  out  June  3,  1865. 
Elmer  G.  Lacy,  enl.  Feb.  39,  1864.    Disch.  for  disability. 
Roswell  B.  Moore,  enl.  March  39,  1864.  Disch.  for  disability  May  24, 1865 
Thomas  D.  Miller,  enl.  Jan.  28,  1864.    Disch.  for  disability  March  20. 

Avery  Peabody,  enl.  Jan.  25,  1864.     Disch.  for  disability  Dec.  17,  1864. 
James  H.  Powers,  enl.  Feb.  23, 1864.    Disch.  for  disability  June  6,  1865. 
Grenville  Thorp,  enl   March  29.  1864.    Disch.  for  disability  Dec.  8,  1864. 
J  ohn  Foster,  enl.  Feb.  22, 1864.    Transf,  to  Vet.  Res.  Corps  March  15, 

William  Pickett,  enl.  March  31,  1864.    Transf   to  Vet.  Res.  Corps. 
Lewis  R.  Willey,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Feb.  15,  1864.    Promoted  to  1st  Sergt. 

Died  April  2.  1865.  from  woimds  rec'd  in  action. 
William  W.  Wilder,  enr  as  Corp.  Jan.  18,  1864.    Died  of  wounds  March 

13,  1865,  at  City  Point,  Va. 
John  K  McReynolds.  enr.  as  Corp.  Jan.  8,  1864.    Died  of  wounds  Dec 

17,  1864. 
Wilbur  F.  Detchon,  enl.  Feb.  29.  1864.    Died  of  wounds  Aug.  16,  1864. 
Lyman  R.  Hamilton  enl.  Jan.  27, 1864.    Died  in  Hosp.  June  5,  1864. 
Benj.  F.  Hoffman,  enl.  Feb.  22,  1864.    Died  of  wounds  March  26,  1865,  at 
Baltimore,  Md. 

William  E.  Jackson,  enl.  March  29,  1864.  Died  at  City  Point,  Va.,  June 
20,  1865. 

Benj.  F.  Purine,  enl,  Jan.  27,  1864.    Killed  in  action  May  25,  1865. 

John  Schopp,  enl.  Jan.  25, 1864.  Died  in  reb  el  prison  at  Salisbury,  N.  C. 
Feb.  37,  1865. 

Hiram  Sippy,  enl.  March 4,  1864.  Died  in  rebel  prison  at  Salisbury,  N. 
C.,Nov.  3,  1864. 

PhineasJ.  Vanness,  enl.  March  15,  1864.  Died  at  Washington,  D.  C, 
Aug.  34,  1864. 

Henry  Cooper,  enl.  Jan.  32,  1864.  Promoted  to  Corp.  Mustered  out 
with  the  Co.  July  38. 1865. 

Edward  G.  Disbro,  enr.  as  Corp.  Dec.  18. 1863.  Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 

Henry  Gassner,  enl   Jan.  22.  1864.    Mustered  out  June  3, 1865. 

Charles  E.  Sutton,  enl.  Jan.  22,  1864.  Died  Aug.  15, 1864,  at  Fort  Schuy- 
ler, N.  Y. 

Walter  Yarham,  enl.  Jan,  22,  1864.    Died  by  reason  of  wounds. 

Henry  R.  Stevens,  enr.  as  Capt.  March  23, 1864.    (See  Field  and  Staff.) 
John  H.  Miller,  enr.  as  Sergt  March  28,  1864.    Promoted  to  1st  Sergt. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  July  28,  1865. 
Elmer  J.  Bennett,  enl.  March  17,  1864.    Promoted  to  Sergt.    Mustered 

out  with  the  Co. 
Orrin  Jewell,  enr.  as  Corp.  Feb.  39,  1864.    Promoted  to  Sergt.    Mustered 

out  with  the  Co . 
Thomas  Baker,  enl.  March '22,  1864.     Promoted  to  Sergt.    Mustered  out 

with  the -Co. 
Charles  J.  Green,  enr.  as  Corp.  March  14,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the 

Co.  ' 

Richard  Bond,  enl.  Feb.  22,  1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.     Mustered  out 

with  the  Co. 
Joseph  Roy,  enl.  Feb.  26, 1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Mustered  out  with 

the  Co. 
William  H.  Babcock,  enl.  Feb.  33,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Andrew  J   Taylor,  enl.  Feb.  37,  1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Mustered  out 

with  the  Reg. 
Albert  Albertson,  enl.  March  7,  1864.    Promoted  to  Corp      Mustered  out 

with  the  Co. 
Rinaldo  Baxter,  enl.  March  11,  1864.    Left  sick  in  Hosp.  May  12, 1864. 
Albert  M.  Bishop,  enl.  March  23,  1864.     Was  taken  prisoner  and  paroled. 
William  Canfleld,  enl.  Feb.  25, 1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
George  W.  Doty,  enl.  March  21, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
John  S.  Durgin,  enl.  March  83,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  C 
James  Gregory,  enl  Feb.  24, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Aden  Grover,  enl.  March  15,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Emory  G.  Hardy,  enl.  Feb.  33,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Levi  Leggett,  enl.  April  4, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  th"  Co. 
George  W.  Phelps,  enl.  March  23,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Reuben  Pooler,  enl.  March  28,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
John  Reiner,  enl  March  28, 1864.      Wounded  and  sent  to  Hosp.  May  12, 

Charles  Rhode,  enl.  March  26,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Patrick  Roche,  enl.  March  4, 1864.      Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Charles  D,  Scott,  enl.  JIarch  17, 1864.    Taken  prisoner  Aug.  31, 1864,  and 

escaped  in  March,  1865. 
George  ShefEer,  enl.  March  22,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Charles  W.  Stanhope,  enl.  March  31.  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Robert  F.  Thompson,  enl.  Feb.  23,  1864.      Missing  since  action  of  Aug. 

31,  1864. 
Amasa  G.  Taft,  enr.  as  Corp.  March  7,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Daniel  Tucker,  enl.  April  18,  1864.    Sick  in  Hosp.  since  April  39, 1864. 
William  L.  Truax,  enl.  March  28,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Henry  Waterman,  enl .  Mar  ch  34,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Ephraim  Wood,  enl.  March  12,  1864.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Franklin  Paine,  Jr.,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt.  March  16,  1864.     Promoted  Deo 

31.  1864,  to  1st  Lieut.  Co.  E. 
Daniel  L.  Whipple,  enl.  March  11,  1864.      Discharged  for  disability  Oct. 

20,  1864. 
Warren  D.  Belden,  enl.  March  30,  1864.     Disch.  June  8,  1865. 
Seymour  Codding,  enl.  March  17,  1864.      Disch.  for  disability  Nov.  18, 

Isaac  Elwell,  enl.  March  18,  1864.      Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  4, 1865. 
Homer  C.  Jewett,  enl.  Feb.  32.  1864.     Disch.  for  disability  Feb.  6, 1865. 
Peter  Martin,  enl.  March  26, 1864.     Disch   June  5, 1865. 
Delos  E.  Manly,  enl.  March  31,  1864.     Disch.  June  5   1865. 
John  R.  Swartout,  enl.  March  4, 1864.    Disch.  May  31,  1865. 
Ezekiel  B.  Van  Nostrand,  enl.  March  15,  1864.    Disch.  for  disability  Sept- 

9,  1864. 
WilliamG.  Waterman,  enl.  March  29, 1864.    Disch.  June  5,  1865. 
George  H.  Webster,  enl.  March  28,  1864.    Disch.  June  31,  1865. 
Charles  D.  Giberson,  enr.  as.  Seigt.  March  7, 1864.    Killed  at  Salem  Mills, 

Va  ,  June  1,  1864. 
Henry  W.  Hardy,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Feb.  23,  1864.    Died  at  Fredericksburg, 
Va.,  May  18,  1864,  from  wounds  rec'd  at  battle  of  the  Wilderness, 
May  6. 
John  Bryan,  enr.  as  Corp.  March  7, 1864.    Killed  before  Petersburg,  Va., 
June  17,  1864. 



John  B.  McAlvey,  enr.  as  Corp.  March  11, 1864.    Died  at  Washington, 

D.  C,  June  17,  1864. 
William  H.  Dunton,  enr.  as  Corp.  Feb.  23,  1864.    Died  in  Hosp.  Jan.  1, 

Nathaniel  A,  Shipman,  enl.  March  14, 1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Died  in 

prison  at  Salisbury,  N.  C,  Dec.  5, 1864. 
Harrison  Bennett,  enl.  Feb.  23, 1864.    Killed  at  Salem  Mills,  Va.   June 

1,  1864. 
Horatio  Storrs,  enl.  Feb.  23,  1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.    Died  in  prison 

at  Salisbury.  N.  C,  Jan.  24, 1865. 
Lawrence  T.  Pepoon,  enl.  Feb.  23, 1864.    Died  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  July 

24,  1864.  from  wounds  rec'd  before  Petersburg  July  7. 
Frederick  Cheflin,  enl  Mareh  30,  1864.    Died  in  prison  at  Salisbury,  N. 

C,  Pe6.  29,  1864. 
Thomas  W.  Carpenter,  enl.  March  30,  lf64.    Died  in  prison  at  Salisbury 

N.  C.,Nov.  2,1864. 
John  A.  Clague,  enl.  March  14.  1864.    Died  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Aug.  7, 

George  E.  Cowles,  enl.  March  18, 1864.    Died  in  prison  at  Salisbury,  N. 

C,  Dec.  3,  1854. 
Henry  M.  Eells,  enl.  March  22, 1864.    Died  in  prison  at  Richmond,  Va., 

Oct    8,1864. 
John  W.  Green,  enl.  March  22, 1864.     Died  in  prison  at  Salisbury,  N.  C, 

Dec.  13,  1864. 
James  H.  Hardy,  enl.  Feb.  23,  1864.     Died  at  Washington,  D.  C,  June 

21,  1864,  from  wounds  rec'd  before  Petersburg,  June  17. 
Charles  Langton,  Jr..  enl.  March  84, 1864.    Killed  at  Spottsylvania,  Va., 

May  9,  1864. 
William  Lewis,  enl.  March  11,1864.    Killed  before  Petersburg.  Va.,  June 

17,  1864. 
George  Moore,  enl.  Feb.  26,  1864.    Died  at  Washington,  D.  C,  Sept.  18, 

Arunah  Norton,  enl .  March  19, 1864 .     Died  in  prison  at  Salisbury,  N   C . , 

Nov.  3,  1864.        * 
Alexander  Wicks,  enl.  March  20,  1864.     Disch.  for  disability  June  17, 



William  H.  faiTand,  enl.  Co.  E,  March  24,  1864.    Promoted  to  Sergt. 

Maj.  July  15,  1864;  and  to  2d  Lieut.  Co.  I,  March  25,  1865.    Mustered 

out  with  the  Co.  July  28, 1865. 
George  K.  Alstadt,  enl.  May  3,  1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.  and  to  Sergt. 

June  1,  1865.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  July  38.  1865. 
Milton  D.  Allen,  enl.  May  10,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Monroe  Glick,  enl.  May  T  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co . 
Peter  C.  Hine,  enl.  May  7, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Samuel  H.  Brooks,  enl.  May  3,  1864.     Diseh.  May  23,  1865. 
William  Buckheier,  enl.  April  18, 1864.    Wounded  Sept.  30, 1864. 
Frank  Hickok,  enl.  April  16,  1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  July  28, 

Patrick  Harrington,  enl.   April  18,  1864.    Transf.  to  Vet.  Res.  Corps, 

March  23,  1865. 



Cuyahoga  in  the  Sixty-first— Its  First  Fight— Second  Bull  Run— Pro- 
tecting Washington— Chancellorsville— Gettysburg— To  the  Army  of 
the  Cumberland— Fight  in  Wauhatchie  Valley,  Etc.— Resaca— Hard 
Battle  at  Peachtree  Creek— Guarding  Bridges— Down  to  the  Sea- 
Through  the  Carolinas— Consolidated— Mustered  Out— Members  from 
Cuyahoga— The  Sixty-flfth  and  its  Cuyahoga  Men— In  Kentucky, 
Mississippi,  Etc.- After  Bragg— Wading  Stone  River— An  Eight 
Hours  Battle— Chickamauga— The  Atlanta  Campaign— Mention  of 
the  Battles— Large  Percentage  of  Losses— In  Texas— Mustered  Out- 
List  of  Cuyahoga  County  Men— Forty-fifth  and  Sixty-seventh  Consoli- 
dated—Cuyahoga  in  the  Sixty-seventh— In  Virginia— Gallant  Conduct 
at  Winchester— Numerous  Skirmishes -Port  Royal  and  Port  Republic 
—A  Gale  at  Sea— A  fourth  of  July  Battle— In  South  Carolina— A  Seven 
Months  Siege— Forty  Days  under  Fire— Storming  Wagner— Desperate 
Courage— Capture  of  Wagner— Veteran  Furlough— Battle  of  Chester 
Station— Ware  Bottom  Church— Under  Fire  for  Months-  Storming  the 
Works  at  Signal  Hill— Other  Fights— Reviewed  by  President  Lincoln- 
Storming  Fort  Gregg— Appomattox— Summer  Duty— Out  in  December 
—List  of  Cuyahoga's  Representatives. 


This  regiment,  which  contained  members  from 
almost  every  county  in  the  State,  had  thirty-nine  from 
Cuyahoga  county  in  Company  D,  and  three  in  Com- 


pany  6.  It  joined  Fremont's  army  in  June,  1863; 
soon  afterwards  passing  under  the  command  of  Pope, 
and  having  its  first  fight  at  Freeman's  Ford,  on  the 
Rappahannock  in  July,  1862.  It  also  had  a  sharp  con- 
flict at  Sulphur  Springs  on  the  23d  and  24th  of 
August,  and  another  on  the  25th  at  Waterloo  Bridge. 
At  the  second  Bull  Run  battle  it  was  warmly  engaged 
for  a  short  time  ;  having  twenty-five  killed  and 
wounded.  It  was  not  broken  up,  like  so  many  regi- 
ments, in  that  battle,  and  aided  in  covering  the 
retreat  of  Pope's  demoralized  army.  During  the 
subsequent  operations  of  that  year  the  regiment  was 
part  of  the  reserve  held  for  the  protection  of  Wash- 

After  lying  in  winter  quarters  for  several  months, 
the  Sixty-first  moved  south  with  Hooker  and  was 
actively  engaged  in  the  disastrous  battle  of  Chan- 
cellorsville, where  it  had  four  officers  wounded,  and 
five  men  killed  and  about  thirty  wounded.  Its  next 
battle  was  Gettysburg,  v/here  it  was  sent  forward  on 
the  skirmish  line  and  was  driven  back  with  heavy 
loss.  It  then  took  a  position  on  Cemetery  Hill, 
which  it  held  till  the  victory  was  won. 

In  September,  1863,  the  Sixty-first  went  with  the 
Twelfth  Corps  to  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland.  On 
the  night  of  the  28th  of  October  it  was  engaged  in  a 
brisk  fight  in  the  Wauhatchie  valley,  driving  the 
rebels  across  Lookout  creek.  On  the  23d  and  25th 
of  November,  it  was  engaged  in  the  battles  of  Look- 
out Mountain  and  Mission  Ridge. 

After  remaining  at  Bridgeport  through  the  winter 
and  enjoying  a  veteran  furlough  in  March,  1864,  the 
Sixty-first  set  out  early  in  May  on  the  Atlanta  cam- 
paign. It  V;'as  twice  sharply  engaged  near  Resaca, 
and  again  at  Dallas  on  the  25th  of  May,  when  twenty- 
three  of  the  men  were  killed  and  wounded.  After 
numerous  skirmishes,  and  a  sharp  fight  near  Kenesaw 
Mountain,  it  crossed  Peachtree  creek  with  Hooker's 
corps  on  the  20th  of  July,  and  engaged  the  enemy. 
The  latter  made  a  furious  effort  to  drive  it  back  across 
the  creek,  but  was  repulsed  with  heavy  loss.  Ninety- 
five  officers  and  men  of  the  Sixty-first  were  killed  and 
woumled.  After  this,  the  regiment  was  on  duty  in 
the  rear,  guarding  bridges,  etc.,  until  after  the  cap- 
ture of  Atlanta. 

The  regiment  then  marched  with  Sherman  to  the 
sea  and  through  the  Carolinas.  At  Goldsboro,  North 
Carolina,  it  was  consolidated  with  the  Eighty-second 
Infantry;  the  name  of  the  latter  being  retained  by 
the  combined  force.  The  Eighty-second  was  mus- 
tered out  about  the  1st  of  September,  1865. 



John  D.  Bothwell,  enr.  as  Capt.  Feb.  10, 1862.    Res.  Dec.  23, 1863. 
James  Armstrong,  enr.  as  1st  Lt.  Feb.  10, 1862.    Res.  Dec.  23,  1863. 
George  H.  Williams,  enr.  as  Sergt.  March  28, 1862.    Disch. 
George  Morrison,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Feb.  25, 1868.    Disch. 
Charles  W.  Foster,  enr.  as  Sergt.  March  23, 1862.    Disch. 
George  M.  Pell,  enr.  as  Sergt.  March  3,  1868.    Disch.  March  14,  1863. 
John  Savoy,  enr.  as  Corp,  March  6, 1863.   Promoted  to  Sergt.  July  1, 1862 
Henry  Jenkins,  enr.  as  Corp.  Feb,  24,  1864.    Promoted  to  Sergt.  Nov. 
10,  1862.    Transf.  to  82d  Reg.  March  31, 1865.    Must,  out  July  14, 1865. 



Edward  G,  Ranney,  enr.  as  Corp.  March  14, 1862.    Promoted  to  Corp. 

Killed  at  Gettysburg  July  3, 1863. 
Richard  Evans,  enr.  as  Musician  March  3,  1862.    Disch.  April  27, 1863. 
Charles  C.  Armstrong,  enl.  March  31,  1862.     Diseh.  Oct.  6,  1863. 
George  Barrett,  enl.  April  2d,  1862.    Disch.  March  12,  1863. 
Philip  W.  Bradford,  enl.  March  3,  1802.    Disch .  July  9, 1862. 
Squire  Hallas,  enl  March  7,  1863. 
Jacob  Haller,  enl.  March  .3,  1862.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Dec.  9,  1862.    Died 

in  Hosp.  Nov.  28,  1883. 
William  H.  Holley,  enl.  March  22,  1863.    Died  June  13,  1865. 
George  Lambacker,  enl.  March  1,  1862.    Transf .  to  83d  Reg.   March  31. 

1865.     Mustered  out  July  24,  1865. 
George  W.  Mains,  enl.  April  2,  1862.    Disch.  April  29,  1863. 
Edward  McCue,  enl.  March  20,  1863. 

Neal  McCuUough,  enl.  March  31,  1862.     Disch.  Oct.  18,  1863. 
Bernard  McGouldrick,  enl.  March  31,  1862. 
John  Mclntyre,  enl.  March  3,  1852.    Disch.  Sept.  1, 1863. 
Patrick  McGuire,  enl.  March  12,  1863.  Promoted  to  Corp.  March  15, 1863. 
Patrick  Murphy,  enl.  March  14, 1863.    Disch. 
George  W.  Nugent,  enl.  March  6,  1863. 

Conrad  Reich,  enl.  March  3,  1862.    Died  in  Hosp.  Jan.  18,  1864. 
William  Eitter,  enl.  April  1,  1862.    Died  in  Hosp.  March  21,  1863. 
Comfort  Ranney,  enl.  April  2,  1863. 

Jacob  Schnurer,  enl.  March  7,  1862.     Disch.  June  15,  1865. 
Edmond  C.  Sprague,  enr.  as  Musician  April  3,  1862.    Transf.  to  82d  Reg. 

March  31,  1865.    Mustered  out  July  24.  1865. 
Alfred  G.  Thompson,  enl.  March  14,  1862.    Missing  since  Oct.  28,  1864. 
Lucius  Try  on,  enl.  March  13,  1862. 
Smith  Tryon,  enl.  March  13,  1862. 
George  Voght,  enl.  March  32, 1863. 
Albert  White,  eni.  March  7, 1863. 
John  White,  enl.  .\pril  2,  1862.    Transf.  to  82nd  Reg.  March  31,  1865. 

Mustered  out  July  24,  1865. 
A.  H.  Williams,  enl.  March  34,  1862.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Dec.  9,  1862. 

Killed  at  Gettysburg,  July  2, 1863. 
Ransom  White,  enl.  April  1,  1862.    Died  at  Washington,  D.  C,  Sept.  1, 

Robert  Wright,  enl.  March  17,  1882.    Died  near  Stafford  Court  House, 

Va.,  March  6,  1863. 
Charles  Wucherer,  enl.  March  26,  1862.     Wounded  at  Freeman's  Ford, 

Va.,  Aug.  22,  1863.    Transf.  to  82nd  Reg.  March  31,  1865.    Mustered 

out  July  24,  1865 


Thomas  Costello,  enl.  Feb.  10,  1862. 
John  Higgins,  enl.  Feb.  1,  1862. 
Michael  Nolan,  enl.  Feb.  1,  1862. 

Disch.  March  31,  1863. 



Augustus  C.  Barlow,  enr.  as  Surgeon  March  10,  1863.    Appointed  Bre- 
vet Lieut.  Col.  March  13, 1865.    Mustered  out  Sept.  1865. 


This  regiment,  which  was  mustered  into  seiTice  on 
the  Ist  day  of  December,  1861,  contained  sixty-nine 
Cuyahoga  men  in  Company  E,  twenty-nine  in  Com- 
pany I  and  three  in  Company  C.  It  served  in  Ken- 
tucky through  the  winter,  and  in  April,  1863,  was 
present  at  the  battle  of  Pittsburg  Landing  but  was 
not  actively  engaged.  The  regiment  was  on  service 
in  northern  Mississippi  and  Alabama  and  southern 
Tennesse  until  August,  when  it  marched  to  Kentucky 
in  pursuit  of  Bragg. 

At  the  battle  of  Stone  Eiver,  the  Sixty-fifth  crossed 
the  river  with  its  brigade  on  the  night  of  the  29th  of 
December,  the  men  often  in  the  water  to  the  armpits, 
while  the  enemy  was  plying  them  with  a  heavy  fire 
in  front.  They  formed  line  on  the  farther  bank,  but 
as  the  supports  did  not  come  up  the  brigade  was 
ordered  to  retire.  The  brigade  was  not  actively 
engaged  the  next  day,  but  on  the  morning  of  the  31st 
it  was  ordered  to  support  McCook's  corps,  which  was 
being  driven  back.  It  was  hotly  engaged  for  eight 
hours,  and  its  eflorts  were  at  last  crowned  with  vic- 

tory. It  had  three  officers  and  thirty-eight  men 
killed,  and  seven  officers  and  a  hundred  and  six  men 

Remaining  in  the  vicinity  till  June,  1863,  the  regi- 
ment advanced  with  Eosecrans  and  in  September 
fought  at  Chickaniauga.  It  was  in  reserve  nearly  all 
the  first  day,  but  on  the  second  fought  long  and 
with  varying  success;  sharing  at  length,  however,  in 
the  defeat  of  the  whole  army.  It  had  three  officers 
and  thirteen  men  killed,  and  five  officers  and  sixty 
men  wounded.  At  Mission  Eidge  the  Sixty-fifth 
had  fifteen  men  killed  and  wounded. 

The  Atlanta  campaign  was  hardly  less  than  a  long 
battle,  and  the  Sixty-fifth  was  as  continuously  engaged 
as  any  regiment  whose  records  we  have  observed.  At 
Eesaca  it  had  twenty-eight  killed  and  wounded;  at 
Dallas,  six;  at  Marietta,  twelve;  at  Kenesaw  twelve; 
at  Peachtree  creek,  four. 

After  the  capture  of  Atlanta  the  Sixty-fifth  moved 
vnorth  in  pursuit  of  Hood,  and  on  the  29th  of  Novem- 
ber took  part  in  the  battle  of  Springfield,  Tennessee; 
having  twenty-seven  officers  and  men  killed  and 
wounded.  The  next  day,  in  the  battle  of  Franklin, 
it  had  twenty-three  killed  and  wounded. 

These  numbers  do  not  look  large,  but  really  rep- 
resented a  large  percentage  of  the  regiment;  for,  after 
the  discharge  of  the  non-veterans  on  the  3rd  of  Octo- 
ber, it  contained  only  a  hundred  and  thirty  men. 
This  squad  of  war-worn  soldiers  remained  at  Nashville 
until  June,  1865,  when  it  went  to  Texas.  It  served 
there  until  December,  and  was  mustered  out  at  Co- 
lumbus ou  the  3d  of  January,  1866. 



Horatio  N.  Whitbeck,  enr.  as  3d  Lieut.  Co.  E,  Oct.  2,  1861.  Promoted 
to  Capt.  Nov.  2, 1861;  to  Major  Oct.  7,  1862,  and  to  Lieut.  Col.  April 
3,1863.  Wounded  at  Stone  River  Dec.  31,  1863,  at  Chickamauga 
Sept.  19,  1863.  and  at  Kenesaw  Mt.  June  37,  1864.  Disch.  for  disa- 
bility caused  by  wounds  Aug.  16,  1865. 

Wilbur  F.  Hinman,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt.  Co.  E,  Oct.  13,  1861 .  Promoted  to 
1st  Lieut.  Feb.  7,  1862;  to  Capt  Co.  F,  June  37,  1864;  to  Maj.  Oct.  10, 
1865,  and  to  Lieut.  Col.  Nov.  4, 1865.  Wounded  at  Chickamauga,  Ga., 
Sept.  19, 1863.    Mustered  out  with  Reg. 

William  H.  Massey,  Oct.  16,  1861.  Transf.  to  65th  Inf.  and  made  2d 
Lieut.  June  3, 1863.  Promoted  to  1st  Lieut.  andAdj'tFeb.  7,1863. 
Died  April  7,  1863,  of  wounds  rec'd  at  Stone  River  Dec.  31,  1862. 

Thomas  Powell,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut.  Co.  E,  Oct.  9,  1861.  Promoted  to 
Capt.  Dec.  1, 1862;  appt.  Reg.  Chaplain  July  14, 1864.  Mustered  out 
with  the  Reg. 


James  P.  Mills,  enl.  Oct.  24,  1861,  Co.  E.  Promoted  to  Com.  Sergt.  May 
1,  1863,  and  to  Q .  M.  Sergt.  Aug.  1,  1864,    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 

Melville  C,  Porter,  enl.  Co.  E,  Nov.  1. 1861.  Promoted  to  Sergt.  May  1, 
1863,  to  Pr.  Musician  Jan.  1,  1864,  and  to  Sergt  Maj.  April  6,  1865. 
Mustered  out  with  Reg.  Nov.  30,  1865, 


M.  W.  Dickerson,  enl.  March  30,  1864.    Wounded  at  Spring  Hill,  Tenn., 

Nov.  29,  1864.    Disch.  for  disability  June  32, 1865. 
Charles  C.  Files,  enl.  March  31,  1864.    Died  in  Hosp.  at  Cleveland,  0., 

Jan.  25,  1865. 
George  Gilger,  enl.  March  16,  1864.    Disch.  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  Nov.  28. 



George  N.  Huekins,  enl.  as  2nd  Lieut.  Oct.  16,  1861.  Promoted  to  1st 
Lieut.  Feb.  26. 1863.     Died  at  Nashville  April  3,  1862. 

Wilbur  F.  Hauxhurst,  enl.  March  29,  1864.  Promoted  to  Corp.  Oct.  1, 



Daniel  H.  Perry,  enl.  March  25, 1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Oct.  1,  1865. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  Nov.  30,  1865. 
Wilbur  F.  Hinman.    (See  Fieldand  Staff.) 

Ansel  Athei-ton.  enl.  October  18,  1862.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Nov.  1,  1864, 
and  to  Sergt.  March  1, 1865.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term  Oct.  13, 
Eoyal  Edson,  enl.  Oct.  28,  1862.    Mustered  out  June  20, 1865. 
Robert  S.  Hudson,  enl.  Oct.  30, 1862.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term  Oct. 

29,  1865. 
Wallace  Walrath,  enl.  Dec.  25,  1'63.    Wounded  at  Reseca,  Ga.,  May  15, 

1864.     Disch.  for  disability  soon  after. 
Hiram  A.  Vaughn,  enl    March  23,  1864.    Transf.  to  Vet.  Res.  Corps 

March  23,  1865, 
MichaelTurney,  enl.  Oct.  9,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Oct.  1, 1865.    Lett 

sioi  in  Hosp.  at  New  Orleans. 
George  C.  Thompson,  enl.  Oct.  13,  1862.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Nov.  1, 

1864.     Killed  at  Spring  Hill,  Tenn.,  Nov.  29,  1864. 
Edward  G.  Powell,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  9,  1861 .     Transf.  to  Co.  F. 
Thomas  Powell .    (See  Field  and  Staff . ) 
Thoma's  Tompkins,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Oct.  9, 18B1. 
George  Clement,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  9,  1861. 
Winfleld  S.  Cady,  enl.  Oct.  9, 1861. 
George  Lee,  enl.  Oct.  9,  1861. 
William  H.  Money,  enl.  Oct.  9,  1861. 
George  W.  Need,  enl.  Oct.  9, 1861. 
Edward  Stanley,  enl.  Oct.  9, 1861. 
John  T.  Mansell,  enl.  Oct.  22, 1861 . 
Romanzo  Smirt,  enl.  Oct.  9, 1861. 
Thomas  Clayne,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  18, 1861,    Promoted  to  Sergt.  Dec.  1, 

1862,  and  to  1st.  Sergt.  Jan.  1,  1865.    Wounded  at  Spring  Hill,  Tenn., 
Nov.  28, 1864.     Mustered  out  Nov.  30,  1865. 

Oliver  Simmons,  enl.   Nov.  2,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp-   Oct.  1,  1865. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co    Nov.  30,  1865. 
Joseph  H.  Willsey,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Nov.  9,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  G. 
Peter  Gassner,  enl.  Oct.  4,  1862.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Nov.  1,  1864,  and  to 

Sergt.  Aug.  1,  1865.     Mustered  out  at  end  of  term  Oct.  4, 1865. 
Edwin  Crocker,  enl.  Oct.  18,  1861.    Wounded  at  Stone  River,  Tenn.,  Dec. 

31, 1863.    Transf.  to  Vet.  Res.  Corps. 
Thomas  Kelley,  enl.   Oct.   14,   1861.    Taken  prisoner  at  Chickamauga, 

Sept.  20,  1863.    Lost  on  the  Sultana  April  27,  1865. 
Charles  Hanckerson,  enl.  Oct.  30,  1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.    Captured 

at  Chickamauga,  Sept.  20,  1863.    Lost  on  the  Sultana  April  27,  1865. 
Jacob  Keeler,  enl .  Oct.  19,  1861.    Captured  at  Chickamauga,  Sept.  20, 

1863.  Died  at  Annapolis,  Md.,  Dec.  22, 1864. 
Simeon  S.  Cannift,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Oct.  5, 1861. 
John  Cooper,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  5,  1861. 
WriUiam  Clark,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct  24,  1861. 
George  Hepburn,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  15, 1861. 
John  F.  Euss,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  22,  1861. 
John  N.  Baumbah,  enl.  Oct.  10, 1861. 
Thomas  C.  Ault.  enl.  Oct.  14,  1861. 

Truman  Drake,  enl.  .Oct.  5,  1861. 

Jacob  Dibert,  enl.  Oct.  9,  1861 . 

Henry  S.  Daggett,  enl.  Nov.  6,  1861. 

James  Fitzgerald,  enl.  Oct.  11, 1861. 

Wilbur  F.  Hulet,  enl.  Oct.  19,  1861. 

William  Johnson,  enl.  Oct.  29, 1861. 

MarstonV.  B.  Knowles,  enl.  Oct.  8,  1861. 

Russell  Lewis,  enl.  Oct.  5,  1861. 

Julius  Lefflngwell,  enl.  Oct.  22, 1861 . 

William  Leinakar,  enl.  Nov.  4, 1861. 

William  H.  Leinakar,  enl.  Nov.  4, 1861. 

Lawrence  Myer,  enl.  Oct.  19. 1861. 

James  P.  Miller.    (See  Non-commissioned  Staff.) 

Charles  H.  Nickerson,  enl.  Oct.  30, 1861. 

William  Pumphrey,  enl.  Oct.  18, 1861. 

Stanley  G.  Pope,  enl.  Oct.  11, 1861. 

James  O.  Pague,  enl.  Nov.  4,  1861. 

Frederick  Shreat,  enl.  Oct  24, 1861. 

David  D.  Schaub,  enl.  Nov.  9. 1861. 

Louis  Schneider,  enl.  Nov.  6,  1861, 

William  J.  Yarham,  enl.  Oct.  5, 1861. 

Thomas  C.  Aldrich,  enl.  Oct.  24, 1861.     Transf.  ;to  Band.     Disch.  May 

17,  1862. 
George  A.  Whitney,  enl.  Oct.  24,  1861.     Transf.  to  Band.     Disch.  May 

17, 1862. 
Charles  Y.  Wheeler,  enl.  Oct.  24, 1861.     Transf.  to  Band,     uisch.  May 

17,  1862. 
Horatio  N.  Whltbeck.    (See  Field  and  Staff.) 
Herman  Hance,  enl.  Oct.  31,  1861.     Promoted  to  Corporal  Nov.  1, 1864. 

Wounded  at  Spring  Hill,  Tenn.,  Nov.  28, 1864.    Left  in  Hosp.  at  Jef- 

fersonville.  Ind. 
George  Day,  enl.  Oct.  22,  1861 . 
Coprad  Killimer,  enl.  Oct.  9, 1861.    Transf.  to  Dep.  of  Engineers  July  8, 

George  W.  Stevens,  enl.  Oct.  9, 1861. 
William  Williams,  enl.  Oct.  23,  1861. 

Melville  C.  Porter.    (See  Non-commissioned  Staff.) 
Daniel  Wolfe,  enl.  Oct.  23,  1861. 


Edward  G.  Powell,  enr.  as  Corp.  Co.  E.  Oct.  9,'  1861.  Promoted  to  Sergt, 
Dec.  1,  1862;  to  1st  Sergt.  Oct.  1, 1863;  to  1st  Lieut.  Co.  F  Deo.  8, 1864; 
and  to  Capt.  Nov.  24, 1865.    Mustered  out  with  Reg.  Nov.  30, 1865. 


Joseph  H.  Willaey,  enl.  as  Sergt.  Co.  E.  Nov.  9, 1861.  Promoted  to  Sergt. 
Maj.  Deo.  1,  1861;  to  2d  Lieut.  March  10,  1863;  to  1st  Lieut.  June  27, 
1864;  and  to  Capt.  Co.  G  Oct.  5, 1864.    Mustered  out  with  the  Reg. 


Lucien  B.  Eaton,  enr.  as  2d  Lieut.  Oct,  5,  1861 .    Promoted  to  1st  Lieut. 

Nov.  22,  1861 ;  acid  to  Capt.  Jan.  28,  1863.    Resigned  May  18, 1865. 
Mark  Bundy,  enr  as  Goip.  Nov.  2, 1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.  Jan.  1,  1863. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  Nov.  30,  1865. 
Nicholas  Eruch,  enl.  Oct.  11,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  April  1,  1865. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co . 
Henry  C.  Ryder,  enr.  as  Serg.  Oct.  17,  1861 .    Wounded  at  Stone  River, 

Tenn.,  Deo.  31, 1862.    Diseh.  for  disability. 
Fred.  Adams,  enl.  Oct.  28,  1861 .    Transf.  to  Vet,  Pion'r  Reg.  Aug.  8, 1864. 
L.  P.  Strickland,  enl.  Oct.  21,  1861 .    Transf.  to  Vet.  Pioneer  Rej.  Aug.  8, 

Christopher  Waller,  enl.  Nov.  1,  1861.    Captured  at  Chickamauga,  Ga,, 

Sept.  20,  1863.    Died  in  Andersonville  prison  Oct.  31, 1864. 
Philip  H.  Bader,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt.  Oct.  29,  1861, 
Peter  Cashen,  enr,  as  Corp.  Oct.  14,- 1861 , 
WiUiam  Kelly,  enr.  as  Corp,  Oct.  18,  1861. 
Jacob  AUerton,  enl.  Oct.  15,  1861. 
Peter  Clark,  enl.  Oct.  14,  1861 , 
William  Chant,  enl.  Oct.  8,  1861 , 
Samuel  Cameron,  enl.  Nov.  20,  1861 . 
George  Daggett,  enl.  Oct.  15,  1861 , 
John  Desmond,  enl.  Oct.  21, 1861. 
William  Franklin,  enl.  Nov.  19,  1861 . 
Franklin  Hurt,  enl.  Nov.  23,  1861. 
Abel  Knapp,  enr.  as  Drummer  Oct.  25,  1861. 
Cyrus  Myers,  enl.  Nov.  11,  1861. 
James  O'Halligan,  enl.  Oct.  15,  1861. 
Patrick  O'Harra,  enl.  Oct.  14, 1861. 
Michael  O'Neal,  enl.  Oct.  14,  1861. 
Charles  Renschkoll,  enl,  Oct.  19, 1661. 
Hiram  Stevens,  enl.  Oct.  21, 1861 , 
Thomas  Smith,  enl.  Nov.  9,  1861 . 
Henry  Valelly,  enl.  Nov.  4, 1861.    Taken  prisoner,  and  paroled  Sept.  37, 

1863.    Mustered  out  at  end  of  term,  Nov.  4,  1864, 
Robert  Wade,  enl.  Oct.  35,  1861. 
Jacob  Wisson,  enl.  Oct.  25,  1861, 


Two  partially  formed  regiments,  the  Forty-fifth 
and  Sixty-seventh,  were  consolidated  in  December, 
1861,  under  the  latter  name.  Company  G  was 
entirely  composed  of  Cuyahoga  county  men,  number- 
ing a  hundred  and  seven  during  the  war.  Besides 
this.  Company  C  had  sixteen  from  that  county,  and 
Company  D  twenty-four;  while  there  were  a  few  each 
in  Companies  B,  E,  H,  I  and  K — a  hundred  and  six- 
ty-five in  all.  From  a  manuscript  history  of  Company 
C,  fui-nished  by  Captain  George  L.  Childs,  of  Cleve- 
land, and  from  other  sources,  we  have  compiled  the 
following  sketch  of  the  regiment  : 

The  Sixty-seventh  went  to  northern  Virginia  in 
January,  1863,  serving  under  Generals  Lander  and 
Shields  at  Paw-Paw  Tunnel,  and  near  Romney  and 
Winchester,  until  spring.  On  the  32d  and  23d  of 
March  it  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Winchester; 
Colonel  Kimberly  being  the  immediate  commander, 
though  General  Shields,  who  was  wounded,  was  some 
distance  away.  On  the  second  day  the  regiment 
moved  three-fourths  of  a  mile,  on  the  double  quick, 
across  an  open  field,  under  a  heavy  fire,  going  into 



action  in  this,  its  first  serious  battle,  with  the  coolness 
of  a  Teteran  command,  and  aiding  materially  to  win 
the  victory.  Its  loss  was  fifteen  killed  and  thirty -two 
wounded.  It  was  subsequently  in  numerous  skir- 
mishes at  Strasburg,  Woodstock,  Edinburg,  Mt. 
Jackson,  etc. 

After  many  long  marches  in  northern  Virginia, 
taking  part  in  a  sharp  fight  at  Front  Royal,  and  cov- 
ering the  retreat  of  the  Union  army  from- Port  Repub- 
lic, the  Sixty-seventh  went  down  the  Chesapeake  in 
the  latter  part  of  June  to  help  McClellan.  On  this  trip 
it  went  through  dangers  as  great  as  those  of  any  battle 
field.  The  barge  on  which  a  part  of  the  regiment 
was  broke  loose  in  a  gale  from  the  steamer  which 
towed  it,  and  tossed  for  an  hour  at  the  mercy  of  the 
waves;  horses,  arms,  equipage,  and  evei?  some  men 
being  washed  overboard  and  lost. 

The  command'  then  made  its  way  to  Harrison's 
Landing,  and  on  the  4th  of  July  the  Sixty-seventh 
was  attacked  Just  before  daylight  by  a  force  of  the 
enemy  but  soon  repulsed  it.  After  the  army  of  the 
Potomac  went  north,  this  regiment  remained  at  Suf- 
folk until  January,  1863,  when  it  was  sent  to  Hilton 
Head,  South  Carolina.  In  May  it  proceeded  to  Cobb's 
Island,  near  Charleston,  and  for  seven  months  was 
engaged  in  the  seige  of  that  place.  For  forty  consec- 
utive days  the  regiment  was  under  heavy  fire.  It  led 
in  the  assault  on  Fort  Wagner  on  the  18th  of  July; 
the  Sixty-seventh  and  Sixty-second  Ohio  forcing  their 
way  into  the  fort  in  the  face  of  a  murderous  fire, 
planting  their  colors  on  the  parapet,  and  holding  pos- 
session of  a  portion  of  the  fortress  for  near  ten  hours. 
But  all  of  the  three  brigade  commanders  present  were 
killed  or  wounded,  the  position  was  commanded  by . 
the  enemy  on  the  other  side  of  the  fort,  fifteen  hun- 
dred of  the  assailants  were  disabled,  it  was  found  im- 
possible to  advance  farther,  and  at  length  all  were 
compelled  to  retreat.  The  regiment  had  about  a 
hundred  and  seventy  men  killed  and  wounded. 

After  six  weeks  more  of  siege,  two-thirds  of  the 
time  under  fire,  another  assault  was  ordered  on  the 
7th  of. September,  but  when  the  column  advanced  the 
enemy  was  found  to  have  fled.  The  regiment  was 
soon  ordered  to  Hilton  Head,  remaining  there  until 
February,  1864,  when  it  went  home  on  veteran  fur- 

On  the  27th  of  April,  1864,  the  veterans  of  the 
Sixty-seventh  appeared  at  Gloucester  Point,  Virginia. 
On  the  4th  of  May  they,  with  thousands  of  their 
comrades,  on  a  fleet  of  transports,  were  threatening 
Richmond  from  the  York  river;  but  in  twenty-four 
hours,  by  means  of  a  long  journey,  they  appeared  on 
the  south  and  seized  on  one  of  the  strongest  positions 
near  Richmond.  On  the  10th  of  May,  at  the  battle 
of  Chester  Station,  the  Sixty-seventh  was  on  the 
turnpike  from  Richmond  to  Petersburg.  The  rebels 
made  a  general  attack.  The  regiment  held  its  posi- 
tion from  flrst  to  last,  despite  of  four  desperate  charges; 
having  seventy-six  officers  and  men  killed  and' 

At  Ware  Bottom  Church,  on  the  20th  of  May,  the 
Sixty-seventh  captured  by  a  charge  a  position  which 
had  been  seized  by  the  enemy;  taking  prisoner  the 
rebel  general,  W.  H.  S.  Walker,  and  a  number  of  his 
men.  The  regiment  had  sixty-nine  officers  and  men 
killed  and  wounded. 

During  the  summer  the  Sixty-seventh  was  engaged 
in  the  siege  of  Richmond  and  Petersburg,  and  almost, 
constantly  under  fire.  At  Deep  river,  on  the  16th  of 
August,  four  companies  charged  the  rebel  rifle  pits, 
lost  over  a  third  of  their  men  at  the  first  volley,  but 
captured  the  line.  On  the  28th  of  September  the 
regiment  with  the  Tenth  army  corps  aided  in  carry- 
ing by  assault  the  enemy's  strong  works,  with  double 
lines  of  abatis,  at  Signal  Hill.  It  was  also  in  severe 
fights  on  the  7th,  1.3th,  27th  and  28th  of  October, 
with  a  loss  of  over  a  hundred  men. 

During  the  winter  it  was  not  quite  so  steadily  in 
action  as  through  the  summer,  but  endured  unnum- 
bered hardships. 

In  the  spring  of  1865  the  Sixty-seventh,  though 
depleted  in  numbers,  was  in  high  spirits  and  in  good 
"  trim;"  The  division  to  which  it  belonged  (the  First 
of  the  Twenty-fourth  army  corps)  was  reviewed  by 
General  Grant,  Secretary  Stanton,  and  finally  by 
President  Lincoln  himself,  and  drew  forth  warm  en- 
comiums from  all  those  distinguished  gentlemen. 
These  praises  were  equally  well  deserved  in  the  field. 
On  the  2d  of  April  the  Sixty-seventh,  with  the  rest  of 
the  Twenty-fourth  army  corps,  assailed  the  enemy's 
works,  capturing  one  after  another,  and  at  noon  car- 
ried Fort  Gregg  by  storm,  after  a  furious  hand  to' 
hand  combat,  in  which  the  regiment  had  over  a  hun- 
dred men  killed  and  wounded  in  half  an  hour.  Fort 
Gregg  was  the  key  of  Petersburg  and  Richmond, 
which  fell  immediately  afterward.  The  regiment  was 
also  actively  engaged  in  the  operations  near  Appo- 
mattox Court  House,  which  resulted  in  the  surrender 
of  Lee  and  the  collapse  of  the  rebellion.  It  was  on 
gai-rison  duty  in  Virginia  during  the  succeeding  sum- 
mer and  autumn,  and  was  mustered  out  in  December, 



Rodney  J.  Hathaway,  enr.  in  Co.  G,  as  1st  Sergt.  Nov.  1,  1861,  Pro- 
moted to  1st  Lieut,  and  Adjt.  March  34,  1864.  Disoh.  at  end  of  term 
Nov.  15,  1864. 

Grove  L.  Heaton,  enr.  as  2nd  Lieut.  Oct.  10, 1862.  Promoted  to  1st  Lieut. 
andR.  Q.  M.  May  2.3.  1863,  and  to  Capt.  and  A.  Q.  M.  April  10, 1864. 
Mustered  out  Dec.  7,  1865. 


Edward  S.  Allen,  enr.  as  Musician  Nov.   11,  1861.     Promoted  to  Drum 

WiUiam  Sorge,  enr.  Dec.  17,  1861,  Co.  G.    Prom,  to  Sergt.     Wounded  at 

Fort  Wagner,  July  18,  1863.    Prom,  to  Sergeant  Major  Jan.  11,  1865. 

Wounded  April  2,  1865. 


Ebenezer  Sumner,  enl  Dec.  16.  1863.    Mustered  out  Deo.  7,  1865. 
WilUam  Sumner,  enl.  Deo.  14, 1863.     Left  in  Hosp.  at  Philadelphia,  May 
1,  1864. 


George  L.  Childs.  enr.  as  2nd  Lieut.  Oct.  15,  1861.  Prom,  to  1st  Lieut, 
and  to  Adj .  Oct.  9,  1862,  and  to  Capt.  May  25,  1864.  Wounded  at  Ft. 
Wagner  July  18, 1863,  and  Oct.  13, 1864.  Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Dec.  7.  1665. 



John  L.  McCormick,  enl.  Jan,  2,  1864,    Promoted  to  Sergt.  July  17,  1865. 
Jacob  Hiller,  enl.  Oct.  9, 1861.  .  Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  Dec.  7, 1865. 
Joshua  Lovegrove,  enl.  Nov.  3, 1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Samuel  Miller,  enl.  Nov.  1, 1861.     Promoted  to  Corporal  Feb.  18,  1864. 

Wounded  near  Petersburg,  Apiil  2, 18C5.     Disoh.  for  disability  Aug. 

26,  1865. 
Charles  Ellis,  enl.  March  26, 1864.     Wounded  near  Petersburg,  April  2, 

1864.    Disch.  June  16,  1865. 
Rinaldo  A.  Gray,  enl.  Dec.  27,  1861 .    Disch.  for  disability  March  31, 1862. 
Andrew  Krieger,  enl.  Oct.  13, 1862.    Disch.  for  disability  Jan.  27, 1865. 
Caleb  Turner,  enl.  Oct.  28,  1861.    Disch.  for  disability  May  8, 1862. 
Charles  Whitehead,  enr.  as  musician  Dec.  23, 1861.    Disch.  Oct.  10. 1862. 
George  W.  Young,  enl.  Oct.  19,  1881.      Transf.  to  U. ' S .  Navy  April  2, 

John  Fox,  enl.  Oct.  28, 1861.    Killed  at  Winchester,  Va.,  March  23,  lib63. 
Peter  Galvin,  enl.  Kov.  21, 1861.    Died  in  Hosp.  Oct.  6, 1862. 
Robert  Teare,  enl.  Nov.  11,  1861.    Killed  at  Winchester,  Va.,  March  23, 

James  Williams,  enl.  Dec.  S6, 1861 .    Transf.  to  Co.  E.  Jan.  7, 1862. 
James  Watson,  enl.  Dec.  26,  ]f,61.    Transf.  to  Co.  E   Jan.  7, 1862. 
Charles  Hornsey,  enl.  Feb.  23, 1864.    Promoted  to  lorp.  Nov.  1,  1865. 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co . 


George  E.  Herrimad,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Nov.  20,  1861 . 

Almon  E.  Baldwin,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Nov.  18,  1861. 

Wellington  Smith,  enr.  as  Corp.  Dec.  10,  1861.  Promoted  to  Sergt. 
Wounded  May  10, 1864. 

John  Goodman,  enr.  as  Corp.  Dec.  16, 1861. 

Seth  Abrams,  enl.  Dec.  16,  1861. 

Jacob  Bogardus,  enl.  Dec.  17.  1861. 

Patrick  Corkins,  enl.  Dec  9, 1861.  Taken  prisoner  at  Deep  Bottom,  Va., 
Aug.  18,  1864. 

Jacob  Gilbert,  enl.  Dec.  84,  1861. 

Edward  Hawkins,  enl.  Deo.  9,  1861.  Promoted  to  Corp.  June  ai,  1863; 
to  Sergt.  Aug.  30,  1864,  and  to  1st  Sergt.  March  37, 1865.  Transf.  to 
Co.  B  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mustered  out  Dec.  7,  1865. 

John  Hornsby  enl.  Dec.  2,  1861. 

John  W.  Henni,  enl.  Dec.  10,  1861. 

L.  T.  Hancock,  enl.  Deo.  23.  1861. 

John  Jay,  enl.  Dec.  18, 1861. 

Tom  Maher,  enl.  Nov.  28,  1861. 

Joseph  Ryan,  enl .  Dec.  24,  1861 . 

Oliver  Stafford,  enl.  Dec.  20.  1861. 

Joel  Van,  enl.  Nov.  23.  1861. 

Henry  C.  Williams,  enl.  Nov.  20,  1861. 

William  Wright,  enl.  Dec.  22.  1861. 

John  Hood,  enl.  Oct.  21, 1864.  Transf.  to  Co  B  Aug.  3, 1865.  Mustered 
out  at  end  of  term  Oct.  26,  1865. 

Henry  Johnson,  enl.  March  S,  1864.  Wounded  Aug.  16,  1864,  and  sent  to 
the  Hosp.  at  Hampton, Va.  Transf.  to  Co.  B,  Aug.  3, 1865.  Mus- 
tered out  Dec.  7,  1865. 

Michael  O'Biien,  enl.  Oct.  11,  1864.  Transf.  to  Co.  B,  Aug.  3, 1865.  Mus- 
tered out  at  end  of  term  Oct.  13, 1865. 

Thomas  Rodgers,  enl.  Oct.  7,  ^864.  Transf.  to  Co.  B,  Aug.  3,  1865.  Mus- 
tered out  at  end  of  term  Oct.  9, 1865. 

William  Mead,  enl.  Feb.  28,  1864.  Wounded  May  9,  1864.  Promoted  to 
Corp.  June  21,  1865.    Mustered  out  Dec.  7, 1865. 

Frank  Whitney,  enl.  Dec,  22,  1863.  Promoted  to  Corp.  June21,  186S. 
Mustered  out  Dec.  7,  1865. 

John  Spencer,  enl.  Dec.  10, 1861.  Sent  to  Hosp.  at  Hampton,  Va.  Jan. 
22,1865.     Transf.  to  Co.  B,  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mustered  out  Dec.  7,  1865. 

William  Fitch,  enl.  Dec.  26,  1863.  Promoted  to  Corp.  Jan.  11,  1865.  Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Co.  Deo.  7,  1865. 
Hezekiah  Canfleld,  enl.  Dec.  22,  1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Alexander  Dic-k.  enl.  Dec.  21, 1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Frederick  Canfleld,  enl.  Dec.  22,  1863.    Disch.  June  19, 1866, 
Josiah  Silcox,  enl.  Jan.  7,  1864.    Disch.  Sept.  30,  1865. 
William  Cattonach,  enl.  Dec.  22,  1863.    Disch.  May  30, 1865. 


Valentine  Heckman.  enr.  as  2d  Lieut.  Nov.  4, 1861.    Promoted  to  Capt 

Dec.  18, 1861.    Died  at  Strasburg,  May  13. 1862. 
Alfred  P.  Girty,  enr.  as  1st  Lieut.  Dec.   18,  1861.    Promoted  to  Capt. 

May  13  1862.    Resigned  April  25, 1864. 
George  Emerson,  enr.  as  2d  Lieut.  Oct.  25,  1861.   Promoted  to  1st  Lieut 

Co.  F,  May  26,  1862,  and  to  Capt.  July  1, 1863.  Died  May  23, 1864,  from 

wounds  rec'd  May  20. 
Charles  E.  Minor,  enr.  as  1st  Sergt.  Nov.  18, 1861.   Promoted  to  2dLieui. 

Nov   19,  1863;  to  1st  Lieut.  Feb.  18,  1864,  and  to  Capt.  March  18, 1865 

Wounded  at  Fort  Wagner,  July  18,  1863,  and  Oct.  13, 1864.    Mustered 

out  with  the  Reg.  Dec.  7,  1865. 
Edward  I.  White,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Nov.  18,  1861. 
Xenophon  Wheeler,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Oct.  26,  1861. 

16  a 

Sylvester  W.  Matscn,  enr.  as  Sergt.  Nov.  22,  1861.    Promoted  to  1st 

Sergt .    Killed  near  Chester  Station .  Va. ,  May  9, 1864 . 
John  J.  Wittlinger,  enr.  as  Corp.  Nov.  5,  1861. 
Isaac  H.  Ba'ker,  enr.  as  Corp.  Nov.  10, 1861. 
Oscar  Nicholas,  enr.  as  Corp .  Oct.  30, 1861.  Promoted  to  Sergt.  Wounded 

at  Fort  Wagner,  July  IS,  1863. 
Ford  W.  White,  enr.  as  Corp.  Nov.  23,  1861. 
William  H.  Freeman,  enr.  as  Corp.  Nov.  2,  1861. 
Ira  Stoddart,  enr.  as  Corp.  Dec.  10,  1861.    Promoted  to  Sergt.  May  1, 

,  1864,  and  to  1st  Sergt.  July  1,  1865. 
Michael  Kullner,  enr.  as  Corp.  Oct.  30, 1861. 
Watson  J.  Parkinson,  enr.  as  Corp.  Nov.  7, 1861. 
Edward  S.  Allen.    (See  Non-commissioned  Staff.) 
Lucian  R.  Thorp,  enr.  as  Musician  Dec.  23, 1861. 
Joseph  Roiakkeis,  enl.  Dec.  23, 1861.  Promoted  to  Corp.  May  1, 1861,  and 

to  Sergt.  Jan.  11,  1865.    Trans,  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3, 1665.    Mustered  out 

Dec.  7,1865. 
Frederick  Anhalt,  ^nl.  Nov.   10,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3, 1865. 

Mustered  out  Dec.  7,  1865. 
George  W.  Ackerson,  enl.  Nov.  1, 1861. 
John  Barber,  enl.  Nov.  16,  1861. 
Frederick  Brodt,  enl,  Nov,  28,  1861, 
John  Brower,  enl.  Dec.  23,  1861. 
Andrew  Burns,  enl.  Dee.  14,  1861. 
Joseph  Burk,  enl.  Oct.  30,  1861. 
Jacob  Benzie,  enl.  Dec.  22, 1861. 
George  W,  Brooks,  enl.  Nov.  2,  1861. 
James  Catchpole,  enl.  Dec .  2,  1861. 
Bruno  Colbrun,  enl.  Nov.  28, 1861.    Wounded  May  10,  1864.    Transf.  to 

Co.  C  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mustered  out  Dec.  7,  1865. 
Joseph  Clifford,  enl.  Dec.  27, 1861. 
Harry  Curtiss,  enl.  Nov.  2,  1861. 
Charles  A.  Dresser,  enl.  Dec.  27,  1861. 
John  E.  Durham,  enl.  Nov.  23, 1861. 
Latimer  N.  Dyke,  enl.  Dec.  23,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  May  1,  1864. 

Disch  from  Hosp.  Sept.  28,  1865. 
George  Evans,  enl.  Dec.  2, 1861. 
David  Elton,  enl.  Nov.  18,  1861. 
William  Enga,  enl.  Nov.  11,  1861. 
Milan  Emmons,  enl.  Nov.  7,  1861. 

John  Griffin,  enl.  Nov.  2.3,  1861 .     Wounded  May  10, 1864. 
Mead  Fowler,  enl.  1  ec.  9, 1861. 
Frederick  Fultmeth,  enl.  Nov.  5,  1861.    Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3, 1865. 

Mustered  out  Dec.  7,  1865. 
Philip  Foles,  enl .  Nov.  18,  1861 . 
Henry  Frantz,  enl.  Nov,  28,  1861, 
John  Gais,  enl,  Dec.  17,  1861.    Wounded  at  Fort  Wagner,  S.  C.,  July  18, 

1863,  and  at  Chester,  Va..  May  9, 1864. 
Alexander  Gordon,  enl.  Dec.  18,  1861.     Promoted  to  Sergt.    Wounded 

at  Fort  Wagner  July  18,  1863. 
William  T.  Green,  enl.  Nov.  29,  1861. 
Charles  Gibbard,  enl.  Dec.  5,  1861. 
John  Hoaft,  enl.  Dec.  27, 1861 .   Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mustered 

out  Dee.  7,  1865. 
Charles  Hancock,  enl.  Oct.  30,  1861. 
David  Holliday,  enl.  Nov.  13,  1861. 
TrumanKidney,  enl.  Dec.  23,  1861.    Trans  I.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mus, 

leredout  Dec.  7,  1865. 
William  Kimball,  enl.  Dec.  3,  1861. 
William  Keille,  enl.  Nov.  13,  1861. 
Paul  Kamerer,  enl.  Deo.  23,  1861. 
Louis  U.  Lyon,  enl.  Nov.  2,  1861. 
Edwin  S.  Libbey,  enl.  Nov.  25,  1861. 
W.  Lucas,  enl.  Nov.  10,  1861. 
John  Loch,  enl.  Oct.  30,  1861. 
Ed.  J.  McDonald,  enl.  Dec.  2,  1861. 
Dallas  Moon,  enl.  Nov.  2, 1861. 
Levi  A.  Meacham,  enl.  Nov.  4, 1861. 
George  E.  Morgan,  enl    Nov.  7, 1861.     Promoted  to  Corp.     Disch.  from 

Hosp.  July  20,  1865. 
Alex.  Muchler,  enl.  Nov.  7,  1861. 
Peter  Mormon,  enl.  Deo.  12,  1861. 
Peter  McGue,  enl.  Dec.  15, 1861 . 
Michael  Madden,  enl.  Dec.  13,  1861. 
Constantine Olga,  enl.  Nov.  18,  1861. 
William  Ody.  enl,  Dec.  11, 1861.     Wounded  May  9,  il864.     Promoted  to 

Corp.  Sept.  14, 1864.    Transf .  to  Co    0.  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mustered  out 

Dec.  r,  1865. 
Albert  Oldham,  enl.  Dec.  18.  1861. 
Samuel  Plaister,  enl.  Nov.  13, 1861. 
George  Pike,  enl.  Dec.  2.3,  1861. 
Henry  A.  Hhilip,  enl.  Dec.  23, 1861. 
Solomon  Pritchard,  enl .  Nov.  30, 1861 . 
Jonathan  Ring,  enl.  Nov.  36,  1861. 
Jacob  Roath,  enl.  Nov.  16,  1861. 
Milford  Rohinsou,  enl.  Dec.  18,  1861. 
August  Reisland.  enl.  Nov.  18, 1851. 



Lewis  Stattlemeier,  enl.  Dec.  17,  1861 

William  Sorge.    (See  Non-com.  Staff.) 

Mark  Shafe,  enl.  Dec.  83, 1861. 

Taylor  E.  Stroud,  enl.  Nov.  16,  1861.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Oct.  14,  1864, 
and  to  Sergt.  Aug.  1,  1865. 

John  Sculby,  enl.  Nov.  8,  1861.     Wounded  at  Fort  Wagner  July  18, 1863. 

David  Twitchell,  enl.  Nov.  9,  1861. 

Lafayette  Taylor,  enl.  Nov.  18,  1861. 

Jacob  Traenis.  enl.  Jan.  8.  1862. 

Sidney  J.  Varney,  enl.  Nov.  13,  1861.    Wounded  at  Fort  Wagner  July  18, 

Augustine  Winter,  enl.  Nov.  5,  1861.    Wounded  at  Fort  Wagner  July  18, 

Henry  Wirsch,  enl.  Deo.  5,  1861. 

Christian  Wagoner,  enl.  Dec.  13,  1861.    Killed  at  Fort  Wagner  July  18, 

James  Wait,  enl.  Nov.  18,  1861. 

George  Winfield,  enl.  Nov.  83,  1861. 

Orlando  Emerson,  enl.  Dec.  31,  1863.    Promoted  to  Corp.  June  1,  1865. 
Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mustered  out  Dee.  7,  1865. 

Charles  Nicholas,  enl.  Dec.  31, 1863.    Promoted  to  Corp.  July  1,  1865. 

Herman  Dhler,  enl.  March  11,  1864.    Promoted  to  Corp.  Aug.   1,  1865- 
Transt.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mustered  out  Dec.  7, 1865. 

John  Demaline,  enl.  March  10,  1864.    Transf.  to  Co.  C.  Aug.  3,  1865. 
Mustered  out  Dec.  7,  1865. 

Charles  Fuller,  enl.  March  25, 1864.    Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Co.  Dec.  7, 1865 

George  Heward,  enl.  March  15,  1864.   Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3, 1865.   Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Co. 

Amos  Hodgman,  enl.  Feb.  20,  1864.    Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mus. 
tered  out  with  the  Co. 

Michael  Joice,  enl.  March  22,  1864.    Left  sick  at  Camp  Dennison  Sept. 
27,  1864 

Jacob  Hallett.  enl.  March  9,  1864.    Transf.  to  Co    C  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Co. 

John  Miller,  enl.  March  23,  1864.    Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mus 
tered  out  with  the  Co. 
Samuel  Riehman,  enl.  Feb.  24,  1864.    Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3,  1865- 

Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
oseph  Studer,  enl.  Feb.  29,  1864.    Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3,  1865.     Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Co. 

Edward  Sumner,  erd.  Jan.  4,  18B4.    Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3,  1865.    Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Co. 

Allen  Wheeler,  enl.  Jan.  8,  1864.    Transf.  to  Co.  C  Aug.  3,  I860.    Mus- 
tered out  with  the  Co. 

Rodney  J.  Hathaway.    (See  Field  and  Staff.) 

Samuel  Burd,  enl.  Nov.  14,  1861. 


John  B.  Spafford,  enr.  as  8nd  Lieut.  Oct.  3,  1861.     Promoted  to  Capt. 

Dec    IS,  1861.    Resigned  Feb.  8,  1863. 
Sidney  G.  Brock,  enl.  Nov.  18,  1861.    Promoted  to  1st  Lieut.  Dec.  18. 1861, 

to  Capt.  Oct.  8,  1S68.    Mustered  out  Jan.  25,  1865. 
John  Evarts,  enl.  Dec.  18,  1861.    Disch. 
Charles  Lewis,  enl.  Dec.  24,  1861.    Disch.  Sept.  11,  1863. 


John  R.  Straus,  enl.  Sept.  83, 1864.    Died  at  Chapin's  Farm,  Va.,  Dec.  3, 


John  Baker,  enl    Feb.  8, 1854.    Transf.  to  Co.  E,  Aug.  3, 1865.    Mustered 

out  Dec.  7,  1865. 
William  H.  Kelley,  enl.  Nov.  16,  1864.     Transf.  to  Co.  E,  Aug.  3,  1865. 

Disch.  at  end  of  term  Nov.  17,  1665. 
Joseph  Horn,  enl.  Nov.  17,  1864.    Trans,  to  Co.  E,  Aug.  8,  1865.    Disch. 

at  end  of  term  Nov.  17,  1865. 
James  B.  Garner,  enl.  Oct.  17,  1864.      Disch.  at  end  of  term  Oct.  18, 

John  R.  Brokan,  enl.  Oct.  18,  1864.    Disch.  Sept.  8,  1865. 
AlmeronPangborn,  enl.  Oct.  18.  1864.  Died  inHosp.  at  Fortress  Monroe, 

Va.,  Aug.  24,  1865. 



John  J.  Calvert,  enl.  Nov  80, 1861 . 
Charles  W.  Delany,  enl.  Nov.  85, 1861 



Thfa  Eighty-fourth  goes  forThree  Months— Two  Strong  Companies  from 
Cuyahoga— Services  in  Virginia— Cuyahoga  County  Men— Two  Regi- 
ments of  Eighty -sixth  Infantry— Services  of  the  Three  Months' Men 
at  Clarksburg,  West  Virginia— Cuyahoga  Soldiers— The  Six  Months' 
Regiment  in  West  Virginia— Capture  of  John  Morgan— Capture  of 
Cumberland  Gap— Mustered  Out— List  of  Soldiers  from  this  County— 
Eighty-seventh  Infantry— Its  Surrender— Men  from  this  County— 
Eighty-eighth  Infantry— Its  Duty  at  Camp  Chase— Cuyahoga  Men. 


This  was  a,  three  months'  regiment,  I'aised  in  May 
and  June,  1862.  to  meet  a  pressing  emergency.  Com- 
panies D  and  E,  a  hundred  and  ninety-seven  men  in 
all,  were  from  Cuyahoga  county.  On  the  11th  of 
June  it  proceeded  to  Cumberland,  Maryland,  where  it 
remained  until  September,  guarding  the  lines,  check- 
ing guerrillas,  etc.  It  garrisoned  the  fort  and  village 
of  New  Creek  a  short  time,  preventing  a  threatened 
attack  by  General  Imboden,  and  then,  after  about 
four  months' service,  returned  home  and  was  mustered 



John  J.  Wiseman,  enl.  as  Lieut.  Col.  June  7,  1862.    Detailed  on  special 
service  at  Washington,  D.  C,  Sept.  12,  1868.    Mustered  out  after  the 

Frank  H.  Hiuman,  enl.  as  8nd  Lieut.  Co.  D  May  26. 1862.    App.  Adjt. 
Aug.  18,  1868. 


Daniel  R.  Taylor,  Q.  M.  Sergt, 
Royal  A.  Mun=ell,  Com.  Sergt. 


John  N.  Frazee,  Captain . 

Eli  Ely,  1st  Lieut. 

Frank  H.  Hinman.    (See  Field  and  Staff.) 

Thomas  Goodwillie  (1st  Sergt.),  David  S.  Whitehead  (Sergt.),  William 
Morgan  (Sergt.),  Reuben  A.  Field  (Sergt.),  George  W.  Armstrong 
(Sergt.),  Jacob  J.  Lohrer  (Corp.),  Austin  H.  Waters  (Corp.),  William  E. 
Murray  (Coi-p.),  Isaac  W.  Severance  (Corp.),  Pierson  D.  Briggs  (Corp.), 
Albert  G.  Carpenter  (Corp.),  Edward  S.  Warner  (Corp.),  Oscar  W.  Han- 
cook  (Corp.),  William  A.  Diefenbaoh,  James  Covert,  Frank  Baker, 
Olcott  Barrett,  James  Bemis,  Charles  A.  Bolton,  Quincy  Bradley,  Ed- 
win E.  Beeman,  Charles  E.  Brown,  John  F.  Brunner,  John  Banton, 
Angus  R.  Braden,  John  Crowell,  Jr.,  William  H.  Chamberlain,  Robert 
L  Chamberlain,  Benj.  F.  Chapman,  William  H.  Chaffee,  Michael  Car- 
roll, Walter  Coates,  John  Dugan,  Edward  Dangerfleld,  John  R.  Evans, 
Hamilton  Fordyce,  Addison  J.  Farrand,  Wilham  H.  Farrand,  James 
Gettings,  Henry  Glenville,  Thomas  Guy,  Charles  H.  Gill,  Lewis  Gross, 
Robert  Gould  Asa  A.  Goodwin,  Charles  A.  Goodno,  Henry  HoUey, 
George  S.  Holden,  Henry  H.  Hawthorne,  Edwin  T.  Hamilton,  Frederick 
T.  Hard,  James  A.  Hartness,  Edward  Hudson,  Halsey  J.  Hawthorne, 
Paul  B.  Harris,  Seymour  Q.  Hunt,  Earl  Herrick,  Peter  Kuntz,  Frederick 
Kinsman,  Jr.,  David  C.  Ketohum,  Thomas  Lemmon,  David  L.  Lowrie, 
John  A.  Loomis,  Henry  E.  Lowry,  Austin  B.  Leonard,  Theodore  J. 
Leltz,  Chaunoy  B.  Lane,  Josiah  Morris,  William  E.  McBride,  Robert  E. 
Murray,  Charles  W.  McReynolds,  John  T.  Mead,  John  W.  O'Neil,  Lloyd 
G.  Parker,  William  H.  Pepperday.  John  T.  Pinkney,  George  S.  Paine, 
Charles  Pinkney,  Charles  Quiggin,  Geoige  S.  jQuayle,  F.  L.  Reese,  Omar 
S.  Richardson,  John  H.  Rose,  Frederick  Stokes.  Joseph  Speddy,  Theo- 
dore Sterritt,  Edward  C.  Smith,  Samuel  Starkweather,  Jr.,  Lewis  Stein. 
Edward  Sewer,  Edward  C.  Tinker,  George  R.  Tice,  Daniel  R.  Taylor 
(See  Non-Com.  Staff),  James  A.  Willson,  George  Watkins,  John  B, 
Wade,  A.  B.  Woodruff,  Charles  White,  Thomas  Whitehead,  Joseph 
Zuber,  Wyllis  S.  Stetson. 




James  Pickands,  Captain . 
Virgil  C.  Taylor,  1st  Lieut. 
Henry  T.  Nash,  2d  Lieut. 

Samuel  L.  Allen  (1st  Sergt.),  James  McGinness  (Sergt.),  JudsonM. 
Bishop  (Sergt.),  Eben  S.  Coe  (Sergt.),  Frank  J.  Ford  (Sergt.),  Theron  C. 
Baldwin  (Corp.),  Theodore  A.  Andrews  (Corp.),  Lyman  D.  Hunt  (Corp.), 
Frank  S.  Chamberlain  (Corp.),  Elijah  H.  Norton  (Corp.),  Beuj.  H. 
Smith  (Corp.),  George  Wilkinson  (Corp.),  S.  H.  Waring  (Corp.),  Charles 
D.  Camp,  .James  J.  Adams,  Daniel  J.  Althen,  Hannibal  A.  Beeson, 
William  M.  Barnes,  William  O.  fiarnes,  Charles  E.  Bingham,  Eugene 
W.  Benham,  John  K.  Batchelder,  William  Calahan,  Thomas  Chevring- 
ton,  William  W.  Castle,  Charles  D.  Collins,  David  K.  Clint,  Thomas  J. 
Crooks,  Alexander  H.  Cobb,  Myron  E.  Cozzen.-i,  Orlando  M.  Calmer, 
Charles  W.  Cook,  Charles  W.  Diehl,  Peter  Deatry,  Charles  Evans, 
EUery  C.  Ford,  Nathan  C.  Fleming,  Theodore  Foljambe,  George  Gar- 
rettson,  Lewis  B.  Gentz,  Patrick  W.  Grineley,  George  M.  Heard.  Michael 
Hogan,  Daniel  Henricle,  William  E.  Herrick,  Samuel  H.  Harrison, 
Henry  A.  Harvey,  William  Holmes,  Henry  J.  Hoyt,  Justin  Juch,  Wil- 
liam A.  Knowlton,  Edwin  J.  Kyser,  Henry  C.  King,  William  W.  Kim- 
ball, Jacob  Koch,  Edwin "N.  Locke,  Walter  J.  Lowman,  Albert  Means, 
Charles  D  Morse,  William  D.  Mather,  Royal  A.  Munsell  (see  Non-com- 
missioned Staff),  Theodore  Odell,  Lewis  D.  Oviatt,  George  W.  Potter, 
Henry  Phillips,  Edward  S.  Page,  Timothy  H.  Uearden,  Daniel  Roberts, 
Lemuel  O.  Rawson,  James  C.  Ryan.  Horace  W.  Strickland,  Frank  W. 
Smith,  Lyman  I.  Smith,  George  Spangler,  Basil  S.  Spangler,  Henry 
Saxton,  Gustavus  K.  Tupper,  Hervey  B.  Tibbetts,  Charles  M.  Voroe, 
Cary  A.  Vaughn,  Delos  O.  Wickham,  William  H.  Wyman,  Charles  E. 
Wllber,  Walter  F.  Wells,  Theodore  M.  Warner,  Alfred  T,  Webber, 
Oscar  Wade,  Henry  A.  Woodward,  Henry  A.  Welch,  Edward  E.  Young. 


Two  organizations  bore  this  name;  one  raised  for 
three  months  in  May  and  June,  1862,  and  one  for  six 
months  in  June  and  July,  1863.  Cuyahoga  was 
slightly  represented  in  both,  as  appears  by  the  annexed 
record.  The  first  regiment  went  to  Clarksburg, 
West  Virginia,  in  June,  1862,  and  remained  there 
most  of  the  time  during  the  summer,  guarding  the 
railroad,  and  defending  that  place  and  Grafton  from 
the  threatened  attacks  of  gnerrillas.  It  was  mustered 
out  on  the  2oth  of  September. 

The  six  months  organization  was  completed  just  as 
the  celebrated  guerrilla,  John  Morgan,  was  making 
his  great  raid  through  southern  Ohio.  The  regiment 
was  immediately  dispatched  to  Zanesville  to  help 
capture  him.  One  battalion  skirmished  with  a  part 
of  Morgan's  force  us  it  crossed  the  Ohio,  while  the 
other,  in  connection  with  Colonel  Shackleford's  com- 
mand, assisted  in  the  capture  of  the  redoubtable 
partisan  himself. 

The  Eighty-sixth  soon  went  to  Kentucky,  where  it 
joined  an  expedition  under  Colonel  DeCourcy  against 
Cumberland  Gap;  reaching  a  position  in  front  of  that 
stronghold  on  the  8th  of  September.  At  the  same 
time  General  Burnside,  in  accordance  with  the  pre- 
viously concocted  plan,  came  up  from  East  Tennessee 
on  the  South.  The  Eighty-sixth  and  other  regiments 
were  sent  forward  in  line  of  battle,  and  every  arrange- 
ment was  made  for  an  attack  from  both  sides,  but,  on 
a  demand  being  made,  the  rebel  general  consented  to 
surrender.  The  regiment  remained  at  the  Gap  until 
its  term  expired,  wlien  itretnrned  to  Cleveland,  being 
mustered  out  on  the  10th  of  February,  18G4. 



Almon  G.  Bruce,  Edwin  Ewing. 


William  N.  Hubbell  (Corp.),  Solomon  H.  Gleaaon,  John  A.  Field,  Lo- 
renzo Strong,  John  E .  Coleman,  Edward  M .  Kellogg,  Conrad  Schade, 
Ira  D.  Williams,  John  White. 



Samuel  H.  Boyelten,  David  Gresn. 


Henry  W.  Morrell. 


Charles  E.  Crowe,  Larmon  Col  well,  James  Miller. 


Michael  D.  DeVVyant,  JeremLihS.  Dunscomb,  Charles  Goodsell,  Estel 
Jackson,  George  Linsey,  John  iVhice,  Roger  Willia:ns,  H.  B.  Steele 
(transt.   to  129th  Inf.) 


This  was  another  three  months  regiment,  and  was 
more  unfortunate  than  either  of  the  foregoing.  It 
went  from  Ohio  to  Balciniore  in  June,  186;i,  remained 
there  till  the  latter  part  of  July,  and  then  reported  to 
Colonel  Miles,  at  Harper's  Ferry.  In  the  forepart 
of  September  that  otiicer  surrendered  his  whole  force 
to  Stonewall  Jackson.  As  the  term  of  the  Eighty- 
seventh  had  expired,  its  men  were  released  from  their 
paroles  and  the  regiment  was  sent  home;  being  mus- 
tered out  on  the  20th  of  September,  1862. 



Christopher  Keary,  2d  Lieut. 

William  Crawford,  Peter  Keary,  Richard  Barringer,  William  M.  Cur 
ran,  Thomas  Deiler,  Thomas  Fitch,  Edward  D.  Frame,  Charles  Frame, 
Robert  Garvey,  John  A.  Godfrey,  Henry  J.  Hewlett,  John  Miller,  John 
W.  Mayhew,  Patrick  McLaughlin,  Joseph  Moley,  Andrew  McCartney, 
Frederick  M.  Preston,  Christopher  Rath,  Toney  Siegel,  David  Shaugh- 
nesy,  Andrew  Winner,  John  W.  Warr,  Thomas  Kenaly. 


This  was  a  three-years  regiment ;  the  first  four 
companies  being  raised  as  the  "Governor's  Guards" 
in  July,  1863,  and  the  others  a  year  later.  It  was 
kept  almost  all  the  time  of  its  service  guarding  rebel 
prisoners  at  Camp  Chase,  and  though  always  ready 
was  never  engaged  with  the  enemy.  It  was  mustered 
out  in  July,  1865. 



Wolcott  F.  Crane,  enl.  July  4,  1863.     Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  July  3, 

Andrew  McGregor,  enl.  June  30, 1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
Willis  P.  Storrs,  enl.  July  1-3, 1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 


John  H.  Ii-win,  enl.  July  6,  1863.    Promoted  to  Sergt.    Mustered  out 

with  the  Co.  July  3,  1865. 
Charles  A .  Jaycox,  enl  June23, 1S63.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
George  W.  Johnson,  enl.  July  18,  1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co. 
George  W.  Welton,  enl.  July  15,  1863.    Mustered  out  with  the  Co.  July  3, 




Martin  L.  Brooks,  enr.  as  Asst.  Surg.  April  3,  1865.    Mustered  out  with 
the  Reg.  June  8, 1865. 





The  Rally  in  1863— Ten  Companies  Ready  for  the  Field— Six  of  them 
from  Cuyahoga— First  Officers  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Third— Oft 
for  Kentucky— After  Buell— Sickness— The  Stay  at  Frankfort— South- 
ward in  the  Spring— On  the  Cumberland— With  Burnside  to  East  Ten- 
nesee— Terrible  Roads— Great  Hardships— Delight  of  the  Loyal  Ten- 
nesseeans— Special  Enthusiasm  at  Greenville— Up  the  Tennessee  Val- 
ley—Skirmishes atBlueSprings- Marchesand  Countermarches— Con  - 
centrating  at  Knoxville— Longstreet  beseiges  the  City — Attack  on  the 
Kckets— A  Desperate  Fight— Gallantry  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Third 
—The  Rebels  repulsed— Increasing  Hardships— Sleeveless  Blouses  and 
Legless  Pantaloons— A  Dollar  for  a  "Hard  Tack  "-Approach  of  Suc- 
cor—Retreat of  the  Enemy— Pursuit — The  Acme  of  Wretchedness- 
Back  to  Knoxville— Food  and  Clothes— More  Marching— The  Atlanta 
Campaign— Resaoa— Charging  Breastworks— Lying  down  under  Fire 
— "  Charge  Bayonet'' — Carrying  Two  Lines  of  Works — The  Next  Day's 
Battle— Retreat  of  the  Enemy— Pumpkin-vine  Creek — "  Forward  "-- 
A  Wretched  Sight— The  Rebels  retreat— Heavy  Skirmishing— A  Dash- 
ing Exploit— Before  Atlanta— Evacuation  of  Atlanta— Rest  at  Decatur 
—Heavy  Losses— Made  Headquarters  Guard— After  Hood— Defending 
the  Train  at  Spring  Fill— Defeating  the  Enemy— A  Flag  from  Cleve- 
land Ladies— A  Long  Journey— Arrival  in  North  Carolina— Capture  of 
Wilmington,  etc— Off  for  Home— A  Sad  Accident— Ovation  at  Cleve- 
land-Mustered Out— Members  from  Cuyahoga  County--Men  of  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fourth. 

After  the  disasters  of  the  Peninsular  campaign  in 
June,  1862,  and  the  consequent  call  of  the  President 
for  three  hundred  thousand  more  men,  it  is  well 
known  that,  notwithstanding  the  many  severe  drains 
which  the  North  had  had  to  bear,  its  sons  a^ain  ral- 
lied with  undaunted  fortitude  in  defense  of  their 
country.  Cuvahoga,  Lorain  and  Medina  counties  had 
done  their  full  share  in  sendinar  out  the  one  hundred 
and  twenty  thousand  men  which  already  represented 
Ohio  in  the  field,  but  when  recruiting  offices  were 
opened  in  them  for  a  new  regiment,  the  farmers,  me- 
chanics, clerks  and  professional  men  of  these  counties 
promptly  responded,  and  by  the  middle  of  July  ten 
companies  with  full  ranks  were  in  the  camp  of  ren- 
dezvous at  Cleveland. 

Of  these,  six  companies.  A,  B,  C,  D,  E.  and  G. 
were  principally  from  Cuyahoga  county.  During  the 
war  Cuyahoga  county  was  represented  in  Company 
A  by  eighty-one  members;  in  Company  B  by  eighty- 
two  members;  in  Company  C  by  seventy-two;  in  Com- 
pany D  by  ninety-three;  in  Company  E  by  eighty-nine: 
and  in  Company  G  by  eighty-four.  These,  with  five 
in  Company  H  and  fourteen  in  Company  I.  made  a 
total  of  five  hundred  and  twenty  men  from  Cuyahoga 
county  in  the  regiment  during  its  term  of  service. 
Nine-tenths  of  these  were  recruited  during  the  months 
of  July  and  August,  1862. 

In  the  latter  part  of  August  the  ten  companies 
were  organized  into  a  regiment  under  the  name  of  the 
One  Hundred  and  Third  Ohio  Infantry,  with  John  S. 
Casement,  of  Painesville,  as  colonel ;  James  T.  Ster- 
ling, of  Cleveland,  as  lieutenant-colonel,  and  Dewitt 
C.  Howard,  as  major.  On  the  3rd  of  September  the 
new  regiment  set  out  for  Cincinnati,  and  after  a  brief 
stay  at  Covington,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river, 
made  its  first  march,  on  the  6th  of  September,  to 
Fort  Mitchell,  three  miles  from  the  latter  city.  On 
the  eighth  of  September  the  regiment  was  duly  mus- 

*Prineipally  f rom  Col.  P.  C.  Hayes'  "Journal-History"  of  the  Resi 
ment.  ^ 

tered  into  the  United  States  service;  there  being  then 
nine  hundred  and  seventy-two  officers  and  men  in  its 

On  the  18th  of  September  the  One  Hundred  and 
Third,  having  been  united  with  Buell's  army,  started 
in  pursuit  of  the   retreating  forces  of  Bragg.     The 
next  day  it  was  placed  in  the  advance  and  took  its  first 
lesson  in  skirmishing.      At  Snow's  Pond,  where  the 
regiment  camped  during  the  latter  part  of  September 
and  the  forepart  of  October,  the  men  suffered  much 
from   sickness,    caused  by  the  stagnant   water  they 
were  obliged  to  use,  nearly  half  the  regiment  being 
sick  at  once,  though  fortunately  few  cases  were  fatal. 
On  the  6th  the  One  Hundred  and  Third  moved  for- 
ward as  a  part  of  the  brigade  of  General  Quincy  A. 
Gilmore,  but  was  soon  separated  from  it  and  ordered 
to  Frankfort,  the  capital  of  Kentucky.     It  remained 
there  five  months  (except  diu-ing  a  trip  of  a  few  days 
to  Louisville),  a  period  which  is  described   as  very 
comfortably  spent,  and  as  being  fruitful  of  the  most 
pleasant   relations  with  the  citizens  of  that   ancient 
Kentucky  city. 

On  the  5th  of  April,  1863,  the  One  Hundred  and 
Third  moved  southward,  becoming  part  of  the  force 
of  Gen.  S.  P.  Carter,  operating  against  the  rebel  Gen- 
eral Pegram.  After  considerable  skirmishing  at  vari- 
ous points,  the  rebels  attempted  to  make  a  stand  at 
Monticello,  beyond  the. Cumberland  river  but  were 
easily  defeated  by  the  Union  cavalry,  before  the  in- 
fantry could  come  up.  The  command,  however,  was 
ordered  back  to  the  Cumberland  river,  which  ^¥as 
made  the  southern  line  of  defense  by  the  Union 
forces.  After  a  few  weeks  spent  on  the  north  bank 
of  the  river,  and  some  very  severe  marching  in  the 
forepart  of  July,  nearly  all  the  rebels  having  been 
driven  out  of  Kentucky,  a  large  body  of  Union  troops 
was  concentrated  at  Danville  and  organized  into  the 
Twenty-third  army  corps,  under  Major  General 
Hartsuff,  for  the  purpose  of  marching  to  the  relief  of 
the  Unionists  of  East  Tennessee.  On  the  17th  of 
August  General  Burnside  took  the  chief  command, 
and  on  the  next  day  the  army,  numbering  about 
twenty  thousand  men,  set  out  on  its  way. 

The  march  over  the  mountains  was  one  of  extraor- 
dinary severity.  Southern  roads,  as  all  soldiers  of 
the  late  war  well  know,  are  of  the  most  detestable 
description,  and  Southern  mountain  roads  are  per- 
fectly abominable— resembling  cow-paths,  in- which 
there  have  been  no  cows  for  twenty  years.  The  men 
were  obliged  not  only  to  carry  their  knapsacks,  guns, 
cartridge-boxes,  canteens  and  haversacks  along  these 
wretched  trails,  but  to  build  bridges,  lay  corduroy 
roads,  and  help  along  the  artillery  and  wagons,  day 
after  day  and  night  after  night,  and  all  on  half  ra- 
tions, or  even  less. 

Still,  however,  they  struggled  on,  with  extraordi- 
nary patience  under  the  circumstances,  passing  Crab 
Orchard,  Burnside's  Point,  Emery's  Iron  Works,  etc., 
to  Concord  in  East  Tennessee.  The  enemy  fled  be- 
fore them,  and  after  reaching  Tennessee  the  labors  of 



the  troops  were  less  severe.  The  loyal  Tennesseeans 
•were  wild  with  delight  at  the  appearance  of  the  old 
flag  and  its  defenders.  Every  little  village  was  pro- 
fusely decorated  with  the  long-concealed  National 
flags,  while  the  people — men,  women  and  children — 
thronged  in  crowds  along  the  line  of  march  to  wel- 
come and  to  Mess  the  soldiers  of  the  Union.  After 
taking  possession  of  Knoxville,  the  principal  place  in 
East  Tennessee,  on  the  1st  of  September,  the  Virginia 
and  Tennessee  railroad  was  utilized  by  the  troops;  the 
One  Hundred  and  Third  and  other  regiments  going 
by  rail  up  the  valley  a  short  distance  northeast  of 

At  the  latter  place  the  enthusiasm  reached  its  cli- 
max. All  the  people  for  miles  around  flocked  to  the 
depot,  and  nearly  every  one  brought  a  basket  of  re- 
freshments— pies,  cakes,  meats,  etc., — for  the  benefit 
of  the  men  who  had  come  to  protect  them  from  rebel 
rule.  Not  only  were  the  soldiers  in  a  body  greeted 
with  the  wildest  cheers  as  they  arrived,  but  hundreds 
of  individuals  were  seized,  shaken  by  the  hand, 
blessed  and  wept  over  by  the  excited  inhabit-an,ts. 
And  this  was  only  a  more  striking  example  of  what 
was  felt  and  expressed  thi'oughout  East  Tennessee  by 
the  persecuted,  plundered  Unionists  of  that  devoted 

After  several  marches  and  countermarches  in  the 
vicinity  of  Greenville,  the  command  moved  up  the 
valley,  in  the  latter  part  of  September,  to  Johnson's 
station  and  the  Watauga  river.  After  some  skirmish- 
ing the  enemy  retired,  and  the  command  moved  back 
to  Greenville,  and  thence  to  Bull's  Gap.  On  the  9th 
of  October  an  advance  was  made  to  Blue  Springs, 
where  the  rebels  were  met  and  companies  A  and  D  of 
the  One  Hundred  and  Third  were  sent  forward  as 
skirmishers.  They  came  upon  a  large  force  of  the 
enemy  which  charged  and  drove  them  back;  killing, 
wounding  and  capturing  a  considerable  number. 
Other  companies  of  the  regiment  were  sent  to  the  relief 
of  those  mentioned,  but  Gen.  Burnside  was  not  yet 
ready  for  a  general  engagement,  and  the  whole  com- 
mand was  soon  ordered  back  to  Bull's  Gap. 

Ere  long,  however,  he  was  ready,  and  on  the 
eleventh  of  October  he  ordered  a  general  advance.  A 
smart  engagement  took  place  at  Blue  Springs,  and 
the  One  Hundred  and  Third  lay  on  their  arms  all 
night  expecting  a  battle.  The  enemy,  however,  fled 
under  cover  of  the  darkness.  Numerous  other  marches, 
.  forward,  backward  and  sideways,  were  made  in  the 
dismal  autumn  weather,  but  they  were  not  of  sufficient 
importance  to  be  recorded  here.  Early  in  November 
all  the  Union  forces  in  East  Tennessee  were  concen- 
trated at  Knoxville,  to  repel  a  threatened  attack  by 
Gen.  Longstreet.  The  One  Hundred  and  Third 
reached  that  city  on  the  fourth.  About  the  fifteenth 
Longstreet  appeared  and  sat  down  before  the  place 
with  the  evident  intention  of  capturing  it;  at  the  same 
time,  by  means  of  his  numerous  cavalry,  cutting  off 
all  communication  between  the  Union  forces  and 
their  comrades  in  other  localities. 

He  pushed  his  advance  close  to  the  Union  picket 
line,  and  a  constant  firing  between  the  two  sides  was 
the  natural  result.  Numerous  fortifications  were 
built  by  the  rebels  to  facilitate  the  siege,  and  the 
Unionists  responded  with  equal  zeal,  until  every  hill 
ai-ound  Knoxville  was  seamed  with  breastworks  and 
bristled  with  cannon. 

On  the  morning  of  the  25th  of  November  Gen- 
eral Longstreet  sent  forward  a  division  of  his  best 
troops  to  attempt  a  surprise  of  the  pickets  while  being 
relieved,  to  be  followed  by  an  assault  upon  the  breast- 
works. A  hostile  movement  of  some  kind  was  ex- 
pected, and  six  companies  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Third  were  ordered  out  to  relieve  the  two  which  had 
previously  been  considered  sufficient.  There  was 
some  accidental  delay,  and  the  relief  did  not  reach 
the  post  until  about  one  o'clock  in  the  afternoon. 
Just  as  the  six  companies  were  being  stationed,  the 
enemy  charged  with  a  yell  and  a  volley. 

As  this  was  the  first  time  the  regiment  had  been  in 
a  serious  fight,  it  was  very  natural  there  should  be 
some  wavering.  The  men  quickly  recovered,  how- 
ever, and  volley  after  volley,  closely  aimed,  soon  tes- 
tified to  the  coolness  and  courage  of  the  sons  of 
northern  Ohio.  Heavy  firing  ensued  on  both  sides 
for  about  an  hour  and  a  half.  The  One  Hundred  and 
Third  was  assisted  by  the  pickets  of  the  Twenty- 
fourth  Kentucky  and  the  Sixty-fifth  Illinois,  and  at 
length,  by  the  whole  strength  of  those  regiments. 
The  struggle  grew  hotter,  but  finally  the  rebels  were 
seen  to  waver,  when  the  Union  commanders  gave  the 
spirit-stii-ring  order  "  charge  bayonets,"  and  with  a 
thundering  cheer  the  whole  line  went  forward  at  full 
speed.  Before  they  could  be  reached,  the  sons  of 
chivalry  broke  and  fled  to  their  works  on  a  neighbor- 
ing hill,  leaving  their  dead  and  wounded  on  the  field. 
Our  men  then  resumed  their  old  position. 

This  was  known  as  the  battle  of  Armstrong  Hill, 
and  was  the  first  severe  conflict  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Third  Ohio.  The  companies  engaged  had  about 
thirty-flve  men  killed  and  wounded. 

The  siege  continued,  and  its  hardships  speedily 
increased.  Overcoats  and  superfluous  clothing  had 
all  been  thrown  away  during  the  toilsome  marches  of 
summer,  the  blouses  and  pantaloons  with  which  the 
men  had  started  from  Kentucky  had  been  worn  out, 
the  broken  communications  had  prevented  the  issue 
of  new  articles,  and  in  many  cases,  while  the  cold  had 
rapiflly  become  more  severe,  the  men  were  reduced  to 
shirts  and  drawers,  with  the  addition  of  blouses  with- 
out sleeves,  and  with  pantaloons  with  no  legs  below 
the  knees. 

Rations,  too,  which  had  been  of  only  half  the  regu- 
lar amount  since  the  command  entered  Tennessee, 
were  now  reduced  to  a  quarter  size,  or  even  less,  and 
the  men  were  on  the  verge  of  starvation.  They  reme- 
died this  to  some  extent,  however,  by  excursions  after 
corn  up  the  French  Broad  river,  a  section  which  Long- 
street  had  been  unable  to  invest.  Even  this  re